Page images
PDF
EPUB

Biblical Criticism.-On the Contents of the Book of Revelation. No. II. 115 On the Contents of the Book of 5, whilst another messenger takes Revelation.

fire from the altar and casts it to the No. II.

earth; denoting that the divine judg.

ments about to take place are from last essay (pp. 42—45] ended divine appointment. (Exod. x. 2.) 6.

MY

chapter, including in it a sketch of trumpet of war. (Jer. iv. 19.) This the political and ecclesiastical state of preparation may be considered as the Christianity, to A. D. 313. We have interval between the reign of Constanseen the Pagan empire overturned at tine and that of Theodosius the Great. Rome, and the Christian name seizing 7. The first trumpet sounded, is on the throne of the Pontifex Maxi- followed by bail, attended with lightmus, and ruling the Eastern and ning and blood, which destroys the Western empire, taking possession of third part of the earth, of the trees, the revenues of their temples, and as- and of the green herb. References to suming the servile titles of the officers the Psalms and Prophets shew that of idol deities, and with them their these are divine judgments: the earth dress, and their paraphernalia. is the Roman einpire, peculiarly the

The seventh chapter is a continu- land of Christians; the trees are the ation of the sixth seal. 1-3. The middling and superior classes ; and the judgments of God about to be poured green herb is the lower class, or comout on the Roman emperor, are re- mon people. strained, till the servants of God are The Huns and Goths were ready sealed, i.e. till the appointed extent to enter the Roman empire, but were of the peace and prosperity of the restrained by the powerful arm of the church had been established; 6-8, great Theodosius: his death released describes their numbers; 9—17, de. them from this terror, as also from clares the happiness of the countless the hopes of his liberality. His sons moltitudes, who, by their fortitude succeeded him, Honorius in the Wesunder sufferings and death had ob- tern, and Arcadius in the Eastern em. tained the triumphs of Christianity. pire. Theodosius died January 395.

Chap. viii. 1. We are now come to Before the end of the winter, the Goths the opening of the seventh seal, and were in arms. Alaric, at the head of must bere observe, that we shall often the barbarous nations of Scythia, enfind the word heaven used, and that it tered Greece and compelled Honorius invariably signifies temporal power. to honour him with the title of Master. The conclusion of the Smyrna state General of the Eastern Illyricum, was the victory over Maxentius, and whilst the barbarians elevated him on the decree of Constantine and Licinus, their shields, and, proud of his vicowhich ended the persecution of the tories, proclaimed him king of the Christians. This state of war is fol. Visigoths. After having desolated the lowed by half an hour's silence, or Eastern empire, A. D. 400 to 403, the forty-eighth part of three hundred Alaric returned to the bank of the and sixiy days, a space of about seven Danube, and there, recruited by fresh and a half days; denoting the small. barbarians, he went through Panness of the period of peace before the nonia and over the Julian Alps into trumpet of war would be again Italy, “ where," says the poet, “ fame, sounded; and so it was, even in the encircled with terror, on gloomy midst of their rejoicing for their vic. wings, proclaimed the march of the tory, Coustautine was called to repel barbariaus, and filled Italy with teran inroad of the Franks, and Lici. ror." The remainder of the sounding nus to fight with Maximin for his of this first trumpet is but the history throne.

of increasing troubles, when it closed It has been noticed that the Roman A. D. 450, being through the whole empire had now become Christian. Western empire one scene of conIn conformity to this language, the tinued invasion, revolution and slaughscene is here laid in the temple, or ter, in which it was scarcely possible : church of God, before the morning ser- for less than one third of the inha. vice. 2, 9. During this silence God's bitants of every rank to have permessengers are preparing, and have ished. given to them seven trumpets ; 4, Chap. viii. 8, 9, the second trumpet prayer ascends from the saints of God; sounds. A burning mountain, Attila

and bis Huns, is thrown upon the sea, gistrates who receive splendour from upon the congregated nations of the it. A total eclipse of these is a subWestern Roman empire, avd the third version of the government; a partial part of the fish, i. e. the men in the eclipse represents a change, and not empire, were destroyed by his inva. an overturning of the national polity, sions, and with them the third part in 476. This took place when Augus. of the shipping. The dreadful con- tulus, the son of Orestes, was chosen sequences of these invasious may be emperor, under the guardianship of judged of by their effects. Aquilea his father. The barbarian soldiers was totally destroyed ; Atinum, Con. demanded one third of the lauds of cordia and Padua were reduced to a Italy, as a recompence; but being heap of stones. The families that fed refused, they murdered Orestes, refrom his fury made some compen- moved Romulus Augustulus from the sation for the ruin of the maritime throne, and made Odoacer, their genestrength of Italy, by taking refuge in ra), king of Italy. A. D. 490, Odoacer the Adriatic islands, for they laid suuk under the superior genius of there the foundation of the future the king of the Ostrogoths, who reglory of the Venetian Republic. This stored Italy to order and peace. second blow at the Western Roman About this time Clovis, or as it empire ended in A. D. 452: 10, should be pronounced, Louis, began 11. This dreadful trumpet was im- to rise into power. He was the head mediately followed by the sounding of the Salian tribe in the isle of of the third trumpet, and the calling Batavia, and the dioceses of Tournay fresh bosts of barbarians to the de- and Arras, comprehending at most struction of the civilized, but ever. five thousand warriors. He first devated Romans. The Vandals and feated Syagrius, the king of the diocese Alani under Genseric, between A. D. of Soissons, enlarging his own small 439 and 445, bad seized upon the domivious with the cities of Belgia fertile territory of Africa, from Tan- and the diocese of Tongres. Having, giers to Tripoli. Haviug increased his A. D. 496, conquered the Alemani in subjects with the inhabitants of Africa, the bloody battle of Tobiae, he pene. and enlarged his fleets, he made con- trated tbeir forests and united their quest of Sicily; and A. D. 455, on country to his dominions. After the the invitation of Eudoxia, the walow battle of Tobiac, Clovis and three of the emperor Valentinian, he made thousand of his soldiers were baptized a descent on Rome, plundered it for at Rheims, and being the only Cathofourteen days, and carried the empress licking the existing, was much and her two daughters captives with aided by their clergy in all bis afterhim to Africa. This star, or rather conquests ; so that ihe French mometeor, by his frequent incursions ou narchy may in a great degree be various parts of the empire, dried up ascribed to the firm alliance and steady the nations whose influx had kept up union of one hundred prelates, who the population of Rome; wbilst his reigned in the discontented and indepredatory invasions of all the coasts pendent cities of Gaul. of Spain, Italy and Africa, cut off A. D. 497, Clovis, by an honour. the resources of the Romav people, so able capitulation, increased his power that, when Genseric had taken away by an equal union with the Armorican her patrimony, aud robbed ber of her republic; this was followed by the wealth, those temporal charms were conquest of the kingdom of Burgundy, faded which brought into her city the and in 308, of Aquitaine. A. D. 510, conflux of nations. The rapidity of the emperor Anastasius couferred upon his attacks was swift as the descent Clovis the honour of the cousulship, of a meteor, and was death to the avd this about A. D. 531 was fully greatness, riches and freedom of confirmed to the son of Clovis, by the Rome.

emperor Justinian ; and whilst it comChap. vii. 12, 13, is the souvding pleted the prophecy of the fourth of the fourth trumpet. This produces trumpet, by a change of persons only, the darkening of one third of the sun, whilst the government itself nomioally of the moon, and the stars. These remained as it was being only parfigures describe the ruling or imperial tially eclipsed, it laid the foundation for authority of the Western Roman em- the Germanic Roman empire, whose pire, and also of the princes and ma- empire, under the character of the first Biblical Criticism.-On the Contents of the Book of Revelation. No. II. 115 On the Contents of the Book of 5, whilst another messenger takes Revelation.

fire from the altar and casts it to the No. II.

earth; denoting that the divine judg

ments about to take place are from Y last essay (pp. 42–45) ended divine appointment. (Exod. x. 2.) 6.

chapter, including in it a sketch of trumpet of war. (Jer. iv. 19.) This the political and ecclesiastical state of preparation may be considered as the Christianity, to A. D. 313. We have interval between the reigo of Constanseen the Pagan empire overturned at tine and that of Theodosius the Great, Rome, and the Christian name seizing 7. The first trumpet sounded, is on the throne of the Pontifex Maxi. followed by hail, attended with lightmus, and ruling the Eastern and ning and blood, which destroys the Western empire, taking possession of third part of the earth, of the trees, the revenues of their temples, and as. and of the green herb. References to suming the servile titles of the officers the Psalms and Prophets shew that of idoi deities, and with them their these are divine judgments : the earth dress, and their paraphernalia. is the Roman einpire, peculiarly the

The seventh chapter is a continu- land of Christians; the trees are the ation of the sixth seal. 1-3. The middling and superior classes ; and the judgments of God about to be poured green herb is the lower class, or comout on the Roman emperor, are re- mon people. strained, till the servants of God are The Huns and Goths were ready sealed, i.e. till the appointed extent to enter the Roman empire, but were of the peace and prosperity of the restrained by the powerful arm of the church had been established; 6—8, great Theodosius: his death released describes their numbers; 9-17, de. them from this terror, as also from clares the happiness of the countless the hopes of his liberality. His sons multitudes, who, by their fortitude succeeded him, Honorius in the Wesunder sufferings and death had ob- tern, and Arcadius in the Eastern em. tained the triumphs of Christianity. pire. Theodosius died January 395.

Chap. vii. 1. We are now come to Before the end of the winter, the Goths the opening of the seventh seal, and were in arms. Alaric, at the head of must bere observe, that we shall often the barbarous nations of Scythia, enfind the word heaven used, and that it tered Greece and compelled Honorius invariably signifies temporal power. to honour bim with the title of MasterThe conclusion of the Smyrna state General of the Eastern Illyricum, was the victory over Maxentius, and whilst the barbarians elevated him on the decree of Constantine and Licinus, their shields, and, proud of his vico which ended the persecution of the tories, proclaimed him king of the Christians. This state of war is fol. Visigoths. After having desolated the lowed by half an hour's silence, or Eastern empire, A. D. 400 to 403, the forty-eighth part of three hundred Alaric returned to the bank of the and sixty days, a space of about seven Danube, and there, recruited by fresh and a half days; denoting the small. barbarians, he went through Panness of the period of peace before the nonia and over the Julian Alps into trumpet of war would be again Italy, “where," says the poet, " fame, sounded; and so it was, even in the encircled with terror, on gloomy midst of their rejoicing for their vic. wings, proclaimed the march of the tory, Coustautine was called to repel barbarians, and filled Italy with teran inroad of the Franks, and Lici. ror." The remainder of the sounding ous to fight with Maximiu for his of this first trumpet is but the history throne.

of increasing troubles, when it closed It has been noticed that the Roman A. D. 450, being through the whole empire had now become Christian. Western empire one scene of conlo conformity to this language, the tinued invasion, revolution and slaughscene is here laid in the temple, or ter, in which it was scarcely possible church of God, before the morning ser- for less than one third of the inha. vice. 2,9. During this silence God's bitants of every rank to have permessengers are preparing, and have ished. given to them seven trumpets ; 4, Chap. viii. 8, 9, the second trumpet prayer ascends from the saints of God; sounds. A burniog mountain, Attila

the great streets of the Roman city of JOGO.

the Christian Roman empire for of the earth will become the kingdoms twelve hundred and sixty years are

of our God, and Jesus his anointed. intended, under the divine govern. And the standard-bearers of divine ment, to establish the doctrives of truth throughout the world proclaim Christianity, by subduing the nations during this period, concerning these to a political obedience to the Son of judgments, that they are intended to God. Ver. 7. Towards the close of the set free the oppressed, by destroying twelve hundred and sixty days of their the oppressor from the earth. testimony in mourning, they shall be made silent as death; ver. 8, and lay Brief Notes on the Bible. unburied, open and neglected in one of

No. UI.

OHN i. 1. “ The Word was empire; vers. 9, 10, and the silencing of the principles they teach concerning Had the apostle meant to propound all men being equal, as the children of the Deity of Christ, would be not God, shall be (ver. 10) rejoiced over; have written, ver. 11, but to the astonishment of their The Word is God? enemies, those principles shall, as in And have dwelt upon what he had a moment, spring into life; ver. 12, so predicated of his Master in the and be called up to the throne of course of his gospel ? power: and that the church of God But, has he one subsequent allusion may know the twelve hundred and to such a doctrine, thundered, say sixty days are accomplished, there shall some of the Fathers, upon the Chris. be in that very hour, (ver. 13) a great tian world? political earthquake, in which shall That Jesus was God, in a very perish a totality of the names, titles common and accepted Jewish sense of and distinctions of men in one tenth the term, during his ministry, possespart of the Roman empire. Aud this sing “ without measure," and exerperiod coucludes the second woe truin- cising as he did, divine and miraculous pet. Adding to the year 531 the com- powers, nobody can question. mencement of the Germanic beast, That God is one and indivisible, that created by Clovis or Louis, it brings there is no other God, we have from us to 1791, or the Revolution in France, that great Being himself reiterations as the period for the cessation of sufficient, one would think, to put teaching in sackcloth the truths of modern orthodoxy out of couutenance; God.

yet, in perfect consonance with this The religious part of this history is sublime and consoling truth, the wellto be found, Rev. si. 18-29. In known instance of Jehovah's declarathe message addressed to the church tion to Moses, “ Behold, I have made of Thyatira, it speaks of, 1, their last. thee a God to Pharaoh," (not to cite ing services to the cause of Christi- other passages in harmony with this anity; 2, their permitting anti-chris. subordinate sense of the word,) comes tianity publicly to teach idolatry; 3, directly in support of my construction the severe punishments the church of the text. and state shall suffer for this; and, And, that John was mindful of the lastly, that considering the peculiar double import of the word, is manicircumstances of this period, those fest from his double application of it; who live in it, and who oppose for, he could not, in saying that "the the idolatrous worship of Rome are Word was with God, and the Word not expected to be faultless in their was God," mean to be understood, doctrines. No other burden is laid synonymously, that “God was with upon them in these dreadful times, but God”! There is nothing, we know, to be steadfast in what religious truth too absurd for habitual, unsearching they obtain, and for them to bear a believers to acquiesce in ; but, assudetermined opposition to all idol-wor redly, our evangelist, with all the ship.

sublimity imputed to him by Gibbon, Chap. xi. 15—18, is the sounding was incapable of so profound a comof the seventh trumpet, and a pre- munication, in terms either precise or diction that the consequences of all convertible. these wars will be, that the kingdoms

BREVIS.

( 117 )

POETRY.

shame;

rare.

OLD AGE,

Let them, I do beseech, still keep their Å Poem in the Scottish Dialect, by the

places, tate Mrs. Hamilton.

Tho'gin ye wish't, ye're fiee to paint

their faces. (From her Memoirs, by Miss Benger, (sed ivy limbs I yield ye ; and if ye see meet,

Mon. Repos. XIII, 521,) Vol. I. pp. To clap your icy shackles on my feet, 201–204.]

I’se no refuse; but if ye drive out gout,

Will bless you fort, and offer thanks de. Is that Auld Age that's tirling at the pin?

vout. I trow it is,-tben haste to let him in : Sae muckle wad I gi' wi' right good-will, Ye're kindly welcome, friend; na, dinnn But och! I fear, that nair ye look for fear

still. To sbaw yoursel', ye'll cause nae trouble I ken by that fell glow'r and meaning here.

shrug, I ken there are wha tremble at your Ye'd slap your skinny fingers on each name,

lug; As tho' ye brought wi' ye reproach or And unca fain ye are, ! :row, and keen,

To cast your misty powders in iny een; And wha,

a thousand lies wad bear tbe But, О', in mercy, spare my poor wee sin,"

twinkers, Rather than own ye for their kith or kin: And I for ay 's'all wear your chrystal Bat far frae sbirking ye as a disgrace,

blinkers! Thanklu' I am t' have lived to see thy Then 'bout my lugs I'd fuin a bargain face;

inak, Nor s’all I ere disown ye, nor tak pride, And gi' my hand, that I shall ne'er draw To think how long I might your visit

back.
bide,

Weel, then-wad ye consent their use to
Doing my best to mak ye weel respecked, share,
I'll no fear for your sake to be neglecked; 'Twad serve us baith, and be a bargain
Bat now ye're come, and through a' kind
of weather

Thus I wad ha't, when babbling fools in-
We're doomed frae this time forth to joy

trude, thegither,

Gabbling their noisy nonsense, lang and I'd fain mak compact wi' ye, firm and strang,

Or when ill-nature, weel brush'd up by
On terms of fair giff gaff to haud out wit,
lang ;

Wi' sneer sarcastic takes its aim to hit;
Gin thou'll be civil, i s'all lib'ral be, Or when detraction, meanest slave of
Witness the lang lang list o' what I'll pride,
gie;

Spies ont wee fau’ts, and seeks great worth
First, then, I here mak owre for gude and to hide;
ay,

Then mak me deaf, as deaf as deaf can A' youthfa' fancies, whether bright or

be; gay,

At a' sic times my lugs I lend to thee. Beauties and graces, too, I wad resign But when in social hour ye see combina them,

Genins and Wisdom--fruits o' hearts and But sair I fear 'twad cost ye fash to find mind,

Good sense, good humour, wit in playfu' For 'gainst your dady, Time, they could mocd, pa stand,

And Candour e’en' frae ill extracting Ner bear the grip o' his unsoasy hand;

good; But there's my skin, whilk ye may further Oh, then, auld friend, I maun ha' back my érunkle,

hearing, And write your oame at length in ilka To want it then wad be an ill past bearing. wrmikle.

Better to lonely sit i' the douf spence On my brown locks ye've leave to lay Than catch the sough o' words without your paw,

the sense. And bleach them to your fancy white as But look na, Age, sae wisfu’ at my . For some years she had been occamouth,

sionally subject to a slight degree of denfAs gin ye laug'd to pu' ont ilka tooth !

VOL. XIV.

loud;

then;

1

snaw.

ness.

R

« PreviousContinue »