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Salt.Is the water of the ocean salt? It is very salt.

Do people make salt from the water of the ocean? They do.

Is all the salt that is used made of the water of the ocean? No, there are salt mines, where salt is dug out of the earth, and salt springs, where great quantities of salt are made from the water.

Can you tell me what salt is good for? Our food would not be good without it.

It is necessary to preserve meat, butter, and cheese

Shoes-What do you wear on your feet? Shoes.
Of what aré shoes made? Leather.
Of what is leather made? The skins of animals.

Flesh-Why do people kill animals? For food.

Did God give them to us for méat? God said to Noah, every living thing that moveth shall be meat for you.

What is the flesh of cows and oxen called? It's called beef.

What is the flesh of-calves called? Veal."
What is the flesh of sheep called? Mutton.
What is the flesh of swine called? Pork.
What is the 'Alesh of deer called? Venison.
What is smoked meat called? Bacon.

You have learned, my children, that it is God who gives us our food.

What should you do when you receive your food? We should give thanks to God, for he hath created' it, to be received with thanksgiving.

Paper.–Of what is paper made? Cotton and linen rags.

What did people write on and use for books before the art of making paper was known? Parchment.

When was the art of making paper of rags first known? A. D. 1000.

Of what is parchment made? The skins of sheep. How were books made, before the art of printing was invented? They were written with a pen.

What year of the Christian era, was the art of printing invented? 1430; by Laurentius of Harleim, a town of Holland.

What did he print with? Wooden types.
Who invented metal types? Guttenburgh.

Iron._Of what is the stove made? Iron.
Of what is iron made? Ore.
Where is ore found? In the earth.
Are all metals found in the earth? They are.

What are some of the most useful metals, or those which are called maleable? Gold, platina, palladium, silver, nyercary, tin, copper, iron, lead, nickel, zinc, gadmium.

Which is most esteemed? Gold.
Of which are money made? Gold, silver and copper.

Productions of the earth.How are all the things which are found on the earth arranged? Under three grand divisions, called kingdoms.

What are they? The minéral kingdom, -the vegetable kingdom, the animal kingdom..

What does the mineral kingdom include? All earths and stones, minerals, combustibles, salts and metals.

What does the vegetable kingdom include? All trees and plants.

What does the animal kingdom include? All living creatures, bipeds, quadrupeds, fowls, fishes, reptiles, insects and worms.

Men.—How many grand divisions are there in the human species? Five;- European, Asiatic, Maylay, African, American.

What is the appearance of the Europeans? They have regular features, and fair complexion.

What is the appearance of the Asiatics? They have brown complexion, flat forehead, small eyes, coarse, straight, black hair, and wide mouths.

What is the appearance of the Maylays? : Dark brown, complexion, large features, straight hair, broad nostrils, great mouths.

What is the appearance of the Africans? A jet black complexion, black woolly hair, flat noses, prominent chins, and thick lips, and fine white teeth.

What is the appearance of the Americans? They are of a copper color, coarse, straight, black hair, high cheek bones, sunken eyes, stout masculine limbs.


Bees' War.-Where is it obtained? - What use does the bee make of it? For what is it valuable?

Bells.- Invented, A. D. 400. Made of copper, melted with fine tin. - First introduced into churches in Rome, A. D. 900. For what are bells useful?

Bricks.—Of what are they made, and how? What important use is made of them?

Books.-Tables of stone and the leaves and barks of trees were first used to write upon; also linen cloth in long pieces which were rolled together: hence the roll we read of in the bible. The bark of the rush papyrus, a beautiful plant found on the banks of the Nile, was once used to write on. From this rush the article which books are now printed on, took the name paper.—The first regular printed book was a bible in the Latin language, published about A. D. 1450.

What artists are employed in making a book? By what names are the various sizes of books distinguished? Which is the most valuable book in the world?

Bread.-Of what is it made? Where are the materials obtained? How prepared? What bread was provided for the-Israelites in the wilderness? What do


savages use for bread? Who is called the Bread of Life which came down from heaven?

Burning Glasses, -Are formed so as to concentrate the rays of the sun The

rays thus concentrated are of sufficient heat to kindle fire; the same form of glass is used for spectacles, which were first invented by Spina, a monk of Pisa, near the close of the 13th century. Of what use are spectacles? What is a telescope? What is a microscope?

Brass.-A mixture of copper and zinc. For what is it used?

Cloths.-Woollen, linen, cotton, silk. Of what made? Where are the materials obtained? How produced? Where manufactured? What things are made of cloth? What do savages use for clothing?

Coal.-Descrile the various kinds. How is it procured? Fór what useful? Where are extensive mines of coal?

Colors:- What the seven primary colors?Black is the privation of all color. Green, is composed of yellow and blue.. Orange, of red and yellow. Purple, and violet, of blue and red. Olive, of red, and blue, and yellow.

Caoutchouc.-A tree which grows in South America, from which India, rubber is obtained. It exudes from the bark by incision, in a milky liquid, which hardens in the air; it is shaped in bottles, boots and shoes, on moulds of clay, then smoked for several weeks, when the clay is broken out and the articles are fit for use. The Indians use it for torches. It burns with a bright light.

Coffee.— Of what made? Where cultivated? How prepared ?

Diamonds.—The most valuable gem in the world:Found in South America. The richest mine is in Goliconda. It is useful for cutting glass.

Earthquakes.—What are they? What is the cause of them? What melancholy effects are produced by them? What countries are most subject to them? Spain, Italy, Sicily, N. part of S. America.

Figs grow in most warm countries. Abound most ons the eastern continent. The tree is large, and shady, with leaves resembling the mulberry.—The fruit growsy from the trunk and large boughs. — The tree produces" three crops annually,

Gold. - What is it? For what is it useful? Where are the richest mines found? What country made themselves rich by the discovery of these mines?

Hats.–Of what manufactured? - Where are the materials obtained? What do the men, women and children of various countries wear for a covering of the head?

Houses.—Of what made? What mechanics are employed in making them? What the various uses made of various buildings, as churches, castles, chapels, cathedrals, monasteries, synagogues, temples, mosques, seminaries, colleges, capitols, dwelling-houses, mansions, markets, factories, shops, taverns, mills, barns, cottages, hovels, huts, a lodge.

Honey.-Where found? By what collected? How stored? What is its taste?

Hurricanes. -Caused by wind blowing from opposite points of compass.- What the disastrous effects? West Indies most subject to them.

Iron.--What is it? Where is it found? How prepared? What are some of its valuable uses? What are some of the things which are made of iron?

Money.—What is it? Of what metals made? What pieces are made of copper—what of silver-what of gold?.

How many cents are the value of 1 dollar?

What is the smallest silver piece? How many cents is it equal to? What silver piece is next in size? What is its value in cents? What part of dollar is it? What the next largest silver coin? What is its value in cents? What the next largest piece? What is its:

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