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on the moral use of language, the Happy he who, with unremitting persepreacher denounces, with eloquent verance, employs the instrumental duties indignation, the custom of duelling of religion, keeping bis views at the saide and the slave trade. In the former, time steadily fixed on the great object flattery miglit perhaps have been in which they are iutended to promote-pucluded in the “Vices of the Tongue."
rity of affection, and integrity of conduct.
Such an one will go on from strength to The exordium of Ser. III. in Vol. strength, and though he may not in the II., “ On the Exercise of Ambitious present state of infirmity and trial appear and Malignant Passions," is an in- perfect before God, he will be making stance of our remark on this part of gradual advances towards perfection. He Mr. Cogan's Sermons. We quote a will perpetually rise more and more above few senteuces:
the attraction of present objects; his affec“ But what, in fact, are the objects and heavenly; he will experience a joy
tions will gradually become more spiritual which call forth the busy labours of mankind, which kindle their passions into a
and peace in believing, which will com
municate what has been, and not altogether fury, which excite the fiercest contentious improperly, called—a foretaste of future among the children of mortality, and which blessedness." II, 151, 152. so often lead man to violate the rights, and interrupt the happiness of man?-Objects Pertinent and forcible observations which bear inscribed upon them the cha- occur in several of the sermons on the racter of Vanity! Some idle distinction, subject of bigotry and intolerance. which, if attained, will only feed desires For example, " Men grow furious which can never be satisfied. Some session, which, if secured, will leave its only for error and absurdity.” II. 44. owner as far from true enjoyment as before.
“ A concern for virtue What excites the ardour, and directs the has never yet shewn itself in deeds of pursuits of the ambitious -A phantom to violence; it has never made any inwhich they have given the name of honour. roads on the peace of society; it has What calls forth the unwearied efforts of never trampled on the rights of conthe sons of avarice? Is it any solid and science, or wielded the sword of perdurable good, any thing that they can pro- secution. It may have wept in silence perly call their own, any thing that will at the corruption and depravity of profit them beyond the narrow limit of the mankind, but it has never burst forth present life? Is it not what owes its value into acts of hostility, even against to the arbitrary pleasure of man, and what the corrupt and depraved.” 11. 109, is only important where opinion has made it so? What is it, it might be asked, that 110. has led the hero to spread devastation Mr. Cogan rarely introduces into around him like a pestilence ?-What be these volumes criticisms on the sacred has chosen to dignify with the name of text, as has been before stated, but glory. And what is glory, in this appli. there are two or three expository cation of the term ?-A possession, if a pos- passages which excite our regret that session it can be called, which is fleeting he should have so much sunk the as a dream, and unsubstantial as a shadow: scholar in the preacher. We have in a mere creature of the imagination; and view, particularly, the introductions which is so far from being the companion to Sermons IV. and VI. of Vol. II.; of merit, that it is obtained by the most outrageous violations of the natural rights in the former of which occur some of man-by violence, rapine and murder.”
excellent remarks upon the apostolic II. 48, 49.
sense of “a new creature," and in The following passage from Ser. the latter, on Paul's doctrine of elecVII. in Vol. II., “ On the lustru- tion as contradistinguished from the mental Duties of Religion," contains a
Calvinistic doctrine. Quoting Phil. ii. successful and pleasing application of 6, in Ser. XI. Vol. II. p. 295, Mr. an obviously just, but not common
Cogan reads the verse, but without place moral truth :
justifying the amended version, Who “ Virtue in human beings never reaches
being in a divine form did not eagerly its ultimate point, but is to the last a prin affect to be like God. ciple both liable to decline, and capable
Mr. Cogan entirely drops the old of improvement. Happy the man who, plan of formal division in his Sermons, from a wish to arrive at the highest excel which on that account resemble essays. lence of character, is diligent and serious The disuse of an announced division in the use of all those means with which of the sermon is become fashionable, Divine Providence has furnished bim. favoured no doubt by the growing
impatience of our congregations under constant tribute of praise and submislong sermons. Yet the old custom sion," II. 348. The word “characters" had its advantages: it facilitated the is sometimes used for persons bearing full discussion of every subject, it was particular characters; “ It would prosome security against repetitions, and fit all these characters," &c., II. 58 ; it was a great help to the memory of Deity,” (Godhead,) is frequently put the hearer. It was often carried to a for God,“ the character of Deity," II. fanciful excess, but in the sermons of 204; “what" occurs frequently in the our more elegant British preachers, sense of which as well as of that which. Atterbury, Sherlock, Snape, Hurd, “ But what particularly deserves our Coney and Farquhar, so far from attention, &c., or what is the same being a blemish it is often a striking thing," &c., II. 189, 190. The awk. beauty.
ward term “ matter," for affair, basi. Another modern custom is adopted ness, subject, &c., is of perpetual reby Mr. Cogan: his texts are often currence; thus “ the Pharisees upon mere mottoes. This is better than hearing the matter," II. 197 ; " This preaching upon words; but Mr. Cogan is a matter," II. 201; " it will not be a has himself shewn that well-selected matter of indifference,” II. 202. “Here texts furnish the best opening and below" is a common phrase, and the strongest recommendation of a the epithet “admirably,” strikes the subject.
reader by its repetition. The Scriptures are rather sparingly Our duty, as critics, enforces upon quoted in the Sermons, and some of us the uppleasant task of pointing out the quotations that are made are ver. these supposed improprieties, in a bally incorrect, at least, according to work which will be consulted as an the English version, which, we pre- authority by the student; but they sume, was meant to be employed. detract little from its value. Its exUnity of subject is exemplarily ob- cellencies are great and uniform; its
i served in most of these Sermons. It defects small and occasional. And appears to us, however, to be some- our shewing that we are sensible of what violated in the very interesting the latter, will give weight, we trust, Sermon, XI. of Vol. 11., “ On the to our sincere and cordial praise of the Example of Christ," where the moral former. doctrines of Christianity are mingled To sum up our opinion in a few with theexample of its Founder, which words : Mr. Cogan's style is easy, is a distruct subject, and of itself am- perspicuous and marked by a dignified ple enough for the longest discourse. simplicity. He adopts few figures ;
The texts and the subjects do not his metaphors are never long sus. always correspond, and some disap- tained; but they are invariably corpointment is in consequence felt by rect, often clegant. He writes for the reader. The solemn language of superior minds, though without any John xix. 30, It is finished, for in- ostentation, we were going to say stance, would seem to lead to a dif- without a consciousness, of pre-emiferent, and may we say a higher sub- nent intellect. His arguments have a ject, than “ The Termination of a philosophic character; and he is in Christian Course;" and the conclu- all cases a fair reasoner: when he sion of the parable of the Good Sa- means to answer an objection, he maritan, Luke x. 39, Go and do thou states it in the clearest and strongest likewise, hardly appears to be made manner, apparently despising the arthe most of, when it is applied gene- tifice, so common in the pulpit, of rally to the “ Obligation to imitate accommodating a hostile argument to Good Examples."
the answer which is prepared for it. Some inaccuracies and inelegancies Above all, he shews in every sermon of style occur here and there : e. g. that he esteems the character of Chris" the condition of their future pros
tian “ the highest style of man," and pects," I. 153; “ love to God and man that he prizes Christianity on account constitutes the essentials of duty," 1. of its glorious discovery of a life to 387 ; " certain fits and starts of reli: come, which infinitely exalts the chagious affection," II. 159; “ miss of racter of the Creator in the apprehappiness," II. 243, and again, II. 248; hension of his creatures, and raises
our hearts will ascend to him in a intelligent and moral beings to a state
of virtue and happiness, which they Art. VI.--An Attempt to support the could not otherwise attain. These Diversity of Future Rewards. 8vo. qualities may not procure for him a pp. 62. Button and Son. 1817. name with the multitude ; but they will ensure bin a place amongst those
THE Author of this trart appears diviues that have raised the standard
to be a Calvinist; be is certainly of intellect, and vindicated the sanc
a serious Christian. His “ Attempt" tity of morals and the majesty of is modest and abls-argued and well. truth.
written. The hypothesis wbich he
undertakes to support is embarrassed Art. III.-An Essay on Election and by the Calvinistic doctrine of salvation
Reprobation: including Obserrations by the merits of Christ, but he very ou the Sorereignty and Decrees of freely replies to the objection, in a God. By Richard Wright, Unita- strain of argument which some of his rian Missionary. 1200. pp. 72, brethren will not approve: 1s. 60. 1818.
“ The merit of Christ is not the merit Art. IV.--An Essay on the Duty of of his people; neither can it be. It is not
Free Inquiry in Matters of Reli- transferred ; nor is it in the nature of gion. By the Same, 12mo. pp. 12. things capable of being transferred. They 3d. 1819.
are rewarded through, rather than for, ART. V.–The Deity of Jesus Christ his merit; or, in other words, they are
subversive of his Sonship and Media- rewarded for the sake (of), which is pretion ; and inconsistent with the com. cisely the same as through, the worthiness mon Faith of Christians.
of the Saviour, which worthiness or merit Same. 12mo. pp. 12. 3d. 1819. sively his own." Pp. 18, 19.
remains, and must for ever remain exclu. Eaton. N the first of these Tracts, Mr. The Diversity of Future Rewards is
vinists to their peculiar doctrine of proceedings, the great diversity of Election and Reprobation, (the one Christian experience, the vast variety includes the other,) which they are of natural capacity, the different de generally disposed to overlook. He grees of moral excellence in the beabrings it to the light of reason and venly state, the superior tendency of Scripture, and shews that it is as in- this procedure to advance the hapconsistent with both as it is shocking piness of the whole society of the to every good feeling of the human redeemed and the testimony of Scrip. heart. Calvin had before pronounced ture. the condempation of his own doctrine The scantiness of the last and best when he characterized it as the De- class of proofs ought not to bring the cretum horribile. We heartily wish doctrine, which the Afthor has shewn that intelligent Calvinists could be to be highly reasonable, into suspi. brought to consider Mr. Wright's ar- cion; but it may suffice to humble guments.
us by shewing how little the Divine The second Tract is designed to Wisdom deems us at present capable shew, that as Free Inquiry is a right, of learning, with regard to our future so also is it a duty. Many, we sus- existence. pect, disregard the latter, even while Two texts, 1 Cor. xv. 41 and 2 they admit the former.
Cor. ix. 6, sometimes alleged in proof The third Tract is on a less com- of the Author's proposition, he canmon subject. Its object is to shew, didly abandons as not conclusive. The that if Jesus Christ be truly and pro- passages which he relies upon are perly God, he cannot be the Son of Matt. xx. 21–23, compared with God, or the Mediator between God Mark x. 37-40; Luke xix. 13-26; and men.
It is ingenious, and we xxji. 28-30; 1 Cor. iii. 8; 1 Cor. xv. think conclusive.
23; 2 Cor. iv. 17; 1 Thess. xi. (ii.) The cheapness of these Tracts fits 19, 20; and i Cor. ii. 15, compared them for circulation ; and we shall with 2 Pet. i. 11. To some of these rejoice to hear that a wide diffusion references exceptions might be made, of them fulfils the design of the pious but others appear to us to be conclu. and benevolent Author.
sive; and, indeed, the point which they are adduced to establish is, in
our judgment, a direct consequence gious without bigotry, he well knows from the leading doctrines of Scrip- that men can adore God, each after ture, namely, man's moral responsi- his own manner, without ceasing on bility and future, righteous retribu- that account to be good and faithful tion.
citizeus." “ Such is bis patriotism We cordially recommend this little that his whole time and thoughts are treatise to all that desire satisfaction devoted to the welfare of his people on the interesting subject of which it and kingdom.” lo short, the Haytian treats. There are few of the Author's Nobleman does not fear to compare arguments, or even expressions, which King Henry with any legitimate mowill be objectionable to any serious warch of ancient or modern times ; inquirers after truth. In going over and, indeed, if his catalogue of his his pages, we have been prompted to prince's excellences be correct, he wish again and again that eulightened may justly ask, men of every communion would more
" Can Bourbon or Nassan go higher?" frequently devote their minds to the study and illustration of those truths The object of “the Baron de Vas. which are compion to all Christians. tey" is to shew, that the Negroes are
not inferior by nature to the rest of Art. VI.-Reflections on the Blacks mankind, and in this point of view to and Whites. Remarks upon
refute the arguments of an ex-colonist Letter addressed by M. Mazeres, a of St. Domingo, M. Mazeres. He French Ex-colonist, to J. C. L. Sis. shews great ability and dexterity, and monde De Sismondi, containing Ob- no mean portion of literature, in this servations on the Blacks and Whites, part of his work; but we are most the Civilization of Africa, the King, pleased with his expression of indigdom of Hayti, fc. Translated from nation at having such a task to perthe French of the Baron de Vastey, form : Knight of the Royal and Military
“ I am a man, I feel it in the whole of order of St. Henry, Secretary to the my being; I possess the faculties, mental King, Member of the
Privy Council, and corporeal, which mark my affinity to a &c. By W. H. M. B. i2mo. pp. divine original, and I feel humbled at 84. Liverpool, printed; sold by finding myself compelled to enter into a Hatchard, London. Is. 6d.
serious refutation of such puerilities, such E have bere a great curiosity, that I ain their fellow.” P. 22.
idle sophisms, to convince men like myself a vindication of Negroes by a Negroe.
The reader will be at once amused " The Author is one of the Black Pro.
and delighted with the Author's ani. prietors in Hayti; of the number of those mated patriotism, his estimate of the whom Christophe, now dignified with the priesthood, his boast of Haytian science title of King Henry, has raised to the rank and greatness, and his predictions of of bis nobility. The Translator is an En. the future glory of both Hayti and glishman, of a liberal profession, resident Africa. But no one can peruse within the island; who appears to have en- out emotions of horror the history of gaged in the task solely with the view of the atrocities perpetrated in St. Dopromoting a cause so dear to the interests mingo by the old French colonists, or of freedom and humanity.”—Advert. having perused it can wonder at or
The black Baron is a loyal subject complain of the terrible retribution of his Majesty Henry 1., King of which followed. The French are ob-' Hayti, whom he eulogizes for many jects of detestation to the Haytians, princely virtues. He says (p. 69) who, says our Author, (p. 81,) wish that the monarch was “ placed upon to renounce their very language ; his throne by the unanimous choice while the English are, on the conand love of his people,” that he has trary, admired and imitated, and their constantly fought for their liberty and alliance eagerly courted. For the sake independence," has vanquished his of both countries, but especially of foes, and reigns with wisriom and the black people, we hope and trust glory."
“ He is a model for soldiers, that the intercourse will be kept up frank, generous, temperate, active, in- and increase in the spirit of real frienddefatigable and intrepid." « Reli- ship
place of religions worship on Sundays." RELIGIOUS.
In a case in the county of Suffolk, in Prolestant Society.
which the same words were inserted in the The Annual Meeting of this Society was Turnpike Aci, Mr. Justice Grose decided, held at the Albiou Tavern, Aldersgates that it was absurd to contend, that under street, on Saturday ihe 15th of May, Sir the words “ going to his parochial charcb, James Mackintoshi, M P., in the Chair chapel, or place of religious worship, We can insert only the eloqueat speeches Dissenters must be restricted to a partiof Mr. Wills and the Chairman.
cular parish, inasmuch, as the parish in Mr. It'ths rose amidst the loudest testi- which they resided, might not contain any monies of respect. lle thanked the meet- place of worship to which they could ing for this and other demonstrations of resori; and that the word parochial must that kindness which they had often mani. sefer only to the parish church
Mr. fested towards him. He assured them, Justice Holroyd on the trial, had conthat the duty which he had to perform bé curred in the judgment of Mr. Justice performed with great reluctance. It Grose, and ordered a verdict to be entered would have afforded him far greater plea for them, although at the same time, be sure if he could congratulate them and reserved liberty to the other side to apply himself, that the Society was to meet no to the Court of King's Bench. That apmore; if they had met to chaunt its dirge, plication had been made, and notwithor to sing its requiem, rather than to sound standing the opinion of two judges, as its praise. (Applause.) He especially well as that of other men of the greatest this felt when be remembered the more eminence in the legal profession, the Court interesting, the more important, the more of King's Bench arrived at a different sublime occupations to which many of conclusion; that, under those particular them had been devoted during the past words in that aci, Dissenters who passed week. Called as they then were, how. along those roads could not claim the ever, from those engagements, he trusted benefit of exemption, in proceeding to the the call would not be in vain, and that the places of worsbip which they frequented, great work which they were then as- if they were not within the parish in which sembled to promote, would finally prevail. they resided. (Exclamations of surprise.) (Cheers.) They must not lay down their He differed from the reasons assigned for armour till the battle was More the decision, yet more than from the deci. cheerful as might be other exertions, still sion. They reminded him of the advice they must trudge on in that weary road given by Dr. Johnson, to a person who until they had arrived at the security, was about to occupy a magisterial situswbere alone ibey might repose. (Ap- tion in one of our Colonies: “Sir," said plause.)
be, “ give your judgment, but abstain With these feelings he would proceed from giving your reasous; for the judg. to suggest some observations on the trans.
be right, and the actions of the Committee during the last wrong.” ( Laughter.) The reason given ear.
by the Lord Chief Justice for his judg. Among those subjects was the demand
" that in construing these acts, of Tolls at the Turnpike Gates from Pro. the Court should see, that the occupiers of testant Dissenters going to their several Tolls were exposed to the smallest possible places of worship. They considered them- loss; and that such exemptionis inigbt ocselves exempt from the payment of these casion much dispute and wrangling on a Tolls, as well as the members of the Esta- day that ought to be specially devoted to blished Church. A case on this point, at charity and peace. (Laughier.) As if the last meeting, was depending in the the establishment of a riglit, would proCourt of King's Bench. Liability de. duce more discord than the withdrawpended upon the peculiar and local Acts ment; as if the agitation of liberty and of Parliament, under which each Turn- life was not to be preferred to the oppres. pike Trust is conducted. There is no sive silence of the prison, or the tomb. general regulation on this subject. In- Since that decision, demands of tolls bad formation is only obtainable by the peru- been made in various parts of the eounts, sal of the exemption clauses, which are arising from a misconception of that invariably inserted in all Turnpike Acts. decision. In the case to which he alluded in the From Frome, from Wigston, crou Nr. county of Wilts, the local act provided, John, a Unitarian Dissenter at Swansea, that no person was liable to the payment from Mr. Davis, the late High Sheriff af of rates
"going to or returning from bis Merionethshire, communications on that proper parochial church, chapel, or other subject had been received. Several excel