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to 100; and 108 to 100.* The excess of registered births above deaths is become yet greater, being for the seven years which have since elapsed, 138 to 100; and for the three last, 157 to 100.†
In the parish of Marylebone, the burials of persons denominated foreigners amount to rather more than 165 annually; and if these were excluded, the excess of births above deaths would appear to be yet greater.
One of the most populous parishes beyond the precincts of the metropolis is Hampstead. Being a resort of the sick on account of the reputed salubrity of the spot, many sojourners die and are interred there; and the funerals, according to the abstracts returned for the census, continued to exceed the baptisms to the latest period of those returns (1810.) The population of the place was 4313 in 1801, and 5483 in 1811; but the funerals in the intermediate ten years were 1377, and baptisms 1124. An accession of inhabitants replaced the deficiency and augmented the number in no less a ratio than as 5 to 4.
In the last five years, the baptisms in this parish have been 646, and burials 642; or in the proportion of 101 to 100 nearly; Instead of the former ratio $2 to 100, on the medium of ten years.
As an instance of a rural parish in the vicinity of the metropolis, more than eight and less than ten miles distant from it, the parish of Edgeware has been taken, and upon no other ground of selection besides the accidental circumstance of facility in consulting its register.
The proportion of births to deaths has in this parish increased from the ratio of 123: 100, which the average of ten years
* In ten years, 1781-1790, Bapt. 12325 Bur. 12871. 1791-1800, Bapt. 17410 Bur. 14880.
1801-1810, Bapt. 18991 Bur. 17553.
Printed Acc. rec. and disb. of the rates of St. Marylebone.
+ In seven years, 1811-1817, Bapt. 57432 Bur. 12660 Av. 2490: 1809 Three years, 1815-1817, Bapt. 7977 Bur. 5089 Av. 2659; 1696 In ten years, 1801-1810, Bap. 1124 Bu. 1377
Five years, 1813-1817, Bap, 646 Bu. 642 Av. 129: 128
exhibited to that of 138: 100, on the medium of the seven subsequent years; and 147: 100 in the three last.
Considering that Marylebone, Hampstead, and Edgeware, are no unfair specimens of three classes of parishes in and near London, it is apparent from these instances, in concurrence with the bills of mortality, that within the metropolis and its immediate vicinity, the population of which is not less than a tenth of that of Great Britain,† the number of inhabitants has continued to increase since the census of 1811; and at an accelerated rate. And, as the number of inhabitants of all Great Britain has hitherto been found to increase faster than that of the metropolis, it seems fairly to be inferred as a probable result to be expected from the next census, that the population of all Great Britain will appear to have been increasing to this time with yet greater rapidity than the results of the former census showed.
To bring this conclusion to the test of a comparison with information collected from remote parts of the kingdom, would require more extensive research, than can well be undertaken by an individual. The registers of a few distant parishes have been consulted; and the results, as might be expected, are various. It is however conceived, that the continued rapid growth of the capital city does assuredly indicate a continuance of quick increase of populousness of the country in general.
H. T. C.
76 Av. 15: 11
*In ten years, 1801-1810, Bap. 111 Bu. 9
59 Av. 17: 12
+ The population of London and its neighbourhood, within eight miles around the cathedral of St. Paul's, was 1,220,000, according to the census of 1811; and that of all Great Britain, with the army and navy, was 12,596,803. Pop. Abs. Carrying the vicinage to ten miles, the proportion is as stated.
ART. XV. Observations on the Geology of the West India Islands, from Barbadoes to Santa Cruz, inclusive. By William Maclure.
[From the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia.]
HIS range of islands may, in a geological point of view, be divided into two distinct parts, one of which, occupying the eastern side, consists of a stratification of transition of rocks, partially crowned by secondary, and embraces the islands of Barbadoes, Mariegalante, Grandterre in Guadaloupe, Deseada, Antigua, S. Bartholomew, St. Martin, Anguilla and Santa Cruz; the other part, consisting of volcanic formations, with a few partial coverings of secondary, occupies the western side of the range, including the Grenadines, St. Vincent, St. Lucia. Martinico, Dominica, Basseterre in Guadaloupe, Monserrat, Nevis, St. Christopher, St. Eustatia and Saba, where the volcanic formation appears to terminate.
Barbadoes. The northern, southern, and western sections of this island consist of rocks, formed of an aggregate of shells and madrepore rocks, mixed with different kinds of corals, being partly consolidated into a mass by the attrition of the water, having the interstices filled by the particles that have been broken, and washed into them, sometimes even losing the marks of their original formation; and partly porous and full of cavities formed by the washing away of the shells and madrepores, and by the natural shelving of these rocks. This shell limestone is deposited in four or five horizontal strata, rising gradually to the height of eight hundred feet towards the centre of the island, and forming as many plateaux as there are strata, resembling at a distant view, the steps of stairs. Thence to the eastward or windward is the district of Scotland, composed of strata of slate alternating with limestone, and an aggregate cemented with lime, in grains of various sizes, and resembling much the different kinds of graywacke slate, dipping to the east, northerly, and running to the north, westerly; having every appearance of VOL. V.
being the transition rock on which the madrepores and corals were formed.
Mariegalante, Grandterre in Guadaloupe, and Deseado, are all formed of the madrepore rock, in horizontal strata, resem bling the same formation in Barbadoes, the strata being elevated, one above another, and forming a plateau or table of land, at the summit of each, but not rising so high as in Barbadoes. Grandterre in Guadaloupe has this formation, exhibiting more the appearance of undulations, with gentle ascents and declivities, containing some small streams and marshes, which would rather encourage the supposition that it rests on a volcanic basis, and is therefore more liable to have its rocks deranged from their present natural horizontal position.
Antigua. This island not having been visited by the writer, he must take its description from the specimens brought from it, by which it may be concluded, that it is similar, in some of its geological traits, to the island of Barbadoes; having the same formation of madrepore rocks, some of which contain silex in the form of agates, &c; which are valued, as beautiful specimens, by the curious. A part of the island consists of a stratified rock, in the form of a green schist, crossing the island from north to south, in a zone of three or four miles width, affording the inhabitants a useful building stone. The southern side of the island is rugged and mountainous, and is described as being volcanic.
St. Bartholomew. The formation throughout this island is evidently stratified, though in great confusion, (the word stratified is here used in contradistinction to volcanic) the strata running in a direction a little to the west of north, and dipping generally to the eastward, as far as could be ascertained from the disturbed and irregular position of the broken rocks. These rocks are found to consist of three or four species of lime. stone, two of them containing shells; some aggregates, which are cemented with limestone, and present much the appearance of transition formation; several species of hornblend rock, a little crystalline; amigdaloid, containing small nodules of calcareous spar and zeolite, which, when the stone is fresh
broken, are undistinguishable from the mass, and discover their difference only when in a state of decomposition; a soft argillaceous mass, with spots of green, resembling the green earth of Verona; porphyry, with crystals of quartz and feldspar, imbedded in a red argillaceous base, &c. all of them alternating one with another occasionally, and assuming the appearance of a transition formation. But the various aspects which these rocks present, and the different stages of decomposition in which they are found, and in which they differ much from the rocks of a continent, or of northern climates, render it extremely difficult to determine which part may be secondary, and which transition.
St. Martin and Anguilla are two small stratified islands, on a line with St. Bartholomew, and consisting of a similar formation.
The island of St. Thomas may also be classed in this range. It is stratified, though in much confusion, and su deranged as to render it difficult to ascertain the general direction, which appears to be from north-west to south-east, dipping easterly. The rocks consist of a variety of aggregates, resembling the transition, some of which when fresh, have the appearance of hornblend rocks, but when beginning to decompose, the aggregate appears, with a few plates of a black crystalline rock like hornblend. I found a yellowish brown quartzy aggregate, resembling a rock, in the transition, at the Lehigh Falls in Pennsylvania.
Santa Cruz. This islaud, though included in our first division, agrees rather with the direction of the volcanic islands; it appears however, that the volcanic formation ceases at Saba, and that Santa Cruz is composed of madrepore rocks at the west, and on the eastern side, of rocks similar to those of St. Thomas and St. Bartholomew. The west end and the middle of the island are low, and covered with a shell limestone and madrepore rock. The foundation on which this rock reposes is a stratum that retains water, and may be a compact limestone, as the bases of many of the little hills rest on solid limestone. The east end is composed of different kinds of limestone, alternating with amygdaloid, hornblend rock and porphyry, like the rocks of