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of more than three hundred authors a most interesting collection of the among them, between the eleventh poetry of the Old Trobadores, the and sixteenth centuries; and the eru. fathers of modern song, the early dite De Casiro has a list of above masters of the Gaia Sciencia, (the seven hundred Hebrew books written cheerful art,) as it was then beautiby them, of the greater part of which be fully called. The verses of Santo gives some account. At a time when Carrion, (who wrote in the beginning the Christian world appeared slumbers of the fourteenth century,) are often ing in iudifference and darkness, they both touching and sublime." He awoke to the suushine of intellect and asks, knowledge. They had their poets, Shall the gay sky-lark be despised their orators, their philosophers, their Because his nest is low and lonely? mathematicians, their astronomers. † Shall song's sweet music be unprized In the midst of ignorance and intole. When beard from llebrew minstrels rance, (of which they were often the
only? victims,) ihe meanest and least among So elevated was the rank in society them could read and enjoy the sacred held by the Jews, that it is asserted
, books, † while their Rabbies were and I believe justly asserted, that raising to themselves a monunent of there is hardly a noble family in Spain fame, which will not now be permitted which may not trace its origin in the to decay.
female branches to a Jewish bead; It is impossible in the narrow and the illustrious race of Davila are limits of this paper) to record even descended in a direct paternal line the most illustrious names among the from Hebrew ancestors. † Peninsular Jews. The learning of The history of the Spanish Jews, Arisba, the ingenuity of Aubonet throngh the fourteenth and fifteenth Abrahan), the profound skill of Isaac centuries, is but a record of varied Israel Riccini, ihe various merit of the calarnity. I Their sacred books deA barbanels, the bistorical knowledge stroyed, their dwellings devastated
, of Zaruth, the controversial dexterity their synagogues razed, imprisou. of Cardozo, deserve pariicular atteni- ments, tortures, assassinations and extion. Nor should Duarte Pinel and tensive massacres, make up the me. Usque, the translators of the Bible, $ Jancholy detail. To preach their Zamora and Coronel, who assisted doctrines was blasphemy, to bear Ximenez Cisneros in the publication of his Polyglot, be passed over in silence.|! To a Jew (Baena) we owe
Version) that the Mss. employed by
professor of llebrew at Alcalá de Henarei, * No doubt many volumes have been
assures me that they all exist at the predestroyed by the ravages of vine, and the
sent moment in the Library of that l'nirepeated attacks which the Inquisition
versity. directed against Hebrew MSS,
* See " Coleccion de los l'oetas Cas. + Eichhorn's List (in his Nistory of 15. We may gather from luis writings, car
tellanos anteriores al Siglo XV." ir. 12– Literature, II. vi. Sect. 237–243), of Il. lustrious Jews, though tolerably correct as
from the complaiuts of the Christian au. far as it goes, is very imperfect indeed.
thors of this period,) that king Pedro cuil. | Maimonides says, that every Jew was
ferred many honourable employments 65
the Jews : required to possess at least one copy of the Pentateuch.
Ca non so para menos I am tempted to introduce here a Que otros de mi ley, literal rendering of their translation of the Que ovieron muchos buenos fainous passage of Isaiah ix. 5 :
Donadios del Rey. " For to us a child was born, to us a son
† Llorente, Histoire Critique de l'lowas given, and the authority was on his quisition, xxvi. shoulder; and the Wonderful, the Coun. | One cannot bnt be amused with the sellor, the Mighty God, the Eternal Father, repeated attempts of
popes, called his name Sar Salom.” P. 187. bishops to convert the Jews, by foreing
And this interpretation was universally them into controversy with adopted by the Spanish Rabbies. 11 It is stated by Michaelis, and has been putes generally ended by a transfer of the
eloquent Catholic preachers." These disrepeated over and over aguin, (and among unconvincible and untractable combatants others by the Editors of the Improved to the civil power to be punished for their
“ boly and The Nonconformist. No. XI.
351 them, treason. He who protected a 1485 he caused “a great process" to Jew was punished as a rebel; he who be instituted against heresy, and gave insulted or plundered him was deemed to the Inquisitors previous sanctiou a meritorious patriot.
for whatever they shonld do. In the It would, however, be doing great exertion of such unlimited power they injustice to Alonzo el Sabio, not to little scrupled to pass thc boundaries select his name from among the Spa- which prudence would have marked pish movarchs, as a distinguished out in a country whose forms of civil patron of Hebrew literature. The freedom have excited the admiration Alphonsine Tables were drawn up even of our days. *
The Arragonese under his immediate direction, by felt how much their liberties were Hazan, a Jew of Toledo. To this insulted by the delegation of such an illustrious prince we owe one of the intolerable authority, and many of earliest translations of the Bible into them made common cause with the the vulgar tongue.
Jews in opposing the tyrannical proIt was reserved for the Fifth Ferdi- ceedings of the Inquisitors. Great nand (the splendour of whose reign and continued tumults were the consewas derived from others, while its quence, and an ecclesiastic, (Arbués,) infamy is most truly his own), to close one of the most active agents of per" this strange eventful history.". In secution, was murdered at the foot of
the altar. † This event, no doubt,
hastened those merciless measures, intolerable incredulity. See a curious ac- which from that hour to this have count of the preaching of St. Vincent Fer- severed the Peninsular Jews from the rer, at Tortosa, where the Jews were com- land of their ancestors. In March manded to assemble, in Zusita's Anales de 1499 the decree of Ferdinand was isAragon. Consult also the Bulls of Bene- sued, commanding every Jew to quit dict XIII. (Sol. Ben Virg. Hist. Jud. 226.) Spain before the following July, on A favourite decree of the Spanish mobarchs was issued by Clement V.
, obliging pain of death. The order was signed all Jews to bear sermons thrice a-year, by the first Inquisitor-general, and proving that Messias is come, and that was one of his earliest public acts, I unbelievers deserve every sort of panishment here, and eternal damnation hereafter. Lope de Vega expresses bis astonishment * The declaration (for instance) of the at their pertinacity, when it was only re- Arragonese, before they conferred the regal quired that they should surrender their dignity, speaks in the best and boldest judgment to those wbo knew more about spirit of liberty. * Many interesting cirthe matter than themselves :
cumstances, connected with the old Spa
nish constitutions, inay be found in the Proseguen el cainino, Catolico, sagrado
Teoria de las Cortes, a work written by Y rinden ya su entendimiento, Vencidos de tan facil argumento.
Marina, and published in Madrid, during
the short era of liberty. To holy Mother Church it is most fit
+ This fellow was sainted by Alexander The stubborn understanding to submit;
VII. in 1664. Ferdinand and Isabella And that's an easy way of settling it.
erected to his memory a mago ent tomb,
whose virtues wrought innumerable mira. The same remedy has been recommended
cles. One virtue it claimed was scarcely to the obstinate in our days, under a new name, "prostration of the understanding
miraculous, and the will."
fortissimus lapis, • Why Quevedo has neglected the Jews Qui arcet virtute cunctos à se Judæos." among the different inhabitants of hell,
| Lope de Vegn says of the Inquisition, whom he visited, in his Sueños de los mu- (it would be hard to say whether equivoertos, I cannot divine, especially as he says cally or not,) “ Esta santa y venerable be heard the cries and clamours of Jewesses confined in caves beneath the ground. He has not spared them elsewhere.
• El Justicia de Aragon decia al Rey empre la hypocresia farandulera fué sola- en nombre de las Cortes y de la Nacionriega en los Judios. Buscan la honestidad " Nosotros que valemos cada uno tanto para desvergüenza la religion para impie. como vos y que todos juntos somos mas dades, los generosos para vilenas y auto- poderosos que vos, prometemos obedecer á rizan la maldad con el pretexto venerable.” vuestro gobierno si manteneis nuestros de
rechos, fueros y privilegios, y si non, non.”
, where I BEG leave to introduce myself to
worthy, indeed, of that tribunal which they had been driven, where they boasted that the blood of more than apostatized and mingled with the peo. 900,000 victims, shed in less than ple. t Some were so happy as to three centuries, had attested its glo- reach the more liberal regions of the rious triumphs.
north, and the works written by them There are few events in history aud their descendants, prove that the whose details are so distressing as love of literature could not be extinthose connected with the expatriation guished by the terrors of persecution, of the Spavish Jews.t More than nor the ravages of death. I 500,000 f wretches were pursued by
B. fire and sword and famine and pestileuce, whom it was made felony to SIR, with ,
you as a zealous Unitarian, whose they perished by the hand of assassins, lot in life is cast more among Trini or the less merciful, but no less fatal tarians at the west end of the metroattacks of hunger. Thousands com- polis, than amoug those of my own mitted themselves to frail and faithless faith; but wherever I find an opening, barks, and were swallowed up, with either by conversation or the loan of all they possessed, by the unpitying books, to introduce a glimmering of
Some who reached Naples, the truth, I do not neglect to work brought with them calamities not less with all diligence. And in consefrightful than those they left behind, quence of my having lately lent two and 20,000 died of the plague, which of our many able controversial tracts they introduced into that city. Tens to a man of rank and fashion, with an of thousands purchased a temporary inquiring mind, who has always been protection from John II. of Portugal, more a thinker than a reader, I reand wheu the truce expired, those whom suffering and disease bad spared were landed on the coast of Africa,
Many particnlars of these sufferings where the Moors gave them so cruel may be found in Consolagam as Triba. a reception, II that they hurried back lagoens de Israel," a book written to con
sole the Jews under their trials, by Samuel to the inhospitable lands from whence Usque, an expatriated Portuguese Jew.
+ Many must have been overlooked by Inquisicion instituida por aquellos escla- John, for in 1496 Ferdinand applied to recidos, felicissimos y enternamente vene- Manuel of Portugal, orging him to extir. rables reyes con que enpenada la libertad pate the infidel race of Jews and Mahom. de la conciencia vivis quietos, humildes y medans, whom, in consequence, he col. pacificos al yugo de la Romana Yglesia. lected iogether in Lisbon, and ordered V. 91.
them to embark for Africa, after tearing • Llorente calculates that the Inquisi. from them their children under 14 years tion has caused the total destruction of old. Those who could not embark were 500,000 families, and that Spain has lost sold as slaves. " Nos e nossos avós (saps twelve inillions of inhabitants by its de- a Portuguese historian) vemos o fructe rastating decrees. Hist. de l'In. IV. 242. desta acgam tam pouco justa.” The Jem
† For a list of learned Jews driven were treated with infinitely greater sererity from Spain, sce Inquisition Unmasked, than the Moors, which Damiam de Goes II. 75.
accounts for, by saying, that the latter | Mariana says 800,000 fled from Cas- might have retaliated on their Christiap tille and Aragon alone ; but I conclude slaves, while the former were as helpless this is an exaggeration. VII. 336. as miserable.
Bernalden, a contemporary historian, lle who wishes to obtain information declares that he saw Jews giving a house respecting the writings of the Spanish id exchange for an ass, and a vineyard for Jews, may consult the first volume a small piece of cloth.
Castro's Biblioteca Española. The best || Os Moiros os affrontáram, os roubá- account of the Portuguese literary Jews is ram, os escarnicéram e á vista dos pais to be found in the papers written by dos maridos dormiam com as molheras e as Anto. Ribo. dos Santos, and printed by the filtas. Aos consentidos espancavam, aos Lisbon Academy of Sciences. Barrios also vozos tiravam as cabegas, aos indifferentes published, iu Ainsterdam, an Account of carregavam de opprobios. Lemnos Farià the Poets and Authors among the Jews of e Costro, VIII. 208.
Extract from a Letter on the Trinity.
353 ceived the following letter from him, with a divine nature, to know and with permission to offer it to you have the feeling of what is divine. without his name, for insertion in your The Unitarian, in denying the divinity Repository, if you approve of giving of Christ, drives me farther than Í it a chance of a reply:
should be (if believing it) from the “I have found a great deal of inge- idea that all men may have, from their nuity in the arguments with which nature, a participation in Deity. His the Trinitarians are attacked, and I simplification of worship seems to me am not sorry to see them roughly a severation of God from the world. handled, for there has been a too I cannot feel a love for a Deity that great mixture of pride and arrogance creates and then keeps himself, as it in the manner of our orthodox ex- were, at a distance from his works. plainers of the gospel; but I must I can only love him as thinking that confess, that my feelings of religion he is in his own works, governing his incline me to think that the doctrine own nature, through the weakness of Unitarianism leads farther from and infirmity it has from its subdivitruth than that of a Deity dividing sion ; leading it to a reunion of parts, himself into different characters for and feeling it not inconsistent with his the carrying on the design of the cre- dignity to declare, that even such a ation. There is something captivating frail, humble thing as man, could be in the idea of Unity, but I cannot ap- one and the same with himself, when ply it, in my mind, to any thing but the wisdom, the benevolence and the to a state of absolute repose or har- will were the same in both. The mony throughout all space. I can Unitarian throws me farther off from consider God as one single being, the hope of a future state, than the concentrating in himself all power and Trinitarian who blends the Deity with intelligence; but he can only exist as the nature of man. The Unitarian such, in my contemplation of him, tells you there will be a future state, before he determined to manifest his because he finds it promised in the attributes in a system of worlds; a gospel; but he considers resurrection system, in which power, life and in- as a miracle, contrary to the known telligence were to be distributed in a laws of nature. Now if man can be variety of degrees and characters. led to believe that God himself is in. The Deity in his creation is not the timately connected with their nature, same as to mode of being, that he was he is himself the saving principle antecedent to it. If what was his which must prevent the whole from property exclusively before the crea- perishing. If the Deity can be betion (namely, power and wisdom and lieved to have been individual in life) is in the creation, God is a com- Christ, the individuality of every man ponent part of his creation. He is may be believed in common consis. wherever there is either power or in- tency to be immortal, and this, withtelligence or life. I cannot separate out any miracle or contradiction of my idea of him from the world; and fixed laws, but in the natural progress the Unitarian who tells me that I of the scheme of creation." must not connect my worship of the Thus, Sir, does my Correspondent, Deity, with what it is possible to as it appears to me, admit that Christ conceive of perfection united with is of the same nature with us, but human life, gives me a kind of barren then it is by inaking us all divinities; religion, that neither warms my heart and why I am to be “ more warmed” nor comes home to my understanding by worshiping derived Deity, conI cannot believe or not believe as I nected with “ what it is possible to please; I can adopt no faith from a conceive of perfection united with principle of fear, interest or duty; humanity," than by worshiping unand in dictating belief, the Unitarian derived Deity, does not, I confess, is fully as unphilosophical as his op- “ come home to my understanding." ponent. My faith must be given me I shall subscribe myself, as on a former by a higher authority than that of a occasion, preacher of any sect; and my human A STEADY UNITARIAN, nature, must have some intercourse with, in other words, some similitude YOL. XIV.
Kidderminster, pose of the meeting was not explicitly Sir, May 4, 1819. declared ;
or it might have been THE Monthly Repository being a judged unnecessary to express the in
valuable record of Nonconfor- tention, as the state of the society was mity, which will transmit to posterity such as would sufficiently lead all the knowledge of events occurring in persons concerned in the business, to the present day that materially affect understand for what purpose they the Dissenting interest, either gene- were desired to meet. Ai the time rally or in particular instances, you specified this meeting was held, and will probably have no objection to an the majority, including the principal insertion of the following brief narra. supporters of the interest, determined tive of the late sad contention among that it was desirable that Mr. H. the Independents at Kidderminster. should cease to be the minister of the I shall not pretend to relate its mi- Old Meeting at the expiration of six nutiæ, some of which are differently months. This was communicated to stated in the rumours of the town, him, accompanied with the offer of but merely the transactions of com- one hundred pounds if he would remop notoriety.
linquish the place agreeably to their About ten years ago the Rev. T. H. wishes; but he did not accede to their was elected by the church and con- proposal. When the time fixed for gregation assembling at the Old Meet- his removal arrived, which w's Miding-house, not quite unanimously, but summer 1817, he refused to surrender with few exceptions, to become their the pulpit, and having possessed him. settled minister; and he was accord- self of the key of the house he still ingly ordained there soon after his continued to conduct the service. His acceptance of their invitation. At the conduct iu thus retaining the place beginning of his ministry he was con- of worship, in defiance of the cougre. sidered a very popular preacher, and gation's resolution, he attempted to was ardently esteemed; but as it often vindicate by applying, as some others happens, when the fondness is at first have done, the rules of the secular excessive, before several years had establishment of religion to a Dissentelapsed, the visible attachment to him ing society, and pleading to this effect, considerably abated, and not long that having been inducted and or. after degenerated with many of his dained there, he could not be legally hearers into cold indifference. About ejected except for heresy or immoral four years ago he received intimations behaviour. from some of the people of dissatisfac- In this conduct he was countetion with his ministerial services, and nanced by his adherents, who asserted of certain alterations that would be that the decision of the meeting was agreeable in several respects. These pot fair and equitable, as the notice it is not necessary to detail, but it is by which it was called did not plainly proper to observe that the ground of express for what purpose it was con: this dissatisfaction was not any change vened, though those of them who had of doctrinal sentiments, either with been subscribers were the minority. him or the congregation. Instead of Under these uptoward circumstances a compliance with their wishes, what the trustees, acting in concurrence was deemed objectionable continued, with the majority, had the lock taken and consequently increased the dis- off from the door, and another placed content until it came to an open rup- there in its stead; but this did not ture. About the end of the year prevent Mr. H.'s stif keeping pos1816, a meeting of the subscribers session, as he had the new lock diswas called by a public notice, for placed and another substituted ; and important business relating to the for three months he continued preachcongregation, which was for consi. ing to the people, some of whom atdering the propriety of informing their tended as his friends, and the rest to minister, that his connexion with secure their interest in the building. them must be relinquished at a time About the following Michaelmas the to be appointed. Probably from de trustees acted in pursuance of legal licacy, as he was present when the advice, and applied to the high bailiff notice was given, the particular pur. for coustables to be stationed in the