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reward is a gold medal of 3000 francs value, and the latest time allowed for the reception of memoirs, 1st January, 1820. 2. Astronomical Prize Question for 1820.
The question proposed by the Royal Academy of Science at Paris, is as follows: To form by the theory of universal gravitation alone, and without taking from observations, any thing but arbitrary elements, tables of the movement of the moon, as exact as the best tables in existence. The prize is a gold medal of 3000 francs value, which is to be awarded in March 1820. The utmost period allowed for the reception of papers, 1st January, 1820.
3. Astronomical Prize Medal.
The Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, have awarded their own gold medal to the astronomer Royal, John Pond, Esq. That which was before voted to him was the one founded by the astronomer De Lalande.
4. Harvest Moons.
This year is the third of a series of 10 years in which the moon will prove the most beneficial to the farmers for reaping and gathering in the fruits of the earth, viz. from 1816 to 1825 inclusive. The preceding nine years, namely, from 1807 to 1815 inclusive, were in the class of those in which, from natural causes, the harvest moon has been least beneficial. Such will also be the years from 1826 to 1882.
§ 2. ARCHITECTURE, THE ARTS, AGRICULTURE, &c. 1. Incombustible Store-House at Plymouth.
The incombustible Store-House which has just been completed in Plymouth Dock-Yard, has every part of it composed either of stone or iron. The girdlers, joists, doors, sashes, and frames, are all of cast iron, neatly executed. The roof is of cast iron, and the floors of Yorkshire stone. The stair-case, which is a geometrical one, is of moorstone. The estimated expense of the building is fifteen thousand pounds.
2. Mr. Feetham's Description of an Apparatus for sweeping Chimneys, without the aid of Climbing Boys.
In consequence of the repeated occasions on which 1
have examined chimneys, my attention has been strongly drawn to the various methods of sweeping them, and as I found that none of the mechanical contrivances answered completely the desired end, and that cases frequently occurred when they were entirely inadequate, I was induced to contrive a machine for my own use. As this machine has for the last six or seven years completely answered my wishes, and as it has been approved of by many eminent surveyors and builders, I shall no longer hesitate to make it public.
The apparatus consists of a thin iron box or frame, about 13 inches by 11, with two closely fitted doors, 4 inches apart, forming the back and front; a pulley is fixed to the lower part of the frame, in either an inclined or vertical direction, according to the inclination of the flue. This frame is fitted into the chimney as near the top as is convenient, either in the attic, loft, or on the roof, so that the door may be got at with ease. From this door upwards, the chimney is cleaned by an elastic whalebone brush, and downwards in the following manner: a whalebone brush, which may be shaped to any sized flue by the person who is using it, has a ball of iron fixed to the lower part of it in gimballs, so that it can roll in any direction downwards, and a rope is made fast to the upper end; the brush and ball are put through the door into the chimney, and the rope placed over the pulley; the weight carries the brush down, and it is drawn up again by the line, so that it can be made to traverse three or four times up and down the chimney in a few minutes; the door is shut during this operation, the rope passing through a small notch in it, so that scarcely any dirt is occasioned. The brush will pass down a flue that has a considerable degree of inclination, but at horizontal parts, or at square angles, extra doors will be required. These, however, by the advantages they afford, will abundantly compensate the slight additional expense; they afford the readiest means of extinguishing fires, of stopping descending currents of smoke from neighbouring flues, or of working in any way in the chimney and
they would generally be on the outside of the house, because horizontal flues are mostly in those situations.
In the chimneys of my house, No. 9, Ludgate Hill, the flues are very high, and some of them much inclined. No sweep has been up them for seven years. The jointed-handle brush was tried in vain; it required too. much force, and was liable to break; but by the apparatus described they have. always been readily and perfectly swept in a few minutes. The whole expense of the apparatus made in the best manner, does not exceed £1..5. and without any particular attention, does not require repairs, or replacing in a long period of time. They may be examined and seen in use at the Inventor's Warerooms and Manufactories, 9 Ludgate Hill, or 296 Oxford Street.
Intelligence can be received from Calais at Paris, between which places there are twenty-seven telegraphs, in three minutes; from Lisle, twenty-two telegraphs, two minutes; from Strasburg, forty-five telegraphs, six minutes and-a-half; from Lyons, fifty telegraphs, nine minutes; and from Brest thirty telegraphs, eight minutes.
4. Roller Pump.
A roller pomp on an improved principle has recently been erected near Worcester, for raising water from the Severn into the basin of the canal, where it throws up at least 900 gallons per minute. It works by a rotatory motion, without bucket or rod, and produces a constant stream. It is entirely made of metal.
5. Propagation of Olive Trees.
It has long been an object in the south of France and in other olive countries to propagate the olive-tree by seeds; but attempts of this kind have constantly failed; and shoots were found the only mode of increasing their number that could be artificially used. A mode, however, has been discovered, which has set aside the difficulty; it consists in macerating the ripe olives in a weak alkaline solution, and then sowing them, the seeds will germinate, and produce plants.
The discovery resulted from an observation of the manner in
which nature propagates those trees: the seeds germinate naturally, and this was supposed to be occasioned by the previous effect produced on them, in passing through the stomach of birds, and it was found on trials that the seeds of the fruit given to turkeys when sown with the dung of the animal did vegetate.
6. Blight in Apple-trees.
The American farmers are said to adopt the following practice to prevent the blight or mildew from injuring their orchards. In the spring, they rub tar well into the bark of the appletrees about four or six inches wide round each tree and at about one foot from the ground; this effectually prevents the blight, and abundant crops are the consequence.
7. Fly in Turnips.
The following has been given as a method of preventing destruction by the fly in turnips. Divide the seed intended for one day's sowing into two equal parts, and put one part to steep in soft pond or ditch-water the night previous to its being used. Mix the whole together, adding to each pound of seed, two ounces of flour sulphur. This will insure two successive growths, and the fly will not touch the plants.
8. Sugar of the Beet-root.
The endeavours that were made in France, during the war, to procure sugar from the beet-root in sufficient quantity to satisfy the demands of the population, were very successful, and it was procured of excellent quality. The peace, however, by re-opening the ports, and allowing the introduction of the cane-sugar, tended to paralyze that branch of agricultural industry, for which, however, some strong exertions have since been made by the philosophers of France.
The following is given as the statement of the expense and returns of the manufactory of M. Chaptal, and if there are no unstated objections to its introduction, it is difficult to account for the preference given to cane-sugar.
Forty-five French acres were sown with beet-root; the produce equalled 700,000lbs.
Sowing, pulling, carriage, and expenses of the manu
factory for seventy-nine days of actual work
Repairs, interest of capital, &c.
Rough sugar of the first crystallisation
Sugar obtained by further processes from the molasses 10,960
Total of rough sugar 40,092
Besides which there were 158,000lbs. of refuse, which was excellent food for cattle, and a large quantity of exhausted molasses, which might be converted into spirit.
II. CHEMICAL SCIENCE.
§ 1. CHEMISTRY.
1. A Letter to Mr. Brande on the Subject of the Pharmacopeia, from Thomas Young, M. D. F. R. S. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians; with Mr. Brande's Answer.
I am sorry to observe, in your Introductory Discourse to the third volume of the Supplement to the Encyclopædia, a note containing a very severe censure on the College of Physicians of London, whose Pharmacopoeia, you say, " is a record of the want of chemical knowledge where it is more imperiously required." But I am really willing to hope, that on reconsideration, you will allow that the charge was hasty, and unwarranted by the present state of the Pharmacopoeia.
Much has been said, by several persons attached to chemistry, of the errors and imperfections of the Pharmacopoeia of 1809; and having been appointed by the President an additional Member of the Committee for revising it, I made it my particular study to examine every single objection that had