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REFLECTIONS MADE IN A
ples sanctioned by reason and friendly do homage to her ritual, on pain of io civil liberty, and needing neither civil incapacitation; impossible that endowment nor persecution from the the Scottish Presbyterian, the Irish civil power to keep them in action, Catholic and the English Dissenter and to make their operation a blessing should all be treated as illegitimate by to society.
their country, their common mother; The repeal of the Corporation and 'impossible that while the light of Test Acts would not give the Dissen. knowledge is throwing its powerful ters power, (as has been vulgarly and influence upon every state of Cnrope, clamorously objected, but it would converting Russia into a civilized and give them their rights. The acquisi- polished empire, and raising op a tion of power would be on the part people strong and free and steady in of the Crowu and the People; both France, Great Britain should continue which are now tied up from delega. to venerate the relics of barbarism, ting authority to subjects and fellow- and to share with Spaia the odium citizens who may say their prayers in of intolerance. a place, or after a form not used or
A. approved by the multitude.* A leading politician of the present
GLEANINGS; OR, SELECTIONS day has said, " Why are not the Dis
COURSE senters content? The appual ludemnity Bill is a virtual repeal of the Test Acts." He knows us not.
No. CCCL. object were place or power, his remonstrance would reduce us to silence. Curran's Visit to the Catacombs at What we ask is not pardon, for we
Paris. are not offenders, but justice. We I don't remember ever to have had feel the insult more than the injury of my mind compressed into so narrow these bills of exclusion; and we de- a space: so many human beings, so mand their abolition in the name of many actors, so many sufferers, so our fathers, in the name of our pos- various in human rank, so equalized terity, in the name of our constitution, in the grave! When I stared at the and in the name of our common reli- congregation, I could not distinguish gion.
what head bad raved, or reasoned, or For a proof of the uselessness, at hoped, or burned. I looked for least, of such bigoted enactments, we thought, I looked for dimples refer to Scotland, which maintains its asked, whither is all gone-did wisecclesiastical establishment and muni. dom never flow from your lips, Dor cipal corporations without them; and affection hang upon them and if to Ireland which has now, for half a both or either, which was the most century, abolished them with regard exalting - which the most fascinato Protestant Dissenters, and which ting? All silent. They left me to wants only the like abolition with re. answer for them, “ So shall the fairest gard to Catholic Dissenters to be in a face appear." state of peace and prosperity.
Life, by his Son, II. 367. Divided as the United Kingdom is in religion, it is impossible that the minority of population, constituting
No. CCCLI. the Church of England, should much
Fate of Revolutions. longer constrain this great people to
Such is the fate of Revolutions
nothing certain but blood. The march • Two exceptions must be made to this of the captives begius through a Red statement. Though a Dissenter cannot be Sea; and after forty years in seeking an exciseman, he may be chosen by the
new abodes and strange gods, the people to sit in the House of Commons, or leader seldom sees the promised land, be raised by his Sovereign to the peerage. or, at least, dies before his foot has May he not also be of the Privy Council touched it.--Ibid. II. 359.
THt is attributed to a gentleman
Art. I.-An Appeal to Scripture and there were & pretence for it, in order to
Tradition, in Defence of the Unita. screen the bumiliation of their martyred rian Faith. 12mo. pp. 232. Bristol, Messiah, neither Athanasius explains, nor printed for Browne and Manchee, can it be explained by any other. The and sold by R. Hunter, London. Nazarenes were, in fact, the first Jewish 1818. 6s.
Christians; and Paul, in Acts xxiv. 5, is THIS is a volume of singular merit. sect of NAZARENES.'”—P. 6.
styled by Tertullus, ' a ringleader of the who has lately embraced “ the Uni
The doctrine and authority of Justarian Faith." There is sufficient in. tin Martyr is thus estimated ternal evidence of its being the work
“ Justin Martyr, a Christian convert of an accomplished scholar.
from the Platovic school, about the middle We are gratified at the outset by of the second century, promulgated an the Dedication, a handsome and opinion that the Son of God was the second well-deserved eulogium on Dr. Car. principle in the Deity, and the Creator of
all things. He is the earliest writer to penter. The work is divided into Three there is also internal evidence that he was
whom this opinion can be traced ; and Parts. Part I. contains a “ Disser- the originator of it: for be ascribes this tation" " on the Doctrine of the Tric knowledge to the special favour of God; nity," and an “ Examination of the and he calls upon others to partake of this Passages adduced to prove the modern great gift and benefit, lest, in hesitating Doctrine of the Supreme Divinity of to impart it, he should come under conChrist, and the Economy of a Trinity demnation. He fancied that he discovered in the Godhead.” The “ Disserta. the agency of the second or inferior God tion" contains a masterly argument under angelical forms, or in apparitions of
in Christ throughout the Old Testament, for the Divine Unity, and a just his- the divine glory. But his belief in a spetorical view of the doctrine of the cial illumination is quite sufficient to set Trinity. The Author shews, that the question at rest, as to the fact whether whilst the Unitarian lays the founda. these opinions were or were not the retions of bis faith in the New Testa- ceived traditions; and it is evident, from ment, he may “appeal" with the his own words, that the body of the Chrissame success to early “tradition" and tian Church were neither Trinitarians nor to “ Scripture." of the Nazarenes, Arians; that they neither held the Gola the next denomination which Unita- bead nor the pre-existent nature of Christ; rians received after that of Christians, and believed only in his legatarian and
but were, as to his person, Humanitarians, he says,
elective office, as the representative and " What the state of early Christian opi- organ of the Divinity. He further says, nions was, may be collected from the ad- • Jesus may still be the Christ of God, missions and indirect confessions of the though I should not be able to prove his Fathers of the Catholic Church. Athana- pre-existence as the son of God who made sius says, that the Jewish Christians of the all things; for though I should not prove Apostolic Age disbelieved the deity of that he had pre-existed, it will be right to Christ, and drew the Gentiles into their say that in this respect only I have been error; these Jewish Christians were called deceived, and not to deny that he is the Nazarenes and Ebionites. They differed Christ, if he appear to be a man born of among themselves as to the miraculous men, and to have become Christ by elecconception, and as to retaining Judaic ob- tion. Such, then, was in fact the general servances; but they agreed in believing belief."-Pp. 8, 9. the simple bumanity of Christ. It is attempted to throw on them the stigma of
After the Council of Nice, the betesy, as followers of one Ebion ; but growth of error, mystery and idolatry Ebion was an honourable term of reproach, was rapid : implying poverty. How a Jewish con- “ A further progress in the Trinity was vert church, believing only in the crucified made, in a synod convened at Alexandria Jests as a man anointed of God, came to about the middle of the fourth century, by exist at all, when it was the obvious inte- Eusebius and Athanasius; when the Spirest of the Jews to grasp at his deity, if rit, as well as the Son, was declared to be
of the same substance' with the Father; often used as a relative, especially by but it was finally adjusted, and carried 10 Homer; bul as the apostle had used the its present height, by Basil of Cæsarea and proper relative ós, three times before this Gregory of Nazianzim ; in whose writings passage, in reference to the Israelites, he also we first meet with the unscriptural inighi bave been expected to write os esos, use of the term mystery, not in the origi. and not o wy, in case he intended Christ nal and proper sense of something above
as the antecedent; and this relative he human knowledge, or unknown till re actually does iise in reserence to Christ, ia vealed; but in that of something contra- Col. i. 15: 85 E51Y ERXWY TA Ote, who is dictory to human reason. Hence we hear the iniage of the God, or God. But forof the mystery of the sacrament; the mys. ther, when the article is connected wita tery of baptism, in the Popish magical a participle, it does not mean who, but ke sense of instant spiritual regeneration; the who; as ó pidey-he who loves, or the mystery of the Trinity. The Trinity of Basil and Gregory received the sanction person loving; ó wv is therefore he who of the Council of Constantinople, A C. is,' or the person being; • he who is over
that is over all,' easily 381, which decreed that the Father, Son and Spirit were co-equal in power, glory
connects with the following substantive,
God; and that such is the proper conuexand eternity.
“ The full eqnality of the Fatber, Son ion, independently of grammatical reaand Spirit did not bound the discoveries of evidence, that this is the peculiar distinc
sons, appears from corroborative scripture the Catholic Church. Nestorius had as
tive title of the most High God, ihe Father. serted that the Virgin was the Mother of
Ephes. iv. 5, 6: • Olie Lord, one faith, Christ.' The zeal of those who worship ped Christ as God, was alarmed for the
one baptism, one God and Father of all, honour of Mary. The Council of Ephe- who is ahore all.? Or, the one that is
above all: ο επι παντων. sus, A. C. 431, condemned Nestorius as a heretic, and confirmed the title of the Vir
“ « The blessed,' and ' blessed for ever,' gin as the Mother of God.'
is also the distinctive character, or title of a departure was made from the worship of the most ligh Gad; Christ being distiaGod, even the Father,' the progress was
guished only (as in Mark xiv. 61) by the easy to the deified virgin, the deified bread, appellation, Son of the Blessed.' the deified sepulchre, ihe deified souls, and
“ Romanis i. 25: “Who changed the bones, and images of men.”-Pp. 16, 17.
trush of Gud into a lie, and worshiped
and served the creatnre more than the The “ Examination of Passages" Creator, who is blessed for ever. Ainen.' displays much solid learning, acute Or if this be questioned as inconclusive, criticism and sound logic. A few from the erroneonis confounding of Christ, extracts will shew that the Author is the Gospel creator, with the Creator of entitled to a place amongst the most
heaven and earth, we may refer to 2 Cor. judicious and successful expositors of xi. 31: The God and Father of our Lord the sacred text. The following are
Jesus Christ, which is blessed for everhis remarks upon Rom. ix. 3, which more, knoweth that I lie nt:'-whese the
same words, ó wy, the one that is, are the English Version represents as an
used The English reader is not aware ascription of deity and worship to
that the inflexion of cases in the origibal Christ:
makes it impossible that there shonld be “ As the ancient copies of the Gospels any ainbiguity in the application of this were not pointed, the panses inust be regu- title to the God and Father; though, as lated by the sense. The charge of alter- much in the Trinitarian scheme depends ing the punctuation, in order to make the on the placing of words, this title would text conform with a system, is therefore be vindicated to Christ instead of to God, absurd. The received pointing is suis- if there were sufficient grammatical authopicious, because, notwithstanding the ob- rity to favour the attempt A literal stinacy of Trinitarian writers in defending version as to position will obviate all am. it, the most obvious grammatical construc- biguity. tion is at variance with it.
* The God and Father of our Lord “In the English Version the position of Jesus Christ knoweth, he who is blessed the original words is changed, in order to for ever, that I lie por.' bring Christ into closer apparent con- “ The same title occurs in doxologiei, nexion with the latter clause of the sen- or ascriptions of glory, to the Father, God.
The literal version would run It is indeed made an objection to the conthus : « Whose are the Fathers and of sidering the passage in questiou as whom was the Christ according to the doxology, though it has the characteristic flesh.'
anuexation of Amen, that it is necessary " The words rendered who is are in the to supply the ellipsis of the verb substanoriginal ó wy. The Greek article é is tive. Yet the
-ele, using the
Review-Appeal to Scripture and Tradition.
489 same terın of blessing, adapts the same
has led some Trinitarians to correct the ellipsis, 2 Cor. i. 3: Blessed be the two foriner Euglish readings by the latter, God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ instead of the latter by the former; and to And Peter, 1 Pet. i. 3: “Blessed be God Tender the words, with verbal literality, even the Faiher of our Lord Jesus Christ.' 'if ye believe not that I am ye shall die,' From the circumstance of blessed being and ye sball know that I am:' so that the first word in these sentences, it is the whole dialogue, instead of being occue urged that the passage under consideration pied with the declarations of Jesus respeccaudot hie a duxology to the Father. But ting his being the Christ bat should come, there are two obvious reasons for the dif- is made to turn on the fact of his being ferent positions of the words. God is the very Jehovah who spoke to Moses. here accompanied with an epithet, and Unfortunately for this hypothesis, Jesus blessed with a term of endless duration. speaks of bimself, in this discourse, as Now "He who is over all, God,'has inore of proceeding forth from that God, which titular emphasis, when placed first in the God it is said that he announces himself sentence, than if the words ranblessed to be, and that he styles biuself. the Son.' be God, he, who is over all;' and as the This will, indeed, be evaded by the term blessed cannot be disjoined from the common Trinitarian subterfuge, ibat the words for ever, which most enphatically Father includes in himself all the three close the sentence, it is of necessity placed persons, by which lie is made to be his towards the end.' The propriety of this
own Son; but it is only necessary to read arrangement will appear evident, if the the chapter, in order to be satistied that words be read in the sequence for which such a declaration was not the purpose of the objectors contend: • Blessed for ever Jesns, and bas nothing whatever to do be God, who is over all. Amen.'
with his argument, which is strictly con“ The passage, then, restored to its just fined to his being" He that should come.' coherence, will run thus: “Whose are the The verbal trifiing of this famous arguFathers, and of whom was the Christ ac- ment for the supreme deity of the Son of cording to the flesh; he who is over all
, God is almost below criticism ; for had God, or God who is over all, be blessed Jesus meant to have declared bimself Je. Amen.'
This • troublesoune hovah, he would have used the words, 'I passage for Unitarians' was thus under- AM The I am.' stood by Bucer and Erasmus, who were
“ Thus far the question has been agi. both Trinitarians.”—Pp. 22–25.
tated on the evidence of the translated
text: it is to this, in fact, that the TriniOn Johu viii. 58, where, say the tarians usually make their appeal; and it Trinitarians, Jesus asserts bimself to is this which gives them an advantage with be Jehovali
, the Author has these the people, whom they are in the habit of sensible and satisfactory observa persuading, that none can question the in.
fallibility of the Bible translation without
a mischievous design; and that no text “ It is affirmed that Christ here ex- must be touched, even if it be acknow. pressly declares himse!f tue I am :' be. ledged spurious. O, referring to the cause, in Exod iii. 14, God said unto original text in the Septungint, we find Moses, I am that Lam: and he said, thus the version accurate as to its spirit; but shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, we discover that the supporters of the I am hath sent me unto you.'
above argument, in contending that Jeno. “The expression of John occurs twice Dah uses the same literal words as those before in the same chapter, and in each used by Jesus, have stooped to deceive the instance is rendered, according to the re
multitude by a wilful misrepresentation. ceived version, • I ain he: ver. 24,• If ye The words in Exortus are, I'AM Tue One believe not that I am he [I am), ye shall THAT 18:'
εγω ειμι ο ων. 6 Thus shalt die in your sins :
ver. 28, • When ye thou say to the children of Israel, he that have lified p the Son of Man, then shall is hath sent me unto you.' je know that I am he [1 am].'
" The words I Am, in the Greek as well “ The translators therefore should, in as in the Latin, have often the force of the consistency, have rendered the words in past time. The expressirrin wi Jestis might the verse quoted, . Before Abraham was, properly be rendered, “ Before Abranam I am he ;' for it is plain they were well was, I was,' or \ I was he;' and so in the aware that the argument, which runs two other instances: 'if ye believe not through the wbele chapter, is the true that I was (he), ye shall die ;' ye shail Messiahship of Jesus; that the verse in know that I was (he);' referring not to a question is closely and logically connected state of existence, which would have no with all the preceding verses; and that, more connexion with the subject of the on every principle of criticism, the three chapter than a declaration of his supreme I ams should be rendered alike.' Tho con divinity, but to his eternal appointment as sciousness of this inevitable conclusion the Christ of God.' The version of I am,
if it do not mislead, is confessedly prefe. invalid, drawn from verse 16, 'I Jerry rable, as far as regards dignity and em- have sent my angel to testify ania you phasis of style; and has a propriety, as these things in the churches,' that the conveying an allusion to the eternal pur- angel sent to the churches is the last pose of God, in whose sight the past and speaker to John, and that Jesus ealy the future are alike present; and in refe. speaks through him. It is the glorited rence to which the Messiah is described as Son of Man bimself who begins be dra. the same yesterday, to-day and for ever.' matic scene of the vision, and who eres The Bible translators have, with equal it; and the angel sent by Jesus to the taste and judgment, united the present and churches is John the divine, or inspired ; past tiines on a similar occasion, where who writes the record. There is no the existence of God is spoken of: Isaiah ground therefore for the opinion that iz xlii. 13, Yea, before the day was, I am the verse, i. 1, · The revelation of Jesus .'”—Pp. 36–38.
Christ, which God gave unto his, to
shew unto his servants things which at: The Author shews the probability shortly come to pass; and he sent and się: of Jesus being the angel who forbids nified it by his angel unto his servant worship to himself, Rev. xxii. 8, 9: John,' he selates to Jesus; for it is plais • The title servant is applied to Jesus Man, who visibly appears, 13, clothet
that God is the antecedent, and the Sea ei by Isaiah, xlii. 1, Behold my serrant
with a garment down to his foot,' is the whom I uphold;' and liii. 2, "My righ- angel sent, by whom the revelation teous servant;' and in Acts iv. 27, “Thy signified to John. He also is the second
holy child Jesus, may equally be rendered angel before whose feet John falls down to • servant, mais; the same word as that ren. Worship; he it is who describes himselí as
dered servant in the quotation from Isaiah, John's fellow-serrant, and of his brethren Matt. xii. 18. The title prophet is ap- the prophets; and who, refusing the plied to Jesus by Moses: Deut. sviii. 18, honage of adoration to himself, bids bin
I will raise them up a prophet from to ' worship God.' among their brethren, like unto thee;' “ The character of an Angel of Godis and by Jesus to himself: Luke xiii. 33, assigned to Jesus by Panl. Gal. ir. 11
, ' It cannot be that a prophet perish ont of Ye received me as an angel of God, etet Jerusalem.' Though all reasoning on this as Christ Jesus.”—Pp. 62, 63. passage must be merely speculative, there is at least a strong probability that Jesus In the passage that follows there is is the Angel who forbids worship to himn
a bappy retort of a Trinitarian accu. self.
sation : The Angel of this passage is not the “ That the Father, or Jehovan, is same who bas before refused a similar alone God, is explicitly declared by Jessi
, homage of John, xix. 10, for he names in John xvii. 3, . This is life eternal, that himself of those who bear the testimony of they might know thee (0 Father!! the Jesus; and is the same mentioned in xvii. only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou 1, as one of the seven angels who had the hast sent.' seven phials; and who again is distinct “ On this passage, they who accuse the from the angel mentioned also as one of Unitarians of racking Scripture, exercise the seven, xxi. 9, who talked with me, their wit by two experiments : saying, Come hither;' and this latter angel, “1. They say, it is not expressed that though it is attempted to carry on "his they might know thee only the true God, agency through the 7th, 8th and 9th ver. but thee the only true God :'thee the ses, is not the second angel that forbids Father' including ihe Son, who is addresworship; for this his agency properly sing the Father; the humanity of Jeses ceases at ver. 5, they shall reign for ever now praying to his dirinity, which was and ever :' and the original speaker in this both in the manbood and in the Godhead vision, described i. 13, . In the midst of at the same time; and Jesus Christ being, the seven candlesticks, one like the Son of in this passage, the man Jesus Christ on! Man ;' resumes in ver. 5, ' And he said and the Fillier being Father, Son and unto me, These sayings are faithful and Spirit. So that when the Father only is true. And the Lord Gon of the holy mentioned, it often means the FATHER 10prophets sent his angel to shew unto his gether wiili the Son; and when Jesus is servants the things which must shortly be distinguished from the Father, it ineans done. Behold, I come quickly.' This is the man Jesus; God the Son being alwa!s the peculiar langnage of Jesus, identified included in the term FATHER. to be his by verse 12, · Behold, I come “ 2. They say that Jesus Christ is inquickly;' and 20, “He which 'testisieth cluded in the terin true God; for tbay the these things, saith, Surely I come quickly;' connexion properly is, that they might to which John replies, '' Even so, come, know thee and Jesus Christ whom thou Lord Jesus!' The argument therefore is hast sent to be the only true God.'