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very conveniently fixed within the cover of the lamp so as to remove with it, by three or four bits of tin or wire soldered to it, and bent over the edge of the reflector, so that it has no chance of being broken except by a fall of the cover; and I find upon enquiry, that if such reflectors are obtained in` a wholesale manner from the Staffordshire potteries, they can be furnished at from three halfpence to twopence each. The flat under surface of fig. 2, will, I think, be the best for general use, but if a greater dispersion of light should be` desirable, a reflector, of which fig. 4, is a central section, may be adopted, and on the contrary, where a concentration of light is wanted, as over door-ways, the concave form of fig. 3. the under surface of which is a portion of a hollow sphere, may be used.

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Any of these reflectors, it will be seen, are applicable to Lord Cochrane's construction of an oil lamp; and since the general introduction of gas, which has in a great measure removed the objection of their becoming smoked, I think they will be found of utility to the public in all cases where light is to be cast downwards by reflection. Where the obstruction of an opake reflector would be detrimental, and it is desirable to diffuse light in all directions, and at the same time to concentrate it on one particular object, or in one line, the use of a hollow cone of polished metal or earthenware, like a speaking trumpet, and having a similar opening at its apex, to the exterior of which the flame is to be applied, will be found very advantageous.

ART. XXI. Expedition to the Polar Seas.

THE HE expedition, consisting of four ships, destined to make discoveries in the polar regions, is to leave the Thames in a few days: two of the ships are to proceed northerly into what has been termed the polar basin, and to endeavour, by passing close to the pole, to make a direct course to Behring's Strait; the other to push through Davis' Strait for the north-east coast of America, and to proceed to the westward, with the view of passing Behring's Strait. The article on the subject of the North-west Passage in the last Number of the Quarterly Review, has displayed so completely all that can be said in favour of the probable issue of these expeditions, and also has detailed the different facts which have lately been noticed respecting the changes in the arctic regions, that we shall conceive it best to consult the advantage of our general readers by not entering into any details on this subject; but there is one point which we think it important to notice, because it should seem, that the writer of the article in question has either treated too lightly the authority of foreign geogra phers, or was not acquainted with all the facts stated by M. Malte le Brun, in his Histoire de la Géographie, 392, or the authorities referred to by him.

We allude to the disputed point of the former existence of a colony on the east side of Greenland. In the Review above noticed, it is stated," It is generally admitted, that for the "last four hundred years, an extensive portion of the eastern "coast of Old Greenland has been shut up by an impenetrable "barrier of ice, and, with it the ill-fated Norwegian or Danish colonies, who were thus cut off at once from all communi"cation with the mother country-that various attempts have been made from time to time to approach this coast, with "the view of ascertaining the fate of the unfortunate colonists, "but in vain; the ice being every where impervious; and "that all hope being at length abandoned, that part of this "extensive tract of land which faces the east took the appropriate name of lost Greenland.

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"A central ridge of lofty mountains, covered with perpe“tual snow, and stretching from south to north, divides Old "Greenland into two distinct parts, called, by the ancient "Norwegian and Danish colonists, the East Bygd and West '66 Bygd; between which all communication is totally cut off by land, and by sea also, since the fixing of the icy barrier. "The colony on the west side increased to four parishes, con

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taining 100 villages; but being engaged in perpetual hostility "with the Esquimaux, the whole were ultimately destroyed by "them. The Danish colony on the eastern was still more ex"tensive than that on the western side. The country was "named Greenland from its superior verdure to Iceland."

The writer then, after enumerating the different attempts which were made by the Danes to find this supposed lost colony, observes,-" after so many attempts, both public and "private, how the Danes can now pretend to doubt, as one of "their writers affects to do, whether there ever was a colony "on the eastern side, is to us quite inexplicable, unless it be to 'palliate their negligence at the first approach of the ice, and "their want of humanity since. The Danish government, 'however, entertained no such doubts; for so late as the year 1786, Captain Lowenore, of the Danish navy, was "sent out for the express purpose of re-discovering the old "colony on the eastern coast, but he was unsuccessful.

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It has fallen to the lot of the present age to have an opportunity, which we are sure will not be neglected, of instituting "an inquiry into the fate of these unfortunate colonies. If,

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as is most probable, the whole race has perished, some re"mains may yet be found, some vestiges be traced which may "throw light on their condition after the fatal closing of the “ice upon them."

In opposition to this, we lay before our readers the following extracts from M. Malte-Brun's History of Geography.

"The number of colonists of Greenland were inconsider"able, not above a third of one large parish of Norway; and a Bishop was put over them, by reason of their distance "from the mother country. The Scandinavian colonics in

"Greenland were divided into two districts, the western, which "had but four churches; the other eastern, where the remains "of two towns, or rather hamlets were found. This fact of "the division into eastern and western," observes M. Malte Brun, "has given rise to a material error in geography, it being supposed that the eastern colony was on that part of Green"land opposite to Iceland.*

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"And all the descriptions of East Greenland were applied "to these coasts opposite Iceland, which were in fact unknown; "and imaginary bays and promontories, &c. were created and "named. This mistake originated in Torfeus, and other Ice"landic authors, but a modern writer has cleared up this point. † "In examining the relations of the first navigators, it appears that on quitting Iceland to make Greenland, they "steered to the S. W. avoided a coast surrounded by ice, "doubled the point called Hvarf, and then made to the "N. W. in order to reach the colony. In quitting Ber"gen, in Norway, to make the same point of Hvarf, they "steered straight to the west, and passing in sight of the "Shetland and Ferroe islands, saw birds arriving from "Iceland. On tracing these two routes on a chart, one is persuaded that Cape Hvarf is the southern extremity of Greenland, and consequently old eastern Greenland must only have consisted of the most eastern and most western "portion of the western coast. fact, it is only during the "month of June that a fine verdure justes the Haus vi Greenland, which the Icelanders gave to this country.

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"Finally, the ruins of the ancient villages and the churches completely sets this point at rest. Several were found on "the south-west coast, and there been have found as many as 66 seven churches; and more ruins were found to the north of

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Cape Desolation, none being observed in the intermediate space and these two series of ruins shew, without contradiction, the site of the two colonies."

* Arngrim Jonæ Specimen Island; II. 146. Torfeus, &c.

+ Engers on the true situation of Eastern Greenland, in the Memoirs of the Ecomonic Society at Copenhagen.

With respect to the success of the expedition, we are not so sanguine as the author of the Review, nor do we consider the article quoted, as having treated the subject with impartiality ; at least it appears to us, that many probable obstacles have been left unnoticed, and that there are many objections to the theory stated, which have not been fairly met, and which we shall notice more at length in our next. That there are many circumstances which lead to the supposition of a North-west passage cannot be questioned, though the facts stated relating to the currents &c. might be accounted for on different grounds; and the harpoons found in the Pacific may have first been obtained by the Esquimaux from the Dutch, and been carried across the Continent of America. Neither is there any conclusive reasoning produced to shew that vast bodies of ice may not be formed in the open sea, as suggested by Mr. Scoresby : and at the South Pole, where there is a still greater collection of ice, no land had yet been discovered; that the shape and quantity of ice in these seas is at all times varying, is unquestionable, and of late very considerable variations have been observed; but it is not probable that any real change affecting the whole nature of these regions, or essentially altering their character, has taken place. From all that we can collect, it seems that the greater number of ships which have frequented these seas have been, on reaching the high latitudes, beset by ice, as happened to Lord Mulgrave, and obliged to return. Some few of the many have by an accidental change of the wind, been enabled to proceed beyond 80°, and then have not met with any obstruction to their further course; but these events have been accidental; and we cannot but think that the most probable mode by which the Pole will be reached, if it ever is, will be by some one of the whalers, who will be enabled to avail themselves of any accidental opening or favourable wind. By the Act just introduced, all obstacles to this this being done by the whale ships have been removed. Lord Cochrane, we have heard, has fitted up a steam vessel, in which he means to attempt to reach within such limits of the Pole as will entitle him to the parliamentary reward. One advantage to be derived from a steam vessel in the navigation

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