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k. Steam cylinders under the stage-each traversed by thirty pipes of air of two inches diameter each, and consequently spreading throughout an immense quantity of warm air.

1. Steam boiler

m. Back of the stage.

7. Painting room.

o. Pit.

p. Dress circle.

q. 1st circle.

r. 2nd circle.

s. Upper boxes and slips.

t. Tubes communicating from the ventilators in the ceiling to the apparatus over the chandelier.

u. Four sheet-iron boxes, in which the heat of the gas causes a rarefaction, which draws the air from the ventilators in the ceiling.

w. Fresh air at a proper temperature admitted from the pit corridore between the basket and dress circle.

. Fresh air at a proper temperature admitted by trunks on each side between the ceilings under the 1st and 2nd circles, and diffusing this renewal of air through the various openings under the feet for the purpose.

y. Lower saloon.

z. Upper saloon.


Patent Ventilating Furnace, erected in the Lower Gallery of Covent Garden Theatre.

Fig. 1 and 2. Side and Front Section of Furnace and Fire-place. a. Fire-place.

b. Pyramid for supplying coal.

c. Ash pit.

d. Flame and smoke acting on the circumference of the air-pipe.

e. Air pipes in immediate contact with the fire.

f. Flue for smoke to pass off.

g. Tubes communicating with the different tiers of boxes,

and through which the impure air is drawn off by the power of the furnace.

h. Air recipient under the furnaces, into which the conductors from the boxes lead, and communicating with the pipes of the furnace.

1. Flue in which the air from the boxes passes off, and is aided in its ascent by the heat in the smoke flue ƒ which envelopes it.

k. Soot doors at the side for clearing out the furnace. m. The outer tube commencing above the galleries, and carrying off part of the impure air from thence by the rarefaction caused by the heat of the smoke flue f.

I. Large iron cowl, moveable with the wind, in which the three tubes unite to carry off the air and smoke.

Fig. 3. Ground Plan.

Fig. 4. n. One single pipe of proportionate dimension, leading to the recipient of the furnace as proposed for other purposes of ventilation, in lieu of the various conductors.


Fig. 1. Section of the Ventilation performed by the heat of the Gas. a. Chandelier.

b. Plate iron tube carrying off smoke and heat of gas. c. Tubes of plate iron communicating by four wooden trunks d. to the ventilators round the ceiling. The heat of the gas causing in them the rarefaction which propels the air through the ventilators.

e. Double case in wood, in which a trunk leading from the first gallery as at f. to the bottom of the same, draws the air from that part, and through the openings round the line at g. h. Large iron cowl, through which the whole escapes. Fig. 2. Plan of the upper part of the Tubes.

ART. XIV. On the increasing Populousness of England. THE

HE inquiry instituted and census taken in 1801 and 1811, presented results extraordinary as unexpected; showing an accelerated progress of increasing population in Great Britain,

at the close of the last century and beginning of the present; which was thought very unlikely to continue with like rapidity in future.

The proportion of births to deaths had been estimated at 11 to 10, about the middle of the past century;" and that estimate has not been deemed materially defective. In the latter part of the century (taking a period of twenty years) the proportion of registered baptisms to burials in all England and Wales, was found to be 13 to 10; and, on an average of the last five years of it, 137 to 100. In the first decade of the present age, the proportion exhibited by the returns of parish-abstracts was 148 to 100; and for the last five years of this decennial period, 151 to 100.‡

As the registers of baptisms are known to be more defective than those of funerals; among other reasons, because many dissenters from the established church bury their dead in the parish cemetery, who have not their children baptised according to the rites of the Church; and because private baptisms are excluded from some of the registers, § and the interment of still-born and unbaptised children is in others included; || it followed, that the excess of births above deaths, was still

* Dr. Short. New Obs. 22 and 24.

† In 20 years (1780–1800) 5,014,899 baptisms, and 3,840,455 burials; annual average, 250,745 to 192,023, or 131: 100.

In 5 last years (1796-1800) average 255,426 to 186,000, or 137: 100.

In 10 years (1801-1810) 2,878,906 bapt. 1,950,189 bur. or 148: 100.

In 5 last years (1806-1810) average 297,000 to 196,000, or 151: 100.

Pop. Abs. Prel. Obs. 22.

In the bills of mortality for London, abortive and still-born children are included in the burials, to the number of about 600 annually; Price, Rev. Paym. In 10 years (1801-1810) 5437; Milne, Ann. In the 5 last years (1813-1817), 3551; or, on an average, 710; Bills Mort. The whole number of still-born must be much greater; being in proportion of 5 to 100 born alive; Dr. Clark. The unbaptised are not fewer; for more die in the first fortnight, thau are still-born; ib. but not all unchristened.

greater than the abstracts of parish-registers exhibited. Admitting a requisite but conjectural correction upon this ground, the proportion of births to deaths on a medium of the first ten years of the present century, has been taken at 16 to 10;* a proportion considered to be quite extraordinary for a rich and well-peopled territory; showing a rate of incrcase, which, as remarked concerning it, cannot be permanent; and which it would be unreasonable to expect should endure for any long continuance.†

There seems reason however to believe, that the accelerated progress of increase, exhibited by the growing ratio of excess of births above deaths to the whole population, has yet received no check; and that the augmentation of the people is proceeding with a rapidity as great in the second as in the first decade of the century. As this is a point of much moment in connection with many important considerations, the grounds of the opinion now stated will be given; and with as much brevity as the nature of the subject allows.

The Bills of Mortality of London, annually published, exhibit in the past century an excess of burials above baptisms progressively diminishing, until nearly equalized in the latter part of it: the average of the last five years showing the proportion of 98 baptisms to 100 funerals. From the beginning of the present century, the registered baptisms have exceded the burials; the ratio for the first five years being 108 to 100,§ and for ten nearly the same; and the excess has increased in the present decade, the ratio being for the elapsed portion of it, 115 to 100, and for the last three years, 119 to 100.[]

* Add one sixth to the registered baptisms: and one-twelfth to the registered burials; Malthus, Pop. ii.

+ Malthus.

In five yrs. 1781-1795, Bap. 86316 Bu.
Five yrs. 1796-1800, Bap. 93544 Bu.
In five yrs. 1801-1805, Bap. 100553 Bu.

94403 Av. 17263: 18881 95659 Av. 18709: 19132 92856 Av. 20111: 18571

Ten yrs. 1801–1810, Bap. 199797 Bu. 185736 In 7 yrs. 1811-1817, Bap. 152871 Bu. 133287 Av. 21839: 19041 Three yrs. 1815-1817, Bap. 71124 Bu. 59844 Av. 23708: 19921

The Bills of Mortality are not supposed to be quite accurate. It appears from the parish abstracts returned under the popu lation Acts, that in the last twenty years of the past century, the proportion of baptisms to burials was 92 to 100; but, according to the bills, 94 to 100 ;* and in the first ten years of the present century, 111 to 100; but according to the bills, 106 to 100. Presuming, that the bills of mortality will not prove to be now more inaccurate, compared with the abstracts to be returned for a future census than heretofore, there appears to be sufficient evidence, that the excess of births above the deaths within the metropolis is in progress of increase. The town then is no longer a drain upon the country for maintaining the number of its inhabitants, which it upholds and even augments.

Marylebone, which is not included within the bills of mortality, is the most populous parish in Great Britain. The number of its inhabitants, which was 63982, according to the enumeration in 1801, and 75624 according to that of 1811, is almost a twelfth part of the population of the metropolis, and 125th of that of England. It equals, or nearly does so, the aggregate of other parishes contiguous to London, and comprising a portion of the suburbs though not comprehended in the bills of mortality.

The registered baptisms in this parish nearly equalled the bu rials in the ten years from 1781 to 1790; and exceeded them in the next ten, 1791 to 1800; as also in the ten following, 1801 to 1810; the proportion being severally, 96 to 100; 110

* Abstracts of Par. Reg. 1781-1800, Bap. 394309 Bu. 422404 Bills of Mortality Bap. 366191 Bu. 389491

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+ Abstracts of Par. Reg. 1801-1810, Bap. 210454 Bu. 188910 Bills of Mortality Bap. 199797 Bu. 185655 Pancras, Paddington, Kensington, and Chelsea, contained 53922 inhabitants in 1801, and 80080 in 1811. To the five out parishes mentioned, Camberwell should be added; it contained 7059 persons, in 1801, and 11309 in 1811.

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