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his will he bequeathed to bis favourite choose such objects as were useful to institution the sum of one hundred mankind. Of farming, as a business, pounds. The Society, as has been he used to say that “it is never profijustly remarked, will be a standing table, except the farmer drive the monument of what may be accom- plough, his wife be dairy.maid and the plished by individual persevering ex- children scarecrows." ertions in the cause of humanity; and Whilst he lived at Bath, Dr. Cogan vill transmit the names of Hawes and published, under the name of “A Cogan to posterity as benefactors to Layman," the well-known Letters to the human race."

Mr. Wilberforce on Hereditary DeIn 1780, Dr. Cogan again retired to pravity, in which he combats with Holland, where he continued, enjoying complete success this favourite tenet of himself in literary and philosophical the pious senator. This pamphlet has pursuits, and contributing to the en- passed through several editions and joyment of others by his amiable man- has, perhaps, contributed more than ners and pleasant and instructive dis- any work ever published to correct course, until the storm of the French dark views of human nature, aud conRevolution drove him back, for shel- sequent despondency with regard to ter, to England. During this last re- the plans of Providence. · It merits the sidence on the Continent, lie bad praise bestowed by Joboson on Bur. visited Germany, and on his return to net's Life of Rochester : “ the critic this country he collected and revised may read it for its elegance, the philothe notes which he made on his tour, sopher for its arguments, and the saint and published them in two Volumes for its piety. 8vo., under the title of “ The Rhine." During his residence at Bath, he There are few more interesting books published, also, first the Philosophical of travels than this. The charm of the and then the Ethical Treatise on the work is, that the reader feels himself Passions, which were followed at long to be a companion of the author's, and intervals by three other volumes of enters into his whole character; and moral and theological Disquisitions; Dr. Cogan's was a character that forming together the complete system could not be knowu without being of the author with regard to the chahighly esteemed.

racter of the Creator, and the moral On his final settlement in England, constitution, duties and expectations Dr. Cogan made Bath his first resi- of man. Ju the philosophical part of dence. Here he indulged his taste this extended work the arraugement for agriculture. He was an active is clear, the definitions correct and the member of the West-of-England Agri- illustrations happy; in the ethical it is cultural Society, and followed expe. proved that virtue and happiness are rimental farming with so much suc- identical; and in the theological the cess on some land which he occupied Jewish and Christian revelations are in the neighbourhood of Bath, that fully vindicated, and are shewn to be he obtained several of the Society's means by which the universal Father premiums. He continued this pursuit is educating his children for final hapin his subsequent removals to Clapton piness and glory. But excellent as and Woodford, and at the time of his these volumes are, they would probadecease held a small farm in the vici- bly have been more useful if they had nity of Southampton, to which he been pubļished as distinct works, and used to retire occasionally from his lodgings in London. His inclination towards agriculture was not prompted The writer once heard Dr. Cogan reby the hope of gain; it was matter late that a popular and eloquent Calvinistic of taste; perhaps it was something minister, ou being asked his opinion of the bigher, for he had so active a mind Layman's Letters, made this declaration :that be could not be content without " I would not uudertake to refute all the some object before him, and his prin

author's arguments, but I have, this one ciples and feelings induced him to way of preaching,” is not this equal to

answer to make to them all, God owns our

saying, that the preacher who has the • Annual Report of the Royal Humane largest auditory has the sürest evidence of Society, 1818, p. 5.

being in the right?

is an

if the latest of them had been an- which I mean the last few days of nounced under somewhat diferent his illness, exhibited a spectacle such titles. But an author must be allowed as has not often been witnessed. The to choose his own plan of writing; vigour of mind which he displayed and in Dr. Cogan's mind all truth in his reflections on any subject that resolved itself into one idea, the moral came before him, the vivacity with perfection of God, including by ne- which he made his reniarks on the cessary consequence the happiness of occurrences of the moment, and the all his creatures. Be had once pro- dignified composure with wlich he posed to himself to enlarge and repub. lovked forward to the change which Jish his letters to Mr. Wilberforce as he pronounced to be approaching, a part of the series; with which he de. excited the wonder of all who saw clared that liis design would be com- him, and frequently prompted the plete. The last work that he actu- involuntary exclamation, What an ex. ally published, the Ethical Questions, traordinary man! which made its appearance in 1817, is

“ When he first gave up all expecevidently a continuation of his suh. tation of a recovery, he said with ject; and though he seems to svar into animation, :Why should I wish to the region of metaphysics, he vever recover? I should only have all this leaves in reality bis favourite province to endure again. I bave had a long of morals.*

and a happy life, and I ought to deThus employed, Dr. Cogan scarcely part contented. And I have many felt the advances of old age. His

reasons for considering this as the friends found him the same instructive fittest time for me to die, though I and pleasing companion that lie had cannot look forward to death altoever been, and indulged themselves gether without a feeling of awe, I have with the hope of enjoying bis valuable a firm confidence in the goodness of society for years to come. But there God; and though I may deserve more

appointed time for man upon of chastisement than I have had in the earth.” On the last day of the this life, I have no fear whatever for year 1817, he had walked in a very the final result.' thick fog from his lodgings in Den- “ On one occasion he said, I shall rietta Street, Covent Garden, to visit not die triumphantly, but I shall die a friend in St. Mary Axe, which happily ;' ou another, • The nearer I bronght on a cough more than usually advance to the grave, the brighter are troublesome; indisposition ensued; and my prospects.' with a presentiment that he should “ When speaking on the subject not recover, he went on Saturday, of religion, he dwelt chiefly on the January 24th, to his brother's, the benevolence of the Deity, expressing Rev. E. Cogan, at Walthamstow, his persuasion of the final happiness where he expired on Monday, the of all mankind, and his decided con2d of February, in the 820 year of viction of the falsehood of the Cal

vinistic system. One of the last things The following account of bis death that be said to me (after having comwas drawn up by one best fitted by mented at some lengtlt on a part of situation and character to describe the 15th chapter of the first epistle justly the dignified scene :

to the Corinthians) was rerbatim as Many know how lie lived, and follows: · When I could not sleep some may wish to know how he died. last night, I was reflecting on the For the gratification of such a wish, affecting parable of the prodigal soul, the following brief sketch is intended: which is so beautifully, so beautifully, “ The closing scene of his life, by told. Where is your vindictive justice

here? Where is your personal re• The Ethical Questions are reviewed in sentment?' He probably would have our XIIth Vol. pp. 226_236; and in Vol. XIII. pp. 18—20, there is a letter of Dr: proceeded, but was fatigued with Cogan's upon the subject of the review. speaking. About twelve hours before By a melancholy coincidence, the number bis decease, he dictated three letters containing this letter did not appear till the with a solemnity and dignity of manday of his death. See the obituary of the

ner which none who were present next No., XIII. p. 142. .

will ever forget. A short paragraph

his age.

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from one of them will well depict already recorded; and many equally the general frame of his mind on the decisive proofs might be adduced from prospect of dissolution.

liis private life. He professed to love “i The solemn moment is at length his species, and knew it to be the first arrived. I look forward to it with ambition of his life to promote their awe, but by no means without hope. welfare.* To his latest moment be The views of Christianity which I was emyloyed in a scheme for the behave long entertained have afforded nefit of one of his relatives, concernthe rule of my life, and will be my ing which he said with great emphasis ; consolation in the hour of death.' that, if he succeeded, he should finish

“ He had for some years expressed well. his wish that his dismission might be As a writer Dr. Cogan occupies a easy, or in his own words, that he middle, but truly respectable rank. might be let gently down. His wish His style is unpretending; sometimes was granted. After having taken it is adorned with the simple graces; some refreshment with considerable and examples might be pointed out of relish, he caught hold of the servant's passages where the fervor of his mind arm, and closed a long, honourable has raised him to a strain of rich and and useful life, without a struggle or powerful eloquence. a groan."

His frequent residence on the Con. Dr. Cogan's “mental constitution tinent, where the French is a sort of was singularly happy. He viewed universal language, led him into a every thing in the most favourable familiarity with all the more eminent light, and contrived to extract some. writers of that tongue. The cele thing of satisfaction from those little brated French preachers were his favexations which discompose and irri. vourite authors : 'their onction was tate ordinary minds. Qualities were congenial with his own taste. combined in him which do not often He seems not to have consulted exist in union. Though his vivacity profit in luis publications. He has enlivened all who enjoyed his society, allowed more than one cheap editiou he invariably pronounced gravity to of his most popular work, the Letters be his character, saying, that through to Wilberforce, to be printed for the life he had been grave for himself, and use of the Unitarian Book Societies. cheerful for his friends. His wit, [The Editor regrets that the remainder which remained with him to the last, of this Memoir must be deferred till was so chastened by a natural sweet- the next Number.] ness of temper, that it was never exercised to give pain to any human Tribute to the Memory of the late creature, and his playfulness, which

Mr. G. W. Meadley. might have appeared inconsistent with Sir, habits of sober thought, was the ebul- N the concluding Number of your lition of the moment, which immediately left his mind at liberty to have noticed the death of your late collect its energies for serious reflec- occasioual Correspondent, my very tion. Reflection indeed was his fa. worthy friend, Mr. G. W. Meadley. vourite occupation, as his writings It will, probably, be interesting to seem sufficiently to testify. And the many of your readers to peruse, in the subjects on which he reflected most, mean time, the following tribute to because they appeared to him to be his memory, delivered on the Sunday most closely connected with human evening after his funeral, by the rehappiness, were morals and religion. spectable person who usually conAnd the moral principles which it was the chief object of his literary

These are his own words, in the Prelabours to inculcate, had a constant face, p. xxiii. of the 2nd Volume on the

Passions. influence on his own mind, and in

+ Mr. Thomas GRAHAM, shoemaker. their practical effect pervaded the


for the sake as well of example general tenor of his life.”

as of information, the short account of this It may be truly said that benevo

society, inserted in a “ Historical and Delence was the habitual affection of his scriptive View of Sunderland and the Two mind. Of this a signal proof has been Wearmouths,” now publishing in numbers, Bota, io but an ut of justice to his baneful influence of vulgar errors.

barstep, I shall now proced to state His ideas of the Divine character in what we were sureed:--generally and government were most extensive **sking, wall the fundamental doc- and exalted; and while he was pei

we will recent properples of the the enthusiast nor fanatic, yet his 4*** of horint. 10 w his words, religious views were to him a fund of in hie **oelleu Letter to the Bishop happiness and pleasure, whichi, added of MI, 1)vid , where be not only to the natural cheerfulness of his de fonde ha accouston, but contends temper, gave a cheerful and agreeable with low and ability for the night (as turn to his conversation, a quality selbir romaidered it the dudu) of every dom combined with the character of Chinatim, to inquire freely and fully studious men. into the Team of the Senptures, " To these remarhs I shall only add #mrmonnirates with his Lordelphis'golden rule in ascertaining reliom the impropriety of persons bring grous trutle: • What is clearly and ex

ped to thone penalties aud dina plicitly taught in the Scriptures, or is buities, the loan of whicle, by the re- the plain and undoubted inference

"ilolih pet utang laus respecting therefrom, ought to be considered as Utan loin Londwhip deplored, the fundamental principle and ground and conte ledd owwht to be revived, of interpretation for that which is less ''The Paintenee olon (voul, by whom explicit or more difficult.' For, as he all things were created; the divine used to say, no religious opinion minton, leatlo mod consequent resur. should contradict the gèveral current portion of Christ, the divine autho of the Scriptures.' Hly or los pireer revealed in the " With respect to the social and gli and the hope of immortality relative duties, the public respect, in in the rain rection of the dead.' These addition to what I have stated, bears

tonn, legether with considering ample testimony to the one, and his the father is the sole object of relie attention to his mother and sisters, **** Worship and his fires unpur their union and finity, suficiently

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Clapton, stead of controverting, in the lutro. SIR, January 10, 1819. duction, the vulgar notion of Original I

SEND you a continuation of the Sin, he had left that opinion un

translation of Locke and Lim- touched, or at least not made it so borch's letters. Some of those which prominent, in bis Treatise. For now will probably appear in your present many who are strongly attached to Volume, contain profound discussions that doctrine, stumble at the threskof metaphysical questions; on which hold, before they reach the main ar. a translator is in no small danger of gument of the book. They, indeed, sometimes misunderstanding his ori. entertain such prejudices against the ginal. Should any of your Corre- Author that they cannot read, with spondents detect such mistakes, I the calm consideration required, his shall be obliged by their sending you further arguments, and thus become thcir corrections.

hostile. Their good-will should rather

J. T. RUTT. have been conciliated, that they might The Correspondence between Locke and

have come with an unbiassed judgment Limborch, 1685-1704.

to consider an opinion, whicb,however

true, yet little accords with the sen(Continned from p. 675, Vol. XIII.)

timents of most theologians. These No. 34.

generally desire to add something of Amsterdam, Oct. 8, 1697. their own to the Christian faith, which Philip à Limborch to John Locke. they regard as the exclusive property MY WORTHY FRIEND,

of their party. To disabuse them of WROTE you, in March last, a tbis error, it is necessary to allure

very long letter. During the them, instead of alienating their minds summer I have conversed with some by at once proposing some dogma, of our principal literati, on various which they regard as highly disputopics. Among these the conver- table. I freely tell you what passed sation turned on the Treatise, . of on this subject. which you have already received my

Our discourse, as frequently hapopinion. They all highly commended pens, turned on other topics ; among it. One, indeed, was dissatisfied with the rest, by what arguments the unity the title, as not commensurate to the of God could be most satisfactorily dignity of the subject. He said, that established.

That eminent person, the Author had pursued a different whom I last mentioned, declared that course to that of most writers, who he wished to see some irrefragable gave magnificent names to works of arguments, by which it might be little importance. He, on the con- proved that an eterual, self-existent trary, had prefixed a very unassuming and all-perfect Being, can be only one. title to a book of weighty argument. He wished to see something in the Yet, surely, the title should rather manner of Hugo Grotius, in his first correspond to the importance of the book on the Truth of the Christian work, that it may invite a perusal. Religion ; adding, that he had heard

Another person (the same who for- of a French translation † of your merly introduced to you, our Slade, Essay on the Human Understanding, this 1 hint only to yourself) said that which he wished very much to see, he had read that Treatise twice. He as he had a great opinion of your praised it highly, and declared that judgment. He inquired of me, whethe Author had satisfactorily proved, ther in that Essay you had established what was the principal argument of his book-the design of the Christian Sect. ii. Deum esse unum. Revelation. He only wished, that in- + This was afterwards executed, under

the Author's inspection, by Coste, and * Reasonableness of Christianity. See will be further noticed in this corresponVol. XIII. pp. 610, 612.




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