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Evelyn's Description of Incidents in the Reign of Charles II. 28 On the next page is an account of tomb were probably mistaken in the another merry spectacle for the amuse- body of the Protector: but what times, ment of Charles and his courtiers, what manners! amongst whom was the grave Evelyn: Loyalty was now become a passion,

“ Sep. 13. I saw in Southwark, at and good men, while they secretly St. Margaret's Faire, monkies and deplored Charles's vices, were in some apes dance, and do other feates of measure and on principle participes activity on ye high rope; they were criminis. The return of “ the good gallantly clad à lu mode, went up- old times" brought back the court right, saluted the company, bowing celebration of the Epiphany, or and pulling off their hatts; they sa- Twelfth-day: the restoration of the luted one another with as good a day is thus described by the abovegrace as if instructed by a dancing. nanied accurate Journalist ;master; they turn'd beels over head 6 1662, 6 Jan. This evening, acwith a basket having eggs in it, with cording to costome, his Majesty open'd out breaking any; also with lighted the revells of that night by throwing candles in their hands and on their the dice himselfe in the privy chamheads, without extinguishing them, ber, where was a table set on purpose, and with vessells of water without and lost bis 1001. (The yeare before spilling a drop. I also saw an Italian he won 15001.) The ladies also plaied wench daunce and perform all the very deepe. I came away when the tricks on the high rope to admiration; Duke of Ormond had won about all the Court went to see her. Like- 1000l., and left them still at passage, wise here was a man who tooke up a curds, &c. At other tables, boih there piece of iron cannon, of about 400 lb. and at ve Groom-porter's, observing weight, with the haire of his head the wicked folly and monstrous exonely." Vol. I. p. 325.

cesse of passion amongst some loosers; In the page following is described sorry I am that such a wretched cosanother sight not less gratifying to the tome as play to that excesse should Court.

be countenanc'd in a Court, which “ Oct. 17. Scot, Scroope, Cook ought to be an example of virtue to and Jones, suffered for reward of their the rest of the kingdome." Vol. I. iniquities at Charing Crosse, in sight p. 344. of the place where they put to death A few days after “ there was a their natural Prince, and in the pre- general fast," and the preacher, before sence of the King, his sonn, whom the House of Commons, shewed "how they also sought to kill. I saw not the neglect of exacting justice on oftheir execution, but met their quar- fenders was a naine cause of God's ters, mangled and cutt and reeking, as punishing a land," meaning, as Evethey were brought from the gallows in lyn explains, that there were some of buskets on the hurdle. Oh the mira- the regicides not yet hewed in pieces. culous providence of God!" Vol. I. How much the King was edified by

“ this solemn fast" is not recorded, T'he presence of Charles II. at these but the entry of the next day, Jan. horrid barbarities, perpetrated upon 16, is, “This night was acted before some of the wisest and best of men, his Matie • The Widow,' a lewd play." [it is no longer treason to say so,] is a Evelyn relates nothing more of new feature in his character, already the operation of the black Bartholosufficiently marked with the worst mew act, than that (1662, Aug. 20,) vices and crimes of human nature. “ There were strong guards in the The amiable and virtuous Evelyn, too, citty this day, apprehending some beheld the spectacle with pious ex- tumults, many of the Presbyterian ultation : in the same temper he re- Ministers not conforming." cords in his Diary, Jan. 30, 1661, the The book, though a private Diary, brutal, savage proceeding of tearing is a commentary on the history of the up the dead bodies of Cromwell, most Religious King, as he was deBradshaw and Ireton, and exposing scribed by the Church in her prayers them on the gallows at Tyburn, from to heaven. nine in the morning till six at night! The violators of the sanctuary of the

p. 326.



The Nonconformist.

foster lofty thoughts, and to embellish

and refine the social state. The unNo. VI.

prejudiced student of English history On the Cause of Nonconformity as con- will not, however, bc deceived by nected with the Interests of general such partial and superficial estimates Literature.

either of the mental or moral qualities THE spirit of resistance to eccle- of that illustrious band, who have

siastical domination, which extorted from an adversary the memostituted the æra of the Reformation, rable confession, that to their efforts was unquestionably coeval with such Englaud stood indebted for the pregigantic strides in the march of intel- servation of the precious spark of civil lect, as to make compensation, in a liberty, as well as of religious indegreat degree, for the sloth and retro pendence, “ wbich two things," as gression of preceding ages; nor will Milton observes, “ God hath insepait be denied by any, except the dis- rably knit together, and hath disciples of that Church, whose supre. closed to us, that they who seek to macy was invaded in the glorious corrupt our religion, are the same that contest, that Protestantism was, at would enthral our civil liberty." that period, identified in its interests From those who have successfully and prospects, with all those literary resisted the uuhallowed usurpations pursuits which tend to expand and of priests and statesmen, upon the dignify the human understanding. If, highest and most important province then, that cause of Nonconformity of of human inquiry, every philosophic which we profess ourselves the advo. and candid mind must concede that cates, is neither more nor less than the interests of science and literature, Protestantism carried on and pursued in every department, have derived to its genuine consequences, we shall eminent and lasting advancement. have little hesitation in concluding, But in what proportion the chamwithout having recourse to historical pions of Nonconformity have, in the induction, that English Nonconfor- different stages of their history, indimity has been, upon the whole, ser- vidually recruited the ranks of learnviceable to the cause of English lite. ing, presents, it must be admitted, an rature. To this conclusion, however, inquiry of a different complexion, the we must not expect a hasty assent result of which might, from adventifrom that large portion of our fellow• tious circumstances, be unfavourable, christians, who, with the celebrated without in the slightest degree imCommentator upon the laws of En- peaching the general conclusion. A gland, ingeniously and candidly resolve marked deficiency in literary acquirethe causes of Nonconformity into ments has been ever and anon insi“ weakness of intellect,” “misdirected nuated against the body of Nonconpiety," perverseness and acerbity of formists, in modern as well as in more temper," and "a prospect of secular early times: and it is to an investigation advantage iu herding with a party"- of the truth of this charge, that the qualities, from which no flowers of present writer wishes to invite some genius, no fruits of learning, could of the members of this society, whose consistently be expected to spring. talents and information might do that To this elegant but undiscriminating justice to the subject, which he feels encomiast of English legislators, and beyond the scope of his own leisure to thousands who, like him, draw and course of study, and the limits of their information and their spirit from a single Essay. That Noncouformists, no purer sources than the acrid fount in later times, have been outrivalled of test laws and proscriptive statutes, by their brethren within the pale, the principles and conduct of Non- and under the opulent patronage of conformists present nothing but an the Establishment, in some of the arrogation of superior sanctity, an ab- ornamental branches of literaturestinence from the most innocent and that they have been comparatively tasteful recreations, and an ignorant unskilled in the art of cementing the contempt of those sublime products of disjecta membra of a Greek tragedy, the imagination, and those venerable or penetrating the mysteries of ancient works of art which tend to mould and mythologies, or even of steeping the


Cause of Nonconformity, as connected with Literature. brain in the cheerless gulph of main “ the morming beam of Reformathematics, may, perhaps, be conceded tion," * upwards of a century before without disgrace; or, let the disgrace its brighter effulgence in the days of rest upon that truly monastic policy * Luther, and from the professor's chair which closes the avenues to the lite- at Oxford, emboldened the theological rary bonours and rewards of our splen. student to burst asunder the fetters of did Cuiversities, against those who scholastic jargon, and draw. bis tenets cannot submit to be " hamstringed from the pure fountain of scripture. and manarled by early oaths and sub- His transcendent learuing was acscriptions" to unexamined dogmas, knowledged by his most invelerate and who prefer the free and unshac- enemies: it was, indeed, insufficient kled use of fire taleuts to the acqui. to protect him against the nanæuvres sition of ten, which must be sup- of the regular clergy and ibe bulls of pressed or stored awa, lest they the pope; but his degradatiou from should “plagne the inventor.” At University honours invigorated his least in the fearless application of daring attacks upon that mystic Babytheir literary acquirements to the lon, to wbich be seems to have been best and noblest purposes, Noncon- the first to apply the merited epithet formists may boldly claim the pre- of Antichrist." His translation of the eminence over their more richly.en- Bible into English was the greatest doned neighbours, whose literary and most important of his works, wreaths are “ sadly mixed, half flow- though, until the establishment of the ers, half chains "t

Although the more detailed view of this subject is recommended and wilai lingly devolved to abler pens, it may gradual triumph of the reforming spirit:

* Milton thus beautifully describes the be permitted to the present writer « For be (God) being equally near to his to take a transient notice of a few of whole creation of mankind, and of free those literary worthies who have been power to turn his beneficent and fatherly enrolled in the records of English regard to what region or kingdom he Nooconformity. To the honour of pleases, bath yet ever had this island under his country, our Wickliffe I ushered the special, indulgent eye of his provi.

dence; and pitying is the first of all

other nations, after be had decreed to pu. Sir Richard Baker, that garrulous rify and renew his church that lay walchronicler, uttered more truth than be was lowing in idolatrous pollutions, sent first aware of, when, speaking of Cardinal to us a healing messenger to touch softly Wolsey's erection of colleges at Oxford our sores, and carry a gentle band over aad Ipswich out of the revenues of the our wounds; he knocked once, and twice, smaller monasteries, “ a pervicions presi. and came again, opening our drowsy eye. dent," says our Author, " though, iodeed, lids leisurely by ibat glimmering light, there be great difference between con- which Wickliffe and his followers dis. verting of monasteries into colleges, and persed ; and still taking off, by degrees, ulter subverting them."--Baker's Chron. the iuveterate scales from our nigh perished

sight, purged also our deaf ears, and pre† The bope may be indulged that, ere pared them to attend his second warning long, enlightened and liberal Dissenters irumpet in our grandsires' days. How else will unite their efforts in establishing an could they have been able to have received institution upon a more enlarged scale, the sudden assaults of his reforming spirit, and under more fortunate auspices than warring against human principles, and hitherto, from which our students for the carnal sense, the pride of flesli, that still ministry, and the sons of our opulent fami- cried up antiquity, custom, canons, counlies, may derive every advantage which cils and laws; and cried down the truth literature en bestow, withuut paying the for novelty, schism, profaneness and sacridegradiog price of University subscrip- lege? Whereas, we that have lived so tions. To nurse this bope, and aid in long in abundant light, besides the sunny bringing it into action, would be a noble reflection of all the neighbouring churches, employment of the faculties of a society have yet our hearts riveted with those old instituted to forward the interests of Non- opinions, and so obstructed and bevumbed conformity.

with the same fleshly reasonings which in II do not overlook the services of the our forefathers soon melted and gave away, Albigenses and Waldenses, who were still against the morning beam of Reformation." earlier engaged in bringing light out of Millon's Prose Works, by Symmons, durkness.

I. 182 VOL. XIY.

p. 273.


art of printing, its circulation and in- grees, concurred with the celebrated Auenee were necessarily very liniited. Professors Peter Martyr and Martin

Amongst Wickliffe's followers it is Bucer, and other learned divines, in gratifying to distinguish the father of manifesting their zeal for a further English poetry, ' Geoffrey Chaucer, Reformation. The clerical vestments who was deeply imbued with the were a very general object of disgust, spirit of his great contemporary: and and Bucer and Martyr, with many the readers of the “Canterbury Tales” others, declined the use of the surmay trace no small portion of the plice. The famous Dr. Thoinas bumorous, but poignant satire which Sampson, subsequently one of the pervades that celebrated production, to leading Puritans, was permitted to his concurrence in Wickliffe's attacks except against the habits at his ordiupon the vices and corruption of the nation, by Cranmer and Ridley, who, ciergy.

however, upon Dr. Hooper's nomiThe seeds of Reformation thus early nation to the bishopric of Gloucester, scattered were not lost, and the ad. disgraced themselves by jusisting upon herents to the new opinions, though his assuming, at his consecration, labouring under complicated disad- " the old symbolizing popish gar. vantages, and vexed with grievous ments," which his learning and good persecution, continued to pave the sense united in pointing out as the way for that illustrious æra, which “inventions of Antichrist," and incon. released a considerable portion of the sistent with the simplicity of the Christian world from the despotism Christian religion. Upon the whole, of the papal chair, and established it is impossible to deny that, during principles which, in their full deve. this reign, the weight of learning lopment, ensure to every man that and talents decidedly lay on the side intellectual liberty which is the dig- of those who were either open Nonvity of his nature; and which, sus- conformists to the ceremonies of the tained and protected by its mighty Church, or were sincerely desirous of weapon, the press, can never be again a further reduction of the number of surrendered without the grossest and those relics of Popery. most inconceivable degeneracy.

During the bigoted and sanguinary, Unfortunately for the cause of Re. but providentially short reign, of formation in this country, the imme. Mary, many of the most learned and diate motives of the ruling power eminent divines sought refuge on the were vindictive and mercenary, aiming Continent from the resentment of the rather at the trausfer than the anni common adversary of Protestants, and hilation of papal usurpations. The in their exile imbibed more rooted prejudices of a large portion of the objections to that partial Reformation, clergy and people, were at the same which had hitherto obtained in their time decidedly favourable to the an- native country: and when Elizabeth cient formularies of the Church. The had become the supreme head ter“ Rules of Scripture" were indeed restrial of the revived Church of Enheld out, “ by his Majesty's will and gland, it is said, in particular, that pleasure," as the true standard of Re- “they dealt with the Queen to let formation ; but towards the close of the matter of the habits fall.” These Henry's capricious reign, there was attempts at a more liberal compre. little peace to those who ventured to hension, were speedily answered by resort “ to the law and to the testi. the Act of Uniformity, which immony."

posed the Prayer-Book, with its de. The short reign of his son, Edward, cent array of rites and ceremonies, was more auspicious to the cause of and protecting penalties, upon her Reform, though its enlightened friends faithful subjects and reserved to her had to struggle with many difficulties, Majesty the power of ordaiping and and particularly the deplorable igno- publishing “such further ceremonies rance of the greater proportion of the or rites, as might be most for the parochial clergy. The establishment advancement of God's glory, the edi. of the Liturgy did not take place fying of his church, and the due revewithout opposition, and both the King rence of Christ's holy mysteries and and his Bishops Cranmer, Latimer, sacraments." The steady rigour with Ridley and Hooper, in different de which the Queen wielded the powers


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Cause of Nonconformity, as connected with Literature. vested in her by this act, materially preaching of the gospel, but also to checked the freedom of discussion, good learning. The Archbishop and but at the same time caused Nopcon- his coadjutors, nevertheless, proceeded formity to assume a more settled and rigidly to exact Conformity, and the decided character. It is with refe- consequence of these proceedings was, rence to this period that Mr. Geo. the deprivation of the most able of Cranmer, in bis Letter to Hooker, the clergy, and the shutting up of prefixed to the Ecclesiastical Polity, their churches, or the substitution of says, “ It may be remembered, that other ministers, whosc ignorance and at first the greatest part of the learned incapacity were only equalled by the in the land were either eagerly af- laxity of their manners.

The vene. fected or favourably inclined that way. rable Miles Coverdale, (the joint The books then written for the most translator and publisher, with Tindal, part savoured of the disciplinary style: of the first entire English Bible,) Dr. it sounded every where in pulpits, and Sampson, Dean of Christ Church, in common phrase of men's speech: Oxford, and Dr. Humphrey, President the contrary part began to fear they of Magdalen College, and Dr. Turner, had taken a wrong course." So far Dean of Wells, were among the early were the Puritans (as the Noncon- sufferers under these anti-protestaut formists were reproachfully termed) measures. It would, indeed, he almost from taking their rise amongst the endless to repeat even the names of ignorant and enthusiastic, as many are those divines of creditable talents and ready to believe, it is abundantly evi. learning, who, in a greater or less dent that the first statesmen * of that degree, entered their protest against day countenanced the efforts of the them: but the name of Cartwright is most learned and estimable divines, so closely connected with the early towards effecting a further Reforma- history and literary reputation of the tion. The University of Cambridge Puritans, of whom he has been someappears to have become a nursery of times styled the Father, as to recomPuritanism ; the fellows and scholars mend some passages of his Biography of St. John's College, to the number to more particular notice. of nearly three hundred, threw away Thomas Cartwright was born about their supplices with one consent, and the year 1535, and educated in St. many in other colleges followed their John's College, Cambridge, and soon example. The heads of colleges + after Queen Elizabeth's accession was remonstrated with the Chancellor, made a Fellow of that house, and subwho was urged ou by the jealousy of sequently one of the eight senior Archbishop Parker, upon the injurious Fellows of Trinity College. In the effects which an imposition of Con- year 1564, when Queen Elizabeth formity must produce, not only to the visited the University, Mr. Cartwright

was selected as one of the learned dis

putants for her Majesty's entertain. . Amongst the more celebrated fa- ment, and, according to some yourers of the Puritans, such as the Earls of Leicester and Huntingdon, the great abilities as to give the greatest satis

counts, discovered such extraordinary Lord Burleigh, Sir Francis Walsingham and Sir Francis Knollys, we ought not

faction to the Queen and other audi. to omit honourable mention of Attorney tors: but Dr. Nichols remarks, that James Morrice, an able and learned bar. Dr. Preston, Cartwright's opponent, rister, and a man of great piety, who was “ by the sweetness of his voice, and both in and out of Parliament a most the modesty of his behaviour, did zealous defender of the rights and liberties extraordinarily please the Queen ; of his fellow.subjects.-Strype's Whitgift, while the other, by his natural baugh. pp. 387,

388. + Amongst the subscribers to this Letter was Dr. John Whitgift, afterwards * I have extracted these particulars of Archbishop of Canterbury, and a zealous his life principally from Peirce's Vindipersecutor of his former friends. Thus, cation of Dissenters, and Brook's Lives of in inost cases, the more celebrated Con- the Puritans, in 3 vols., a publication vot formists had to answer for an abandopment much known, but which hus collected toof their earlier principles, under circnm. gether much interesting matter relative to Slances too strongly indicating the motives the history of Nonconformity prior to the of their conversion.



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