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Donkin, the revival and introduction of the lithographic art, or printing from stone, and the improved process of printing in colours without plates, and the use of inks without oil or any material which may discolour the white of the paper, as proposed by Mr. Savage, all possess important advantages.

Mr. Didot has likewise materially improved and simplified the process of producing paper in continuous sheets, or cutting it into any size or form.

Among the manufacturing processes, that of weaving has received some important improvements, particularly from that most ingenious artist and manufacturer Mr. Heathcoat, of London, who was the first to contrive effective machinery, which should imitate with precision all the intricate motions of the lace maker upon the pillow, and produce a fabric in formation similar to that of foreign lace, and scarcely to be distinguished from it. He has since so far improved his machinery, as to introduce the gimp or pattern upon it in the first instance while weaving: nor is his machinery confined to the production of one breadth at a time. He has since directed his attention to that most valuable machine, the stocking frame, and now produces several pairs at once, by a process nearly similar to that which originally produced but one web. Mr. Mersey's new process for weaving coach and livery lace is also highly worthy of notice, as producing a fabric from the

same materials, which far exceeds in beauty any thing which had preceded it.

The manufacture of woollen cloth in this country has likewise been carefully attended to, and has received some valuable improvements, not only in the growth and preparation of wool, but likewise in the finishing processes called shearing and gigging, by the machinery introduced by Messrs. Lewis, Price, Colliers, and others, in Gloucestershire.

The easy and safe conveyance of passengers and goods, by roads and navigation, is an object of the first importance in a commercial country, and one particularly deserving of attention. The benefits arising from canal navigation, are already sensibly felt in every part of the kingdom, and from the attention which has for some time past been paid to propelling vessels by steam, and the many improvements which have been proposed in its application, there is every reason to hope that it will be as effectually used in canals and at sea, as in rivers; and in a future Number, when some of these new expedients have stood the test of experience, we shall offer some remarks on those which appear the most efficient. Several machines have likewise been presented to the public for amending and repairing roads.

Loudon has within the last few years to boast the acquisition of two new Bridges: the light and elegant iron structure of Vauxhall, erected under the direction, and from the design of

James Walker, Esq., and the magnificent granite bridge of Waterloo, which as a piece of modern masonry is perhaps unrivalled in the world. The more stupendous iron bridge of Southwark is making rapid progress towards completion, under the directions of John Rennie, Esq., and will probably be finished before the close of the present year; while the patent lately obtained by Captain Samuel Brown, R. N., may perhaps be the means of producing an effort of art almost beyond imagination, since he proposes to construct a bridge of chains formed of long bars of iron, the central opening of which will be 1000 feet, and the lateral ones 500 feet each; and his deductions are drawn from experiments conducted so carefully, to leave no doubt of the possibility of carrying this grand scheme into execution.

The progress which the illumination from coal gas is making, not only in the metropolis, but in various provincial towns, and the perfection to which the apparatus is now brought, cannnot be considered among the least of the improvements of the present day.

To these may be added, the improvements in fire arms, derived from the patents of Messrs. Manton, Paulli, and Sartoris, the latter of whom have applied the heat obtained from the condensation of air, to fire the charge, instead of flint and steel. Adie's alteration of the barometer, by which it is rendered completely portable; the improvement of Bramah's lock, by which the most

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perfect security is obtained; the kaleidoscope of Dr. Brewster, for assisting the imagination of artists, in producing regular forms in a manner almost magical; and many other articles, which want of room, rather than of inclination, obliges us to pass over in silence.

Having said thus much concerning the scientific novelties of the year, we might refer to a multitude of important facts, discoveries, and inventions which have been brought before the public by periodical writers; but as our object is rather to form a general estimate than to enter into particular details, and as we are necessarily limited in this place, we pass over much in silence, and refer our readers to our own pages* and those of our colleagues and contemporaries, for the ma

* We trust that the plan of the miscellaneous article in the present Number will be approved of. We propose that it should present a quarterly retrospect of the subject it embraces, consisting partly of original experiments, and intelligence; partly of such gleanings from daily and monthly publications as are thought worthy of being more permanently recorded. These it is intended to arrange under the following heads:


Abstract Mathematics.
Mechanics, Astronomy.

Optics, Pneumatics.

Hydrostatics, Acoustics, &c.


Mechanical Manufactures.


terials which fill up the outline and complete the sketch we have given.

For the same reason we have abstained from remarks upon the progress of the sciences abroad, where they have been diligently cultivated, and more especially in the capital of the French empire.

To revert more immediately to ourselves, we trust that our own pages, as well as those of other works, bear testimony to the activity of the ROYAL INSTITUTION, and that the various courses of instruction, which under the direction of the Managers of the Establishment, are annually













Surgery, &c.



Literary Intelligence.





Ornamental Arts.

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