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anatomical description of those intestinal worms, known under the names of Ascaris lumbricalis, and Echinorhynchus gigas. One object of the author should be to ascertain whether these animals have nerves and blood vessels, or not.

The papers are to be sent to the Secretary of the Academy, before the 1st of January 1819.

2. Newly discovered Membrane in the Eye.

24, Aungier Street, Dublin, June 13, 1818. Doctor Jacob, Demonstrator of Anatomy in the University of Dublin, has discovered, and demonstrated in his lectures on the diseases of the eye, this spring, a membrane covering the external surface of the retina, in man and other animals. Its extreme delicacy accounts for its not having been hitherto no ticed. He arrived at the discovery by means of a new method of displaying and examining this and other delicate parts. He argues from analogy, the necessity of the existence of such a membrane, as parts so different in structure and functions as the retina and choroid coat must otherwise be in contact, in contradiction to the provisions of the animal economy in general. A detailed account of the discovery, with the method of displaying the membrane, is in preparation, and will shortly be laid before the public,

3. Medical Prizes for 1820.

The Medical Society of Emulation at Paris, has proposed to adjudge two prizes, each of five hundred francs value, to the authors of the best dissertations on the following questions.

"What are the advantages which medicine has derived from military and naval practice, since the commencement of the wars of the revolution, down to the time of the general peace ?"

"What are the particular conformation, tendencies, and functions of that system of organs named the nervous ganglia of organic life, the great sympathetic nerve, the great intercostal, the trisplanchnic (trisplanchnique), &c.? And what are the maladies, as far as it is possible to ascertain them, in which this system of nerves is essentially?"

The dissertations must be written in French or Latin, and sent

free of postage, before 31st August 1819, to M. Breschet, Secretary to the Society, Rue de la Jussienne, No. 17, à Paris.

4. Use of Tar in Pulmonary Consumption.

Experiments have lately been made on the use of the vapour of tar in pulmonary consumption, and, it is said, with very favourable results. The following is the method recommended, With each pound of tar (such as is used in the cordage of ships), mix half an ounce of cream of tartar, heat the mixture in a sound vessel, and be careful that no combustion of any portion of the tar takes place, but merely an evaporation. The vapour may then be inhaled for several hours together. It at first sometimes occasions head-ache, but this soon goes off, and the good effects become in some days evident.

5. On the Use of distilled Sea-water.

Some very extensive experiments have been made in France. on the use of distilled sea-water in the preparation of food, and as a beverage, and they have afforded favourable results. The men upon whom the experiments were made, were principally criminals, and for the most part galley slaves at the ports of Brest, Toulon, Rochefort, &c. Most of the individuals knew that they were drinking nothing but distilled sea-water, and that a suspicion was entertained of some particular effect belonging to it, but some were not aware of the trials made upon them. They were dieted in the way that seamen are, with the exception of two meals of fresh meat per week.

Some of the men complained of pains in the bowels and diarrhoea, and others suffered under various slight indispositions; the complaints however appeared to be without cause, and the real indispositions, from their removal without changing their mode of living, were shewn to be casual and not dependant upon the water. The health of many of them appeared to be improved during the time they remained subjects of trial.

The individual experience of intelligent persons has also confirmed the favourable conclusion drawn from the above experiments, and in no case has it been found to possess the sharp taste or caustic qualities ascribed to it.

The inference drawn by the Commissioners who were appointed to ascertain the effects arising from the constant use of distilled sea-water is the same; they all conclude that it may be employed both in cooking, and as a beverage, for a month at least, without any injury to the health. The presumption is, that it may be used nearly as good common water, and that it affords a resource which at times may be of great importance; as in long voyages, and particularly in those of discovery.

6. Medical Properties of Salt.

The importance and value of salt as an introduction unto food, becomes continually more evident, as its medicinal properties are rendered more distinct and fully known. Among other salubrious virtues, may be mentioned its anthelminthick properties, which have been rendered very evident by the publication of some late cases. It appears that whenever salt is denied to the human being, diseases of the stomach are general, and that worms are engendered in the body; and in one instance, where a person, from aversion to that substance, had refused it either in food, or in any other form, they appear to have been the consequence, and remained for many years.

In Ireland, salt is a well known common remedy for bots in the horse; and among the poor people, a dose of common salt is esteemed a cure for the worms.

IV. GENERAL LITERATURE, AND MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE.

1. British Museum.

From the annual returns of this Institution, it appears that its total receipts for the year ending 25th of March, 1818, were £12,455. 12s. 5d. and its expenditure £11,724 9s. 1d. leaving a surplus in hand of £731. 3s. 4d. A quantity of duplicates. which are about to be sold, are expected to produce the sum of £1000. which sum has been engaged for the purchase of the Ginguéné Library, at Paris. The duplicates of Dr. Burney's Library, which cannot be sold before the year 1819, are expected to produce a sum of between three and four thousand

pounds, and will be brought into the account as a deduction from the parliamentary grant for that year. The number of persons admitted to view the Museum during the last year, was 50,172, being nearly double the number admitted in 1812.

2. Pompeia, Herculaneum, &c.

The idea that Pompeia and Herculaneum were destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius in the year 79, has been very generally received. A new opinion however has been advanced respecting the destruction of these two cities, which attributes it to a rising of the waters of the sea, and a deposition of finely divided matter from them. It is asserted that a formation similar to that which covers Pompeia is daily forming on the shores at Naples, and that Herculaneum is covered by a mass of tufa, and not by lava. There is little doubt but that Herculaneum has been bu ried in consequence of the action of water, but whether by a wave of the sea, or by torrents thrown out from the volcano, is more uncertain. Fompeia has probably been covered by a gradual fall of ashes.

3. Herculaneum MSS.

Dr. Sickler's endeavours to unroll the Herculanean MSS. completely failed, so that as yet no great approach has been made towards a knowledge of the contents of these remains of ancient literature. Sir H. Davy intends whilst abroad, to examine minutely the state of these rolls, and to ascertain whether chemical agencies may not be importantly applied in facilitating their developement. There can be no doubt but that some im portant results will be gained.

4. Model of Roman Measures.

A model was found in the year 1816 in the excavation at Pompeia, of some ancient Roman measures, and a description of it has since been published in the Italian Journals. It was supposed to be either the mold or the pattern of a public measure, and consisted of two oblong tables of tufa, placed the one on the other, with lateral supports of the same stone. In the upper surface of the first table, which was 8 palms long, and 2 wide, five circular cavities of various dimensions had been formed in a right line; in the bottom of each cavity was a small hole, which could be shut by a small piece of brass when

ever it was necessary, and opened after measurement for the purpose of drying the measure. In the four corners of the same table were cylindrical holes, much smaller than those described, and having apertures not made through to the bottom, but sideways, in a transverse line.

This instrument is considered as a standard measure for liquids, and the Italian antiquary has concluded, from some pieces of lead fastened into the end, and which are supposed to be the remains of hinges, that each of the larger cavities had a cover fitted to it. There were five inscriptions on the under side of this model, but so much effaced that they could not be read. It is supposed, that they were the names of the six larger measures. An inscription remains on the front of the stone, which informs us that Aulus Clodius Flaccus, son of Aulus, and Narcius Arellius Caldus, son of Narcius, duumvirs of justice, were ordered by decree of the Decuriones, to equalise the public measure.

It is somewhat singular, that the Romans, who were so careful of every thing concerning the duration of public property, should have chosen so bad a material for the formation of this standard, as tufa.

5. Roman Station.

About seven miles east of Grantham, in the parish of Haceby, by the bridge and turnpike, on the side of a hill commanding a view of Boston Haven, were lately discovered, very considerable remains of ancient buildings, tessellated pavements, and other indications of a fixed military station of the Romans. Already various apartments have been laid open, and a high treat afforded to antiquaries, who are daily flocking to the spot. Tessellated pavements, belonging to three distinct apartments near the road, have been uncovered, and as the work of slow and careful search proceeds, similar ingenious and beautiful pavements are beginning to make their appearance at some distance on the south-west side of the field. One of the apartments is a sudatory (or sweating bath) the flue and furnaces of which are very distinct. Sir Joseph Banks, and other competent judges agree in opinion,

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