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to the king-he used me civilly; I, in requital, offered my poor thoughts three times for his safety." And Mr. Whitlock relates, that "at a conference between him and the king, the king desired one of his own chaplains might be permitted to come to him, for his satisfaction in some scruples of conscience, and thereupon the Bishop of London was ordered to go to his Majestie." At another time, when Charles was in the hands of the army, Sir John Denham was entrusted by the Queen with a message to his Majesty, and he relates that he got admittance to the king by the assistance of Hugh Peters. 1

In January 1649, the king was beheaded; and although Peters, by his frequent addresses to the army, eucouraged them to proceed in the business of the Revolution, I do not find that he was employed at the time, or was in the least accessary to the actual death of the king. That he was very instrumental in promoting the views of the Republicans there is abundant evidence, and the zeal which he manifested in the cause is abundantly sufficient to account for the inexorable revenge with which he was pursued by the Royalists. It is very well known that he addressed the soldiers at Bridgwater, and again at Milford Haven; and that, by a sermon he preached in the Market-place at Torrington, he induced many, who had hitherto adhered to the king's party, to leave that party and declare for the Parliament. It appears also from a letter, written by Rushworth to the Speaker of the House of Commons, that the gentlemen of Cornwall were induced to decide for the Parliament, by a persuasive harangue which Peters delivered to them on Bodmin Downs. § All this, however, may have been done by a man of his sentiments, with the purest and most philanthropic intentions.

About the year 1649 or 1650, Hugh Peters was appointed by Cromwell to be one of the triers for the ministry, an appointment which was designed

Last Legacy, p. 103.
† Whitlock, p. 370.
Dedication of Denham's Poems

King Charles II. 1671.

Harleian Miscellany, V. 563.

to keep improper men out of the
church. Of this appointment Peters
himself speaks with great modesty in
his Last Legacy.
Butler has, how-
ever, endeavoured to turn the office
into ridicule. +

I do not find any document to shew how Peters was engaged in the year 1650, but on the 20th January, in the year 1651, a committee was appointed to remove certain inconveniences in the mode of administering the laws of the land; and Peters, together with Mr. John Rushworth, the historian, Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, afterwards Earl of Shaftsbury, and many other men of rank, were appointed on that committee. I Upon this circumstance I shall merely remark, that Cromwell and his Parliament usually filled the offices of trust with men of talent and unimpeachable integrity; therefore the appointment of Peters by the Parliament of England to an office of such dignity and importance, and with such men, is of itself no small praise. Especially when it is considered, that the Parliament had ample means of rewarding all whom they chose to employ; § that they voted Milton one thousand pounds for writing his Iconoclastes, || and allowed him a weekly table for the entertainment of learned men and foreign ambassadors. ¶

The next affair of any importance, in which Hugh Peters was engaged, or rather, the next in point of time which has come to my knowledge, was at the instance of the Government of Holland. The Dutch having been much alarmed at the repeated defeat of their fleets by Admiral Blake, and the messengers whom they had sent to sue for peace having

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See Richardson's Life of Milton. Toland's Life of Milton, Note, p. 110, 8vo. 2d edition. The munificence of Oliver and the Parliament were also displayed in their treatment of Major General Lambert, to whom, in consequence of his valour, they voted a thousand pounds for the to purchase of a jewel; and afterwards Oliver granted him a pension of £2000 per


been unable to appease Cromwell, though they made the most obsequious submission, and had offered to engage that the Dutch Ambassadors should in future stand uncovered in his presence, in the beginning of the year 1653, they employed Colouel Doleman and others to learn the sen timents of the leading men of the Parliament, and gain over Hugh Peters to plead for them." This office Peters undertook, and it seems he was authorized to offer the sum of three hundred thousand pounds to purchase the amity of the Parliament and the Protector. This attempt, however, did not succeed, and when the nego ciation was broken off, the Dutch fitted out another large fleet under Van Tromp, De Witt and De Ruyter, and appointed four other deputies to go upon another embassy to England. These men arrived on the 2d of July, 1653, and "all joined in one petition for a common audience, praying thrice humbly that they may have a favourable answer, and beseeching the God of peace to co-operate." These ambassadors, like the foregoing, sought out Peters, and engaged him to present their petition. Hugh Peters received it with great affability, and having delivered it to Secretary Thurloe, that amiable man laid it before the Council of State, where it was

immediately attended to. After a variety of interviews, peace was at last concluded, and the ratifications were mutually exchanged on the 2d of May, 1654; a circumstance which produced such universal joy in Holland, that the government ordered several medals to be struck on the occasion. That the Dutch thought Hugh Peters had sufficient influence to promote the pacification, is demon strated by the circumstance of both deputations having besought his assistance; and that the English thought he had actually been of service in the business, is, I think, evident from the historian of that war, (who was a high Tory, and had no inclination to do honour to Peters,) having made

Stubbe on the War, quarto, 1673, Part II. p. 81.

Life of Admiral Blake, printed for Miller, duodecimo, London, p. 71.

Stubbe on the War, quarto, 1673, Part II. p. 83.

choice of an engraved representation of the four deputies, in the act of preseating their petition to Peters, as a frontispiece to that work. The book to which I refer, is entitled “A Justification of the War against the United Netherlands, by Henry Stubbe, 1678."

That Hugh Peters, who had undoubtedly a great deal of benevolence and right feeling in his composition, was actuated by a good principle in this interference in behalf of the Dutch, I should have readily sup posed, if nothing had been recorded respecting it; but Ludlow has informed us, that “ In gratitude to the Hollanders for the sanctuary he had found among them in the time of his distress, he was not a little servicea ble to them in composing their differences with England."

This business was concluded in the year 1654, and in the beginning of the following year, a melancholy affair happened upon the continent, which demanded the interference and kind offices of the wise and good throughout Europe. Hugh Peters, who appears to have been always ready at the call of the unfortunate, was not backward in his duty, either as a man, or as a Christian minister, in this instance. What I refer to was the persecution and massacre of the Protestants in the Valleys of Piedmout. The afflictive story I need not relate, but I will recommend the perusal of a most interesting work, entitled "The History of the Waldenses, by Wm. Jones, in 2 vols. 8vo." where a very full account is given of the whole transaction, and of the persuasive and pathetic letters which the immortal Milton wrote, by the desire of Cromwell, to every Court in Europe, in behalf of this Sonnet, beginning, suffering people. Milton's beautiful

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time, however, of his usefulness was now drawing towards a close-for in less than two months after the aforesaid letter was written, his great pa tron and friend, Oliver Cromwell, died; and in less than two years afterwards, the Royalist party having obtained the ascendancy, this indefatigable and intrepid patriot, who had spent his best days in instructing his countrymen in the nature of their rights, civil and religious, was apprehended as a regicide, and closely confiued a state prisoner in the Tower of London.

Soon after the affair of the persecuted Protestants was concluded, Cromwell formed an alliance, offensive and defensive, with the French, in which it was agreed that Dunkirk should be delivered up to him. In It was expected that Peters would consequence of this agreement, six have been included in the Bill of Inthousand men were sent over to join demnity, and there is reason to bethe French army; and Peters re- lieve that the House of Commons ceived a commission to attend them wished to have saved him; but some thither. The town of Dunkirk, in of the Lords being clamorous, the consequence of this league, was taken Commons consented, and his death from the Spaniards, and on the 26th was determined upon. The charges of June 1658, was delivered to Colo- made against him, part of which he nel Lockart, Cromwell's Ambassador denied upon his trial, were "for comat the French Court. On the 18th passing and imagining the death of day of the following month, the Co- the king, by conspiring with Oliver lonel wrote from Dunkirk to Secre- Cromwell, and procuring the soldiers tary Thurloe, expressly respecting the to demand justice; by preaching diconduct and services of Peters. It vers sermons to persuade the soldiery begins-"I could not suffer our wor- to take off the king, by comparing thy friend Mr. Peters to come away him to Barabbas; in applying to him from Dunkirk, without a testimony that part of Psalm exlix. where the of the great benefits we have all re- saints are exhorted To bind their ceived from him in this place;" and it Kings with chains and their Nobles concludes with this remarkable para- witli fetters of iron ;'—and by remindgraph: "It were superfluous to tell ing his hearers of the blood which your Lordship the story of our present had been unjustly shed by the king's condition, either as to the civil go- orders, and assuring them, that if verument, the works or the soldiery. they would look into their Bibles He, who hath studied all these more they would see that whosoever than any I know here, can certainly sheddeth man's blood, by man shall give the best account of them. Where- his blood be shed,' and that there is fore commit the whole to his inno exception from this general rule in formation, and beg your Lordship's favour of kings.” casting a favourable eye upon such propositions as he will offer to your Lordship for the good of this garrison."

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While Peters was in the Tower, he endured much from depression of spirits, "fearing," as he would often say, "that he should not go through his sufferings with courage and comfort." The sequel of the history will shew, however, what little reason there was for these apprehensions. During his imprisonment in the Tower, he employed himself in drawing up several sheets of advice to an only daughter for her conduct in life, which were delivered to her a little

* Ludlow's Memoirs, III, 60.

before his death, and in the following year were published in a small volume by two of his friends, under the title of " A Dying Father's Last Legacy," as before mentioned. This little book is a most interesting publication; and I think it impossible to read it without forming a very high idea of the good sense and the amiable character of the writer.

On Wednesday the 10th day of October, 1660, the Lieutenant of the Tower, according to his warrant, delivered the regicides, together with Peters, to the Sheriff of Loudon, when they were all conveyed in several coaches, with a strong guard of horse and foot, to Newgate. On the Saturday following, Peters was put upon his trial at the Old Bailey, when he behaved with great firmness, and openly contradicted many things which were sworn against him, particularly in the evidence of Dr. Young. This man had been a violent declaimer for the Parliament, and had entertained Peters in his house for ten weeks, in order to get within him," as he expressed it, "and learn his intentions." Then, when Peters came upon his trial, this treacherous and unprincipled wretch volunteered his evidence against him. Sir Orlando Bridgeman, the Lord Chief-Baron, and Finch, the Solicitor-General, seem to have been determined to convict the prisoner. The latter in his charge to the jury told them, "the death of this man will preach better than his life; and I hope," said he, "you will make an example of this carnal prophet." In passing sentence, the Lord Chief-Baron paid him a compliment respecting his liberal education; and then, having enlarged much upon the enormity of inflicting death upon a king, he ordered him to be carried back to Newgate, to await the execution of the law. On the next day, which was Sunday, Peters was so composed as to be able to preach to his fellow-prisoners in Newgate, and others who came there to visit them. The text which he made choice of for the occasion was from Psalm xlii. "Why art thou cast down, O my soul? And why art thou

* See the Trial of the Regicides, quarto, 1660, pp. 153-184.

disquieted within me? Hope thou in God, for I shall yet praise him,” &c.

Some memorable occurrences in the last hours of this unfortunate man, and which were published soon after his death, must not be overlooked.

A night or two before he suffered, two of the king's chaplains paid him a visit in prison, to persuade him to repent of his activity in the Parlia ment cause, which they endeavoured to enforce upon him by a promise of pardon from the king; but though his spirits were at that time much oppressed, he told them boldly, and with a noble animation of spirit, that "he had no cause in the least to repent of his adhering to that interest; but rather, that he had in the prosecution thereof done no more for God and his people in these nations :" and then, dismissing his visitants with civility, he addressed his conversation to some other ministers who were present, and whom he judged better able to comfort him at that trying season. †

On Tuesday the 16th day of October, Mr. John Cook, who had been Solicitor-General under Cromwell, and Hugh Peters were drawn toge ther on two hurdles to Charing Cross, the place of execution; and the wretches who conducted the business had the brutality to place the head of Major-General Harrison, who had been executed on the Saturday before, all gory and uncovered, upon the hurdle which carried the SolicitorGeneral, on purpose to intimidate him; but it seemed to produce a contrary effect, and to animate him with courage, while it occasioned the warmest expressions of detestation from the populace.

"Being thus carried upon the sledge to execution, and made to sit therein within the rails at CharingCross, to behold the execution of Mr. Cook, one came to him and upbraided him with the death of the king, bidding him (with opprobrious language) to repent: he replied, with a truly Christian meekness of spirit, “Friend,

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you do not well to trample upon a dying man, and you are greatly mistaken, for I had nothing to do in the death of the king."

When the Solicitor-General was cut down and his body was laid upon the stage to be quartered, a person whom they called Colonel Turner, ordered the Sheriff's men to bring Peters near, that he might see what was going to be done to the remains of his friend; aud, by-and-by, the executioner came up to him, all besmeared with blood, and rubbing his bloody hands together, he tauntingly asked, “how do you like this Mr. Peters, how do you like this work?" The venerable martyr only returned, I am not, I thank God, terrified at it-you may do your worst."


As he stood upon the ladder, he addressed the Sheriff in the following impressive words: "Sir, you have slain one of the servants of God before mine eyes, and have made me to behold it, on purpose to terrify and discourage me; but God hath made it an ordinance unto me for my strengthening and encouragement." His last words were, "Oh, this is a good day! He is come that I have long looked for, and I shall be with him in glory." The historian adds, "and he smiled when he went away."

When the bodies had been dismembered, and were divided into quarters, the quarters were sent through the streets back to Newgate, upon the same hurdles that brought them when alive. The head of Mr. Justice Cook was set upon a pole, on the north-east end of WestminsterHall, on the left of Mr. Harrison's, with both their faces towards London; and the head of Peters on London-Bridge. The quarters of these sufferers were exposed, like those of Major-General Harrison, upon the tops of some of the city gates.

Such was the return that this good man received for all his benevolent exertions, and for the labours of a whole life devoted to the service of his fellow-creatures. "Surely there is a God that judgeth in the earth; surely there is a reward for the righ


S. P.

Botanical Elucidations of Scripture.

[From Sir J. E. Smith's Considerations respecting Cambridge, &c. See Mon. Repos. pp. 37-39.

[F mathematical science be more

knowledge, classical studies often derive illustration from an acquaintance with the different branches of natural history. The Botanical Commentary on Virgil, by the elder Professor Martyn, is, or ought to be, in the hands of every student, who wishes to know what he is reading about. Nor is the subject exhausted even by that able bonatist. The Acanthus of Virgil is still undetermined. That it is not the Axavda of Dioscorides, the supposed origin of the Corinthian capital, any attentive reader of the Roman poet must perceive. He speaks of it as an evergreen with flexible twigs, forming thickets, clipped by the gardener in winter, and bearing berries. All this is very unsuitable to the real Acanthus; and I am persuaded of what no commentator has hitherto conjectured, that Virgil's plant is our common Holly, a shrub not indicated in any other part of his writings, though frequent in Italian gardens and thickets, as well as elsewhere throughout Europe. Commentators not versed in natural history, are apt to suppose the same name must always mean the same thing. Thus in Scripture botany, the Hebrew '717, dudaim, or love plants, mentioned twice in the Bible, and described in Solomon's Song as having a sweet smell, may be any herb or flower to which the qualities of a charm or philter, had been attri buted, without applying precisely to any one in particular; nor does it by any means follow that the dudaim of Genesis and of Solomon's Song are the same. Here botanists have lost their labour, in searching for this famous plant amongst all the fragrant flowers, fruits, or even fungi, upon record. In another instance botany has very happily elucidated a most obscure text. The second book of Kings, chap. vi. ver. 25, records, that during the siege of Samaria," dove's dung" sold for an enormous price. In vain have critics laboured to explain this; some imagining the dung

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