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be done; but also, that the knowledge derived from the other would be a strong inducement to the practice of the moral principles of Christianity. Under this impression I shall take the liberty of submitting to your readers the following sketch of its contents, as they appear to me, upon comparing it with the ecclesiastical and civil history of the first centuries of Chris tianity :

Chap. i. 1—3, is the authority for publishing this book, it being the revelation made by the Deity of future events, to Jesus the Christ, and by him, through his messenger, in vision, made known to John, who herein bears his testimony to all that he saw; and pronounces him blessed who studiously pays attention to it, because the time of commencement was fast approaching.

Ver. 4-20: John's address to the seven successive ages of Christianity, describing the manner in which the vision was given to him, that the scene was laid in the Temple or Christian Church, (1 Cor. iii. 16, 17,) in which Jesus, clothed as high priest, was in every succeeding age walking amongst the lamps or churches, trimming them and keeping them constantly bright. The last verse unfolds the mystery of this whole chapter, by explaining that the stars in the right hand of the high priest, are the Christian teachers, in the seven ages of the Christian Church; and that the seven lamps are the Churches, whose lamps, in seven successive periods, are to follow each other in being the lights (Matt. v. 14) of the world.

The second and third chapters contain the messages that Jesus, our high priest, sends in each period to the Church. The prologue of each message is taken from the descriptive appearance of Jesus in the first chapter. The second part describes, in few words, the general state of the Church in each age. This is followed by directions suitable to the period, and interspersed with threats and promises; and the whole concluding with rewards to be given to overcomers, and an exhortation to those who have understanding, to hearken to the prophetic directions.

Chap. iv. John is invited to look into futurity and before we do so, it may be proper to observe, that

though all the parts of this book harmonize together, yet the book, to be understood, must be considered as dividing itself into three parts. 1. Is the figurative description of the Christian church, as the temple, with Jesus ministering in it as high priest. Then follows the description of the peculiar state of each church, through the whole period of the prophecy: with propriety this may be considered as the ecclesiastical part of the prophecy, and is contained in the three first chapters.

The second part of this prophecy represents Jesus as enthroned, and going forth with his army of saints to break into pieces the kingdoms of the world. This part begins at the 4th chapter, and concludes at the 18th verse of the 11th chapter; and the remaining chapters may be considered as descriptive visions of various scenes, which take place from the first establishment of nominal Christianity, till the grand period of the consummation of all things. Under this view of the prophecy we shall find that the 4th and 5th chapters correspond with the Ephesian church-state, and are an account of the general political state of Christianity until the destruction of Jerusalem. The 6th and 7th chapters run parallel with the church of Smyrna, and describe the overturning of Rome Pagan. The 8th and 9th chapters describe the overturning of the Eastern Roman Christian empire. The 10th and 11th describe the Christian world, as it may be called, from the commencement of nominal Christianity, under Constantine, till the conclusion of the Millenial age, including the whole of the remaining five churches, which will be more distinctly seen by noticing their respective periods of commencement and conclusion.

Returning back to the 4th chapter, I notice, that, in the descriptive message to this church, it was to continue from A. D. 33, to A. D. 73. Its character was to be remarkable for their laborious exertions in spreading the Gospel, their patience under Jewish persecution, and their trying the credentials of those judaizing teachers who called themselves apostles; their undauntedness in suffering; their abhorrence of ambition in Christian teachers; that at the commencement of this period they were unitedly of

one heart and mind, but that at the
close of it, a party spirit would be
admitted, which was to be endea-
voured to be destroyed by exhorta-
tions to unity under the threat of the
light of this church being extinguished.
Let any one upon comparing this
message with the writings of the New
Testament, say, if the prophecy does
not agree with its accomplishment,
and if it is possible to place any other
period of the history of Christianity
which it would have so well agreed
with. Let us now turn to the pro-

Chap. iv. 1, John is invited to look

into futurity, and 2, in a prophetic

vision beholds a throne; 3, and Jesus

gloriously enthroned on it; 4, sur-

rounded by twenty-four ancients in

priestly robes, with regal crowns on

each side encircling him on the throne;

5,6, the usual accompaniments of the

Divine Presence with the sea of glass

before the throne; 7, 8, and the che-

rubic standard of Israel displayed: a

lion for Judah on the East, an eagle

for Dan on the North, a man for Reu-

ben on the South, and an ox for

Ephraim on the West; whilst the army

of Israel under their respective stand-

ards pronounce that he who was dead,

but is now alive, and who cometh to

judge the world, God's appointed ru-

ler, is thrice holy and all-powerful;

9-11, whilst the army of Israel with

their standard-bearers, ascribe honour
and glory to Jesus their ruler, the
twenty-four ancients, or the united
chiefs of the royal priesthood in both
dispensations, raise the chorus,

"Worthy art thou, our Chief, with
our God most holy,

"To receive the glory, the honour
and the power;

"For thou hast formed the whole.
"And they were and are formed
according to thy will."

Comp. Eph. i. 10, 20, Coloss. i. 16.
Chap. v. continues this grand scene,
in which the whole army of Israel
have by acclamation approved of their
general officer. 1, the scaled scroll
of futurity lies on the right side of
the throne of God, sealed with seven
seals; 2, a messenger inquires who
is worthy to unrol it; 3, 4, and
John weeps because none are found
worthy; but 5, is comforted by one
of the ancients, who tells him who is
worthy; 6-8, Jesus then descends
from the throne, and takes the book,

on which the twenty-four ancients
again pay their homage, saying,
"Thou art worthy to take the scroll,
and open its seals;

For thou wast slain, and hast re-
deemed us to God by thy blood,
"From every tribe, and language,

and people, and nation:

"And hast made us kings aud

priests to our God.

"And we shall reign upon the


To this sublime acknowledgment

of the royal and priestly rank being
derived from the superior virtue of
their Leader, the army of God, under
his banners, reply, in chorus,

"Worthy is the Lamb that was


"To receive power, and wealth,

and wisdom,

"And strength, and honour, aud

glory, and blessing."

To this chorus the whole living

and dead repeat in chorus,
"To the Lamb be blessing, and

honour, and power,

“And strength to the age of ages.”

The four battalions of Israel, i. e.

the united church militant throughout
the world, under their respective
standards, exclaim, "So be it;" on
which the royal priesthood pay ho-
mage to their King,

We see here the enjoined duty on

the teachers of that day: whilst the

army of Jesus was collecting recruits

in Palestine, and the whole civilized

world, it was to unfold the vast poli-

tical designs intended to be accom-

plished by the doctrines of the cross;

and, that though Christianity was the

most moral and virtuous of all reli-

gions, yet that was not all, they were

to prove to Christians the importance

of their doctrines, lives and conver-

sations; they being the weapons by

which God intended to subdue the


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We are now come to the Smyrna

state of Christianity. The church of

Ephesus was, as the name expresses

it, the desired Church, that state

which prophets and kings had desired

to see,

the Messiah come. They

had left their first love, and, not re-
penting, their lamp, as foretold, was
removed. No successors were given
to the apostles, by whom miraculous
powers could be conferred on the
Christian. But he was left to prove
the truth of his religion by its own

superior excellency. And as Smyrna signifies myrrh, the incense which ascended before the altar was the perfume of bitter persecutions, imprisonments, tortures and martyrdom. This was declared (chap. ii. 9) should take place, and principally owing to the Jewish nation and priesthood, who, having lost their political character, endeavoured, by all their influence, to prejudice, by false representations, the Gentiles against Christianity. It was likewise foretold they should have ten years of severe persecution, but that, if they faithfully suffered martyrdom for it, they should, by their death, gain for Christianity a crown among the living; which took place when Constantine made it the religion of the Roman empire.

During the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, Christianity was gaining ground by its simplicity, and the purity of its doctrines. Miraculous powers evidenced its truths to be of divine origin; these, aided by the apostolic labours, formed Christian societies over the whole Roman empire. Christianity was generally free from persecution, excepting from the Jews. The standard-bearers are represented in the square camp, one at each quarter of the world, Rome, the seat of government, being considered as the centre.

Chap. vi. 1, 2, opens the first seal, by introducing to the throne of the Cæsars, Vespasian from the West. This seal lasts with the Flavian family, twenty-eight years. Its white horse and bow is the emblem of victory, and the reign of the princes of this family was one season of conquest.

Ver. 3, 4. The second seal ushers in Nerva from the West, and lasts to the murder of Didius Julianus. Nerva was a Spaniard, west of Rome, as was also Trajan, who succeeded him. This period is well emblemized by the red horse; it being remarkable for the conquests of Trajan, the slaughter of the Jewish nation, the bloody victories of Antoninus on the Danube, and the horrible cruelties of Commodus, followed by the murders of the emperors Pertinax and Julianus.

Ver. 5, 6. The third seal is from the South, and introduces the Severian family from Africa. Equally well is the

reign of his family for about forty-two years emblemized by a black horse and balances. His own cruelties and severe regulations were followed by the horrible atrocities of the fierce Caracalla, who was succeeded by the infamous and effeminate Heliogabalus, and the murder of the excellent Alexander.

Ver. 7, 8, introduce the fourth seal from the North, and which contain an epitome of war, famine, wild beasts and pestilence, which last about fifty years, beginning with the reign of Maximin of Thrace, who began his reign by seizing all the public revenues, and exercising the most unheardof cruelties, and close with the election of Diocletian to the imperial dignity. This is allowed to be the most awful period that the empire had ever known. The competitors for the purple were so numerous, that, between civil wars and the invasions of the barbarians, wild beasts, famine and pestilence desolated the whole empire.

Ver. 9-11, is the opening of the fifth seal, and alludes to the ten years' persecution under Diocletian. The scene is laid in the Temple, and the martyrs who had been sacrificed are represented as crying for vengeance upon their persecutors; they are exhorted to patience, and to consider how the Ephesian church had triumphed.

The other persecutions had been occasioned by various causes emanating from Christianity; but this was occasioned by a full determination to destroy the Christian name, instead of which it occasioned the overturning of the Pagan Idolatry of Rome, and substituting nominal Christianity in

its stead.

Ver. 12-17, is the sixth seal opened with an account of the overturning of Paganism. By a reference to Haggai ii. 1, Heb. xii. 27, Isaiah xiii. 12—14, xxxiv. 4, Jeremiah iv. 23, 24, Joel ii. 10, 81, Matt. xxiv. 39, as well as other places, it will appear that this language of the Revelator signifies that the Christian Church was completely triumphant over its Heathen adversaries, and that a new temporal order of things had taken place, which it did, when the emperors Galerius, Maximin, and Licinus, made a public profession of their guilt, recalled their decrees, and acknowledged the divine judgments in their chastisement. T. T.



Whilst man with universal concord blest

Written, but not sent, to Dr. Priestley, Shall clasp each friend and brother to his

on his Address to the Jews.

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Idolatry no longer boast her flame,
One God in heaven, One on earth his



He who walks in Virtue's way,

Firm and fearless, walketh surely; Diligent while yet 'tis day,

On he speeds, and speeds securely.
Flow'rs of peace beneath him grow,
Suns of pleasure brighten o'er him;
Mem'ry's joys behind him go,

Hope's sweet angels fly before him.
Thus he moves from stage to stage,
Softly sinking down in age,
Smiles of earth and heav'n attending;

And at last to death descending.
Cradled in its quiet deep,

Calm as Summer's loveliest ev'n, He shall sleep the hallow'd sleep; Sleep, that is o'erwatch'd by heav'n. Till that day of days shall come, When th' archangel's trumpet breaking Through the silence of the tomb,

All its prisoners awaking; He shall hear the thund'ring blast, Burst the chilling bands that bound him; To the throne of glory haste,

All heav'n's splendors op'ning round him.


When before Thy throne we kneel, Fill'd with awe and holy fear, Teach us, O our God, to feel


All Thy sacred presence near. Check each proud and wand'ring thought When on Thy great name we call; Man is nought-is less than nought: Thou, our God, art all in all. Weak, imperfect creatures, we

In this vale of darkness dwell; Yet presume to look to Thee,

'Midst Thy light ineffable. O forgive the praise that dares

Seek Thy heav'n-exalted throne; Bless our off'rings, hear our pray's, Infinite and Holy One!


ON HEARING MR. PREACH. Go, favour'd youth, and to the sons of men, The vast designs of Provideuce explain; Go, and to all his doubting children prove Th' Almighty Father's everlasting love;

Teach men the joys which self can never


To check the ready tear prepared to flow,

In acts of mercy, and such deeds record, Then in their annals INGRAM's name must shine,

And tell them what a strong and tender Who view'd the God of nature's kind de

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And cruel treatment to his works abhorr'd:
Fain would his generous sympathy as-

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I. L.

[From "Apeleutherus; or an Effort to attain Intellectual Freedom." 8vo.] Deo Optimo Maximo.

SONNET TO SIR SAMUEL ROMILLY. O Thou, whose bounty gave this mantling

Composed a short time before his

lamentable decease.

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Where, from the world retired, I oft recline,

And trace Thy wonder-working band


And read Thy name in ev'ry blushing

Sov'reign of nature, all-directing Power!
Great source of being, life, and light,

and joy!

To Thee I dedicate this best employ, This sweetest solace of the silent hour. O search this heart, that seeks no vain disguise,

Accept the tribute, and the labour

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