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was, he says, to be a teacher of mo- He falls into the class of Christians, rality;' not of that morality which is quaintly described by Sir Thomas acknowledged by the world, and sanc- Browue, as “ disdaining to suck ditioned by cousiderations of present vinity from the flowers of nature." interest, but of the pure, spiritual and He pronounces the natural arguments exalted morality of the gospel. The for a future exisiepce to he ingenious most interesting topic to his own and plausible, but not solid and conmind was the hope of immortality, vincing, [Vol. I. p. 4,] still allowing and this be justly characterizes as some weight to the “ presumptions of “ the essence and glory of Christi- human immortality," (Vol. ll. pp. 5 anity." This sermon should be pe- and 259,] which set do not supersede rused first by such as wish to appre- the necessity of the Christian revela. ciate Mr. Cogan's merits as a preacher; tion, but, on the contrary, render it the valedictory conclusion is an in- credible. [Vol. I. p. 296.] He cougenuous and interesting exposition of siders testimony of sufficient force to his views and feeliugs, with regard to establish any fact, not implying au the profession which his talents and impossibility; and suggests reasons character so eminently adorned, and why the fact of the resurrection of which all his readers must regret that Christ may be the best medium of any considerations should have in proof, with regard to a future life, to duced bim to relinquisb.
a being such as man, who is evidently The Sermons rarely touch upon the in a state of intellectual and moral controversies carrying on amongst discipline. Christians; though there are some The Sermons on the Evidences of exceptions to the remark, which make Christianity are amongst the best in us almost wish that the preacher had the Volumes. They may be confimore frequently allowed himself to dently recommended to philosophical enter a province where he displays so inquirers, who will here find the ques. much ability. His theology is, at the tion stripped of all that is adventitious, same time, by more than implication, and the argument fairly brought to a Unitarian.
conclusion. The reader, apprized of Mr. Co. The difference between the believer gan's high reputation for learning, and the unbeliever is well stated in may expect the Sermons to abound the following passage: with criticisms upon the Sacred writings; but in this he will be disap- rose again, will of necessity admit the
“ He who believes that Jesus died and pointed. There are only a few pas. existence of a God, and will regard that sages in which there is any thing of God as a Being of infinite wisdom, power verbal criticism. The truth is, that and goodness : he will consider himself the preacher appears always to have as placed in a state of discipline, which, been attracted to topics of great and after a few years, will usher him into solemn practical importance, and to another and eternal world; and will look have been carried at once by a strong forward to glory, honour and immortality, feeling of religion into the heart of his
as the reward of a patient continnance in subject. As a proof of this, we may will find the duties of devotion, benevolence
well-doing. In his system of morality be remark that his exordiums are com
and self-government; and these he will monly striking and impressive. The general doctrive of the Ser- that future state, for wbich he will regard
consider as essential to his happiness in mons is the superlative importance the present only as a preparation. The of Christianity, as the revelation of a various trials and afflictions of human life future state of existence. In this will, to him, be necessary parts of that view, the preacher goes repeatedly wise and benevolent plan, by which the into the evidences of the Christian Universal Parent is producing the greatest religion, and particularly of the grand ultimate good of his intelligent otispring. fact, on which the whole system de- He, ou the other hand, who does not admit pends, the resurrection of Christ. All the resurrection of Jesus, will, generally piety and morality he resolves into the the Divine attributes, and will acknowledge
speaking, entertain no cheering views of temper and conduct becoming a being in the administration of the universe, no of immortal expectations.
worthy and benevolent design. He will Mr. Cogan is, in the true sense of either look forward to death as the termithe term, an Evangelical preacher. nation of his being, or will extend his
259 views beyond it with a feeble and uncer- this Sermon is also strikingly rhetori. lain expectation ; and his motives to vir- cal. We take notice of this the rather, tue will be resolvable chiefly into mere
because the peroration is not the part worldly prudence and calculation. Whe- of these Sermons that usually pleases ther of the two characters will have the most. Several of them terminate abadvantage for the attainment of moral excellence, and for the rational enjoyment of ruptly : and it would almost appear lise, it must be needless to explain. It is from their equal length, that the indeed melancholy to reflect, that Chris- writer set hiniself certain limits of tians in profession, are too often unbe- paper or of time, which he would on lievers in practice. By dismissing the no account exceed.
We return principles of their faith from their reflec- with great satisfaction to the passage tion, they become the slaves of worldly referred to, containing a summary of affections, and are scarcely distinguishable the argument in favour of Christianity, in conduct from those who professedly from its effects: disregard the obligations of religion. But they have means of moral improvement, of “ A reformation in the religious notions, which the unbeliever deprives himself. In and the moral practice of mankind, was a word, the unbeliever, generally speaking, manifestly wanted before the Christian must be what the professing Christian too æra, and this reformation has been actually often is.” 1. 10, 11.
effected by the religion of Jesus. A sysThe preacher thus argues the rea
tem of idolatry which was destructive of souableness of the Christian religion :
every thing that is great and good has
been overthrown, and moral and religious « All nature seems to prove that there knowledge has been diffused, where all is a God, and also evioces not only the before was darkness, ignorance and superpower and wisdom, but the general bene- stition. And all this has been brought volence of the Divine Being. The provi. about by men who, if Christianity be not sion that is made for the accommodation divine, were employed in imposing on the and comfort of percipient beings, indicates world the most shaineless falsehoods that a disposition in the Author of nature to
ever insulted the credulity of mankind. promote the happiness of his creatures. They called upon men to leave the idela. At the same time the sufferings which enter
trous worship which education and habit into human life, will hardly allow us to
had endeared to them, and to accept as admit the unlimited benevolence of the their spiritual instructor, the crucified Deity, unless the existence of man is to Jesus, whom they rashly maintained to be extended beyond the grave. It seems bave risen from the dead; and the final strange if man is to be annihilated at death, result of this wild and hopeless counsel that he should be called to endure so much has been the demolition of heathen idoas many do endure, for so snall a prepon. Jatry, and the introduction of a religion, derance of enjoyment. And it does not whose morality is most pure, whose docappear that any hypothesis, but that of a trines are most sublime, and whose prosfuture existence, will reconcile the present pects are most animating and glorions. circumstances of our condition with the “ Let us, my Christian friends, rejoice perfections of the Divine character. But in the assurance which we bave reason to as we can imagine no cause of imperfec. feel, that our holy religion proceeded in. tion in the Deity; as we cannot even con
deed from above, and that while we have ceive of any thing that should limit his admitted the hopes of the gospel, we have benevolence, allowing bepevolence to be
not followed cunningly-devised fables. A an attribute of his nature, the doctrine of a religion which proposes to itself such an future state may be considered as not in object as the Christian, which made its itself incredible, but as a doctrine which way by such humble 'instruments, and upun certain evidence may readily be ad- which was followed by such consequences, mitted.” 1. 304, 305.
bears clearly impressed upon it the cha
racter of divinity. Had it been of men, Towards the conclusion of Sermon XX. in Vol. II., “ The Progress of Christianity, an Argument of its
* Archdeacon Sharp has left some Truth,” which is throughout a fine Discourses on Preaching, which were de
livere specimen of reasoning, there is a sum.
as Visitation Charges. They conming up of the subject, which forms the tion: at least, she Archdeacon's precepts
tain some good rules for pulpit composi. best of all peroratious. The Sermon
are better than bis example, for he breaks immediately preceding may be like off in one of them, and concludes with, wise quoted as an example of the same “But I have come to the end of my paexcellence; the beautiful conclusiou of per," &c.
it is reasonable to believe that it must they shew themselves in various and trying have come to nought; that it never could situations, and the uniformity of design is have supported itself amidst the opposition preserved through a great diversity of cirwith which it bad to contend, and espe- cumstance. His character is sustained cially that it never could have produced from first to last without a single failure, the important and beneficial effects which and we every where recognise the man of have actually resulted from it. For, be consummate virtue, in the person of the it remembered, that it is not a religion great moral instructor of the world. And invented by philosophers to correct the there appears no labour or effort on the opinions and manners of the world, but part of the writers to support this most that it originated with a few illiterate extraordinary character; no artfularrangeJews; and that, if not divine, it is built ment of circumstances contrived for the upon the most impudent falsehoods, and more convenient display of his virtues; no could be 'supported by nothing but kuavery seeming consciousness that they were preand imposture. Strange, indeed, that this senting to their readers the most illustrious combination of fraud and folly, should combination of excellences, in the most bave overthrown the religion of the Ro- striking and engaging attitudes. And man Empire ; and stranger still, that it when we moreover consider, that the senshould have been the means of communi- timents attributed to Jesus are many of cating to mankind the purest system of them too exalted for the Jewish coricepmorality, and the most exalted views of tions of the gospel historians, we shall see the Divine perfections and government.” abundant reason to believe that they copied II. 436–438.
from the life, and that they described the
character of their Master as they found it, The sermon “On the Example of without addition or embellishment. I shall Christ" is introduced with some inter- dismiss these observations, with once more esting reflections upon his character, remarking on the singular simplicity which considered as an evidence of his Divine runs through their narrative; so that, from mission :
the beginning of their story to the end,
there is not a single observation made on " It has been frequently remarked, that the excellences of the character which they the character of Jesus is absolutely spotless are describing, nor is one virtue in form and perfect; and it has also been observed, attributed to him who manifestly possessed that this perfection of his character, is them all. A circumstance which perhaps some argument in favour of the justice of distinguishes the history of Jesus from bis pretensions, and the truth of his reli
every other history in the world. gion. To exhibit this presumptive testi- “ But it being granted that Jesus was, mony in its proper light, it is to be consi- in truth, the character which the gospel dered, that the New-Testament historians historians have exhibited, does there not were, with the exception of Luke only, arise bence a strong presumption of the unlettered men, to whom it would probably justice of his pretensions, and the truth of never have suggested itself to attempt the his religion? Can we fix on such a chadrawing a perfect character; and in whose racter, on one whose virtue was without hands the attempt, suppose it to have been stain, the suspicion either of fraud or enmade, would have been by no means likely tbusiasm ? Or, can to succeed. To support a character with knave or a madman could have sustained,
we suppose that a uniformity through a variety of incidents, with such uniform consistency and dig. has ever been considered as one of the nity, the character of a teacher sent from highest efforts of human genius; and never God?"-1, 222-225. was a character conceived which it would have been so difficult to support without a
There are no sermons in the series living pattern, as that of our Lord. Not upon the natural attributes of the only was the perfection of virtue to be Supreme Being, but remarks upon exhibited, but this virtne was to be dis- the subject occur here and there, played in the person of one who was ex- which manifest great readiness and pressly commissioned and instructed by ability in metaphysical reasoning. We God, to reform an idolatrous and sinful confess, however, that we hesitate at world. The dignity of a Divine teacher the observation (Vol. I. p. 312) that was to be superadded to the man of pure and perfect moral excellence. And how
“the power of God is a necessary conis the task, in fact, executed? The cha. sequence of his infinite wisdom and racter of Jesus is not dressed up by the knowledge,” if by power be meant historian in the style of encomiun and infinite power, as by the following panegyric; it is not directly affirmed of remark appears to be intended : " He him that he possessed a single excellence; who is acquainted with every thing his virtues are all displayed in action; that is the object of knowledge, must
Review.-Hon. H. G. Bennet's Letter to Viscount Sidmouth. of necessity, as it seems to us, be able Art. JI.-A Letter to Viscount Sidto accomplish every thing that is the mouth, Secretary of State for the object of power." Is this self-evident? Home Department, on the TransporWe are conscious that knowledge tation Laws, the State of the Hulks, gives power to a certain extent; but and of the Colonies in New South are not we conscious also that know- Wales. By the Hon. Henry Grey ledge beyond this limit only displays Bennet, M. P. 8vo. pp. 137. Ridgthe want of power! Can we not
way, 1819. conceive at least of a Being whose NHUMANITY requires only to be knowledge should indefinitely exceed his power? It may perhaps be proved and put down. Arguments on abthat a Being who is infinite in any stract rights influence not the majority. one attribute, must be infinite in all, Plain facts excited that humane spirit that is, he must be perfect ; but in which abolished the Slave Trade, and the order in which the Divine attri
the same means are now happily embutes are apprehended by the human ployed to enforce the melioration of mind, it appears to us easier to begin our system of punishments, in spite with the attribute of power than with of the opposition and the artifices of that of wisdom. We make these Secretaries of State, remarks with deference to the able Mr. Bennet here exhibits statements writer wbo has occasioned them, and
which must make Englishmen rebuke less for the sake of objecting than of themselves for having been so long giving an opportunity of our being asleep, while such atrocities were per. corrected, if we have erred.
petrating in their name, under the On the moral attributes of God,
pretence of justice. the preacher frequently expatiates,
“ After having pined and rotted in their and there is a peculiar glow of elo- respective county gaols for a given portion quence in those passages of his ser- of time, which varies from three months to mons which relate to the Divine cha
as many years, the prisoners are removed racter, in its connexion with the on board the different hulks designed for present and future state of man, and their reception. There are rarious modes its influence upon his affections and of transport; some are chained on the tops deportment. We may refer, gene
of coaches; others, as from London, travel rally, to the discourses on Providence, in an open caravan, exposed to the incleunder several titles, and particularly mency of the weatber
, to the gaze of the to that “ On the Benevolence of the cruel; thus exciting as they pass along,
idle, and the taunts and mockeries of the Deity," from which we shall make a
the shame and indignation of all those short but most interesting extract: who feel what punishment onght to bem « There is, indeed, no truth in the whole what ought to be its process as well as
its fruits. compass of intellectual inquiry, that can
Men and boys, children just be compared in point of importance with emerging from infavcy, as young in vicc the goodness of the Deity. It is this that
as in years, are feitered together, and (such makes existence a blessing, it is this that
are the triomphs of our criminal code) al once gives the relish to present goud,
paraded through the kingdom; they are and enlivens the expectation of future besides generally fettered in the cruelest being. It is this that soothes the mind
Mr. Brown, the keeper of New. amidst the trials and perplexities of life, gate, stated last year in bis evidence before that robs calamity of its sting, and death the Prison Committee of the House of of its terrors. It is this that makes our Commons, that the convicts from Newgate meditation of God to be sweet, and that travel unchained; but from the country, draws frail, fallible pan by the bands of particularly last time from York, they were love, into a union with a Being, eternal, in the Compter of the city of London, a
terribly ironed. Some years back, I saw omnipotent and perfect."-1. 26.
considerable number of convicts who were (To be concluded in the next Number.]
on the road to the hulks. Among them were several children, all beavily fettered,
ragged and sickly, and carrying in their * "God is wise, because he knows all countenance proofs of the miseries they Ibings, and he knoweth all things because bad uudergone. The women, too, are he made them all." Religio Medici, brought up in the same manner, ironed (12mo. 1736,) p. 32.
together on the tops of coaches.
* Mr. Brown mentioned a case of a
young woman between seventeen and eigh- are so situated, who, baving been the mis. teen years of age, who was removed from tresses of the captain or officers of the ship, the house of correction at Cambridge, * lo during the voyage, have obtained recombe lodged in Newgate for the night, prior mendations on their arrival, are now the to being sent to the Penitentiary at Mill- mothers of families, and are living in a bank. Her offence was stealing something creditable manner. But these are the great from a shop. She was leg-locked, the prizes in the lottery; by far the greater chains being brought up between her legs, part of the women go on the tows, live og under her petticoats, and fastened round ile town, and subsist in to other way. her waist; in this state she remained all Mr. Marsden writes,' that the consequence night, there being in Newgate no key of this system is, there is scarcely one lewhich could unlock the chain. Another male convict that will quietly go into the case of greater atrocity occurred too last service of the most respectable families in year. A woman was sent up from Car- the colony, that they in the most open and lisle on the top of one of the coaches, positive manner refuse to obey the order of during the inclement weather of the month magistrates to that effect, preferring to live of March, chained even more severely thau upon bread and water in a solitary cell, the last victim. She had been brought to till they weary out, by length of time, the bed of a child while in prison, which she patience of the magistrate, and he knows was then suckling: ibe child was torn from not what measures to adopt to support his her breast, and deposited, probably to pe- judicial authority, and to carry his necesrish, in the parish poor-house. In this sary orders into execution.' state of bodily pain and mental distraction * The women who are not hired as ser. she was brought tv Newgate, where, by vánts, are put into a boat, and sent across care, she soon recovered, and was then
to a species of workhonse at sent out to Botany Bay, on board the vessel Paramatta, where they are epiployed in a which sailed last spring. I saw her on sort of factory, on the account of governboard, and she could not speak of her ment. Here were in 1815, 150 women child without an agony of tears.”—Pp. and 70 children. There is not any room 23-25.
in the factory that can be called a bed-room. The custom hitherto has been, Mr.
For these wretched beings there are only Bennet says, as soon as the ship
two rooms, and they are over the yard, and cleared the river, for every officer and both occupied as werk-shops, being about sailor on board to select some one of cighty feet long by twenty vride. In these
rooms forty-six women were daily enthe women for his mistress.
ployed; twenty spinning wool npon the “ I have already described the ordinary common wheel, and twenty-six carding: treatment of the women-convicts in prison, there are also in them, the warping mathe manner they are moved to the transport- chines belonging to the factory. These ships, and the customary proceeding during rooms are crowded all day and night; suck the passage out. On their arrival at New women sleep in them as are confined for South Wales, notice is given to the colony, recent offences, amongst the wheels, wool and the womeu, newly dressed and cleaned, and cards, and a few others who have not are turned upon deck to be chosen like the means of procuring a better abode. slaves in the bazaar, or cattle at Smithfield: The bours of government labour end at thongh the most reputable and best con. three o'clock of the day, and from that ducted of these women may be taken as time till the following morning, the female domestic servants, and bringing with them convicts are at liberty to go where they a fair character and recommendation from think fit. No less than 150 women sleep the captain of the vessel, may be hired as out. During the night they spread thensuch; yet the greater part of those who selves through all the town and neighbourare well-looking are taken as prostitutes hood of Paramatta, and some of them are by the officers of the colony, or by those glad to 'cohabit with any wretched man, who have interest with the government to
who can give them shelter for a night. have the priority of selection. True it is, Hence the inale convicts nightly tobor many of these women marry, and turn out plunder either government or private ir. well. I could furnish a list of persons who dividuals, to supply the urgent wants of
the females who are devoted to their plan * “ This wretched girl was removed
On this account, there is not a from the town gaol of Cambridge, which is a disgrace to the corporation of that * « The carelessuess with which this city, and though in the heart of the Uni- removal is executed, and the abominable versity, divine service is never performed, scenes that take place, are disgracefol to and there is no religious attendance at any government that professes to call itself all."