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the opportunities which I too seldom il s'est servi pour établir sa doctrine, enjoyed of Dr. Cogan's conversation, si vous suivez les traces de l'autre ? he told me that he had for a fellow. Vos principes mêmes ne sont-ils pas student, at Leyden, Dr. Vanderkemp, votre condamnation ? Jesus, votre who died a few years ago, on his modèle, n'a jamais employé que la Mission to the Cape. Dr. V. left the douceur et la persuasion ; Mahomet University before Dr. C,, and became a séduit les uns et forcé les autres au an officer in the Dutch cavalry, though silence ; Jesus en a appelle à ses afterwards he resumed the study of euvres; Mahomet à son épée. Jesus medicine, I think, at Edinburgh. dit: voyez et croyez; Mahomet :

I once passed a day with Dr. Van- meurs ou crois. Duquel vous mon. derkemp, about twenty years ago, in trez-vous les disciples ?"

L'Esprit London, when he was preparing for de L'Encyclopédie. A Geneve, 1772, his mission. He discovered obliging, 11. 266. (Persecutors, henceforth unassuming manuers, and had an air forbear to defend the truth with the of gentleness; such as would have arms of imposture; to take from Chris. juspired confidence, on meeting him tianity the glory of her founders, to in a desert. Kuowing that he held calumniate the gospel, and to cona strange opinion, for a sincere Chris- found the son of Mars with the offtian as I believe he was, respecting spring of Ismael. And, indeed, by the historical evidence of the Scrip- what right can you appeal to the tures, I introduced the subject, when former, and to the means he employed he ridiculed that evidence as severely for the establishment of his doctrine, as his politeness would allow, fully while you make the other your examadopting the sentiments, and very ple? Your own principles, will they nearly the phraseology of the Author not condemn you? Jesus your model of Christianity not Founded on Argu- employed only gentleness and perment. He said, indeed, in plain terms, suasion. Mahomet deceived some, that every man of sense must be an and forced others into silence. Jesus unbeliever, till he received a divine appealed to his mighty works, Mahoimpression ou his mind that Chris- met to his sword. Jesus said, see and tianity was true; the only ground on believe; Vahomet, believe or die. which he professed to be a Christian. Of which then will ye prove your. · If my memory serves me, the late selves the disciples?)

Mr. Towle, on account of this potion Page 17. I am able to make the held by Dr. V., objected to the zeal- few following corrections in the first ous countenance which he received list, (which is exact as to numbers,) from the Calvinists,

from a pamphlet now before me, en. Page 15, col. 1. I am persuaded titled, “ An Authentic Account of that whatever illiberality the late Sir several things done and agreed upon Samuel Romilly may have appeared, by the Dissenting Ministers lately once at least, to have sanctioned as an assembled at Salters' Hall Viz. 1. Adrocate, Dr. T. S. Smith has well de- Adrices for Peace, &c. With a List scribed his rienos of religious liberty. of the names of those who have SubJust after reading that page, I disco. scribed them. 2. The Letter, sent vered what I had not observed before, with the Advices to Exeter. S. Reaand was gratitied by the coincidence, sons for not Subscribing, as some of that the article Tolerance, in I Ency their brethren did, the Paper offered clopedie, was written by a Rumilly, to them on March 3, 1718-9," p. 1]. He is mamedu. Romillu le fils. You Josh. Oldfield, D.D. Moderator, will, I am persuaded, readily allow p. t. [pro tempore). me to quote the following passage : Thomas Leavenby. Leavesly. " C'essez dene, persécuteurs, cessez

George Smith. Smyth. encore une fois, de defendre cette John Gale, D, P. vérité avec les armes de l'imposture; Clerk Oldsworthy. Oldsworth. d'enleser au Christianisme la gloire Richard Rigby, M. D. de ces fondateurs ; de calomuier William Hooker, Jun. Hocker. l'Evangile, et le confondre le tils de Benjamin Avery, LL.D. Marie avec l'eutant d' l-128li car Matthew Kendall. Randall. entin de quel droit !

1.2. To this list is added, (p. 12,) “ There vous au premier, r'

it are several of our brethren consenting


with us in these advices, who desire and Influence of the Reformation by we would signify so much to the Luther,” which obtained the prize world, though they have not here from the National Institute. An Ensubscribed their names.

glish translation was published in Immediately following this pam- 1805. Under Italy he mentions (p. phlet, in a volume of Tracts, is “ A 163; “ the two Socini, natives of Letter to the Rev. Mr. Tong, &c. Sienpa,” among those “ who took a "By a Layman," (in MS. Samuel liking to reform," and “ went into Sanders,) 1719. This Letter is by other countries, where they might one of those Nonconformists who ob adopt it at ease. Under Poland, (p. jected to the demand of ministerial 161,) he says, “ The two Socini, subscription. They called themselves uncle and nephew, but particularly Lay-Christians. In an Appendix, is the latter, made a great number of a paper, (p. 81,) containing their sen. proselytes here, and founded the sect timents “ touching the methods of which bears their name; a sect which healing the present divisions among has spread very much in Poland, the Protestant Dissenter's.” On a blank principle tenet of which is to honour page some early possessor of the pam- Jesus Christ as a sage sent by God, phlet, who evidently resented this but not as one of the persons of the lay interference, has written,

Divinity itself." “ The names of some of the lay

J. T. RUTT. canon makers are as follow :Sir George Caswel

Sir Henry Houghton
Sir John Fryer
David Polhil

John Birch

Real Heresies of Priests in the Thir-
Gray Nevil

teenth Century.
John Barrington Shute
John London

At the very time that these friars
John Deacle

were setting the example of the most John Hartop

infamous vices, they appear also to Samuel Sanders

have originated the most sacrilegious

heresies. The Mendicants not only Henry Bendish Samuel Read

continued to cry up their innumerable William Kingsford

antiquated visions, but invented new Forster

ones still more absurd, which they Edward Richter, Sen.

continued to have revealed, sworn to Edward Richter, Jun.

and believed. The University of Pa. Moses Rapier

ris was for several years agitated, Francis Harrison

Europe scandalized, and the Vatican Henry Lovel

occupied, without knowing how to Picard

extricate itself, with a long trial of Thomas Holles

the Dominicans, for a singular attempt, Samuel Browning

aided by a Franciscan fauatic, to subThomas Abney

stitute the prophetic visions of the Abbé Sir Gregory Page."

Joachim, with some supplements of

their own, for the New Testament. Page 22, Note t. To this coin Ra. Matthew Paris, either from not being leigh alludes in his Pilgrimage, where exactly informed of what was passing he speaks of

abroad, or not daring to state all he Hleaven's bribeless ball, knew, speaks of this circumstance Where no corrupted voices brawl, only in general terms: They No conscience, mollen into gold,

preached," says he, “commented and No forg'd accuser, bought or sold, taught certain novelties, which, as No cause deferr'd, no vain-spent journey, For tbere Christ is the King's attorney,

far as they were known, were conWho pleads for all, without degrees,

sidered mere ravings, and reduced

those into a book which they were For bie bath angels, but no fees.

pleased to style The Everlasting GosPage 32, col, 1, line 6. Villers, pel : with certain other things, of Author of " An Essay on the Spirit which it would not be wise to say too

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much.” (Hist. Ang. ad an. 1257.)

No. CCCXLI. But he has said quite enough to Character of Louis XIV. confirm the discoveries subsequently The intrusion of any popular voice made by writers of every communion, was not likely to be tolerated in the respecting this extraordinary fact, and reign of Louis XIV., a reign which to make known in what state Dante bas been so often celebr ied as the found the religion of Europe. The zenith of warlike angl literary splenInquisitors, in the mean time, were dour, but which has always appeared by no ineans remiss in burning astro- to me to be the consunimation of logers and persons accused of prac. whatever is afflicting and degrading tising the art of magic, though it some. in the history of the human race. times happened that an astrologer Talent seenied, in that reigri, robbed triumphed over them. Of two con. of the conscious elevation, of the erect temporaries of Dante, one, Cecco and manly port, which is its noblest d'Ascoli, was burned by order of the associate and its surest indication. Dominican luquisition at Florence; * The mild purity of Fenelon,' the and the other, Pietro d'Abano, who lofty spirit of Bossuet," the sublime was reputed to be confederate with fervour of Corneille, were confounded devils, and openly professed astrology, by the contagion of ignominious and upon being accused at Paris, retorted indiscriminate servility. It seemed the charge of heresy upon the Domi. as if the “ representative majesty' of nicans_summoned them to appear- the genius and intellect of man were convicted them of heresy by forty- prostrated before the shrine of a sanfive specialarguments-procured their guinary and dissolute tyrant, who expulsion and exclusion from Paris practised the corruption of courts for a considerable period—and was without their mildness, and incurred himself pronounced innocent by the the guilt of wars without their glory. Pope at Romne, † The people, how. His highest praise is to have sup: ever, believed in the power of this ported the stage-trick of royalty with magician. It is mentioned in the effect; and it is surely difficult to chronicles of that age, and still re. conceive any character more odious peated in the villages of Padua, that and despicable than that of a puny Pietro had scven spirits at his com. libertine, who, under the frown of a mand; and that when he was going strumpet or a monk, issues the manto be hanged he substituted an ass date that is to murder virtuous citizens, in his place. The fact is, that not- to desolate happy and peaceful hamwithstanding his canonical absolution, lets, to wring agonizing tears from Pietro had admitted in his writings widows and orphans. Heroism has the influence of the stars upon human a splendour that almost atones for its actions, and denied absolutely the excesses; but what shall we think of existence of demons. I The philo- him, who, from the luxurious and sophy of Epicurus had made some dastardly security in which lie walprogress among the higher orders in lows at Versailles, issues with calm the age of Dante; Guido Cavalcauti, and cruel apathy his orders to butcher his intimate friend, was pointed out the Protestants of Languedoc, or to by the people for his Meditations lay in ashes the villages of the Palaagainst the Existence of God.

tinate ? Ou the recollection of such
Art. Dante, in Edin. Rev. No. scenes, as a scholar I blush for the

LX. Vol. XXX. pp. 327 – prostitution of letters; as a man I

blush for the patience of humanity. Vindiciæ Gallicæ. (By Sir James

Mackintosh.) 1792. 4th Ed. • Gio. Villani, B. x. Ch. xxxix.

pp. 19–21. + Michael Savonarola, ad an. 1292, 1299.-Petri Abani conciliator, differentia, 10.

* “ And Cambray, worthy of a happier I This curious observation was first

doom, made by Pico of Mirandola. See De “ The virtuous slave of Louis and a Kerum Prænotatione, Sect. v.



I a

On John xii. 31, 32.

things as these had often happened HAVE already observed, (see before, and probably would happen

that these words contain an illustrious in natural or political causes and efprediction of a great crisis shortly to fects, by his extraordinary sagacity take place iu the state of the moral and penetration, and by peculiarly world: that the whole system of accurate observations, might possibly Pagan idolatry, that empire of the have discovered a certaju series, or prince of this world, should be extir- chain of causes, already begun, and pated ; and mankind in general should leading on to important future events embrace the gospel religion, and be in the natural or political world, lieve in Christ as the Saviour and which the rest of mankind might not Lord of all men : and that all this then have discovered ; but would af. should be effected in consequence of terwards observe, as they should be. our Lord's approaching death, by gin to ripen towards the issue: and being lifted up on the cross, and his consequently, he might be able to exaltation to glory. Let us atten- foretell such events, without any astively consider the words in this view. sistances superior to human ability,

Erers prediction of future events, only he was so fortunate as to be the which really happen accordingly, ex: first that discovered that train of hibits a more striking and convincing causes and effects which brought on

a proof of Divine foreknowledge and the events, and which others after. agency, by how much less apparent wards could trace as well as he. probability there was, at the time of But he foretells a general change, delivering the prediction, of such and a great improvement to be shortly events taking place. If at the time made in the state of the moral world; there appeared little or no probability that the universal prevalence of ido. at all; but many and great improba. latry and dæmon-worship should be bilities, difficulties and obstructions extirpated, and that a religion of pure to the production of the thing fore- worship of the one true God, a relitold, were obvious and apparent; and gion of truth, righteousness and vir. set the event succeeds, and suits ex- tue, should be generally established actly to the prediction, one finds ones- and embraced. Now, what probaself compelled to ackuowledge the bility of such events could at that time interposal of Him who foreseeth all be discovered by any human sagacity things, and in whose hand are all or observation? Had there ever any times and events. Now let us exa- events happened in the world of a mide the subject before us according like nature before ? No, never.

Was to these priuciples, and endcavour to there ever any nation, which had once refer our thoughts back to the very sunk into idolatry, that ever forsook times, and the state of things, wbich their false gods, and became worexisted when this prediction was de. shipers of the true God, or embraced livered, and make ourselves, as it a true religion ? No, never. All his. were, a part of the multitude in whose tory, till the time when Jesus delivered hearing it was spoken. And 1. Let this prediction, affords not one such us consider the nature of the things example-excepting only the Jews, foretold: from which, I apprehend, and their case was peculiar, and the we shall see many and great difficul. reasons of it more than human. Facts, ties arising against the event. Jesus till that time, universally had been bere foretells, not a change of empire, thus; that every nation, which had the overthrow of that which was then once degenerated into idolatry, sunk established, and the rise of one not deeper and deeper, but never reco. yet in being; nor does he foretell any vered out of it. And every nation was extraordinary phenomena, or impor. at last overwhelmed in it, not one extant events in the natural world: such cepted throughout the known world. VOL. XIV,


The policy of princes, the arts of that before the coming of Christ there priests, and the inclinations of the had been some few attempts made in people, all combined to support and some few places to reform the morals propagate it; a combination, wbich of mankind, partly by law givers and nothing hitherto had been found able patriot princes, partly by philosophers to break or to grapple with. Aud and moral writers; but with what now Jesus foretells, ihat shortly ido- success : Truly very little, and very latry should be extirpated, not in short-lived; they had at first yood one nation, or a few only, but in effect on some few. Restraints were general through the world. What Jaid on the enormities of the people probability or likelihood of such an for a while. This engaged attention event; an event unexampled--a thing and admiration for a few years, and, which scarce any one had ever at- perhaps, the applause of posterity; tempted or thonght of? Besides, what but soon the stream of corruption sort of religion is it which Jesus fore returned into its old channel with tells should be established and em- increased strength and rapidity : and braced in the room of idolatry? A yet the reformations then attempted, religion that enjoins the worship of were nothing like so complete and one God only, and he an invisible universal as that which the gospel Spirit; with a worship founded in proposed and enjoined ou all mankind. spirit and truth, consisting in the sen- But as to religion, scarce ever any timents of the mind and dispositions attempt had been made to reform it, of the heart, but destitute of every or to suppress idolatry any where thing that may captivate the senses through all the Gentile world. А or allure a sensual mind. And was very few choice spirits arose indeed there any human likelihood, that, as now and then; one or two, in several things then stood, maukind in general ages, who saw into the absurdity of would abandon their idols, the visible it, and somehow gained some rational objects of their worship, and all their sentiments concerning the one true ceremonies, sacrifices and splendid God, and the religion due to him, rites; drive away their awful priests and who veutured to disclose their and pleasing musicians, veglect their sentiments to the world. But how religious crafts and festivals, their were they received? With execragames and processions, and a thou- tion and abhorrence, as impious and sand other enchanting things, for such atheistical wretches, enemies of the a plain, spiritual and unattractive in- gods, for presuming to assert (as Destitution as this ? Doth the universal metrius expresseth it in the Acts) that experience of mankind through all those were no gods, which are made ages promise any probability of it? with hands; and fortunate were those Directly the reverse. I might add to of them, who escaped the cruel deaths this, that the idolatrous religions of which others suffered. the Gentiles laid no restraints upon, If we enter still more deeply into nay, indulged and encouraged all man- the subject, we shall see reason to ner of lust, debauchery and intem- conclude, from the nature of the perance; whereas the gospel religion things themselves, that it would be a absolutely forbade these things, and much more practicable attempt to consequently, not only opposed the establish or overthrow the greatest bodily seuses of men, but the affec- empire that ever was on this globe, tions and prevailing dispositions of than to extirpate idolatry and false their bearts; which things, when religion, and introduce true and raduly considered, will shew that the tional religion into a single nation by improbabilities were extremely great any means merely human. In the and complicated, either that idolatry, former case, human power and human which was so very convenient and policy have a full scope. A sufficient complaisant to the lusts and passions army of hardy veterans, expert in the of a corrupt world, should ever be arts and discipline of war, will go a suppressed; or that the gospel reli- great way: wise and experienced gion, which combated thein so rudely, politicians, who know how' to imshould ever be propagated with any prove incidents, and to apply properly cousiderable effect. It is observable, to the passions and inclinations of

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