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him, and says,

66

On Mr. Robinson's History of Baptism."

613 borrowed from the New-Testament (though it occurs to me, that Gregory writers; (it has sometimes misled our of Nazianzum speaks in his Oration critics ;) in short it becanie at length on Baptism, of accommodating the a sort of professional, church word, words, in which baptism was asked tantamount to initiati, discipuli, illu- for, to the capacities of children, acminati, baptizati, electi, and other such cording to the form, I mean, that was words as are found, for professing used by catechumers or competentes,) Christians, in early writers.

I observe that Tertullian refers to Where the passage is not figura- Matt. xix. 14; and it occurs to me, tive, the literal meaning of the word that certainly the parvuli of Tertulis to be fixed by the peculiarities and lian and his Africans must have been weaknesses and babits and manners of of the same description of characthe particular periods of human life, ters as those to whom the quotation as exhibited in the descriptions of relates. Else, how would it apply? them by the respective writers, as in Christ heheld little children before two admired and well-known pas.

Suffer the little chil. sages, one in Shakespeare, the other dren to come to me, for of such is the in Virgil. The meaning of Tertul- kingdom of God." Mn KANEVETE aita Jian shall be fixed by himself, in (waldice) Endeny a pas pue: forbid them reference to his quotation from the New

not to come to me." The word is T'estament, and the circumstances con- usually translated parvuli, and I have nected with that quotation.

elsewhere observed, that the very turn It has been observed, then, that of the words proves they were vieither Tertullian never once uses the word new-born babes nor babes at the (infans) throughout this Treatise in breast; and I take leave to repeat it any form, though in other parts of his here: and if this passage will not works he frequently uses the simple satisfy, let the parallel passage be conforms, infans, infantia, the compound sidered, Mark x. 16, where it is more form infanticida, infanticidum, and the directly said, be called them to him. verbal form infanto. The word be These circumstances do not accord to uses is, parvulus, and, in my humble the character of mere infants, newopinion, he so uses it, as to bar outborn babes. Had such been brought, your Correspondent's new-born babe. the mothers, probably, rather than This father' remarks, that baptism liis disciples, would have been reought rather to be delayed than bur. buked. And, what does Christ pervied forward without chúe preparation form on these children? With the kind and knowledge, and, præcipuè circa affections, which all amiable beinys parvulos, “particularly with respect to possess towards children, he put his little ones or children." The question hands on them and blessed them, that then turns upon the word parvulus; is, hie used a Jewish form, in giving and without inquiring whether Mr. a benediction, which we have borR. is right in comprehending the par- rowed in our confirmations and ordivuli among the petentibus dato, "give nations. He grounds on it, further, to them who ask," as he seems to do,' agreeally to his mode of instruction,

a monitory hint to liis disciples, for

whose sakes, indeed principally, this sisted of children, of old and of young exhibition seems to have been made:

but is there the most distant allusion -δι μεν ουδε τα μακραν

to baptism? Not the most distant, Πτεσθαι σθενοντες" οι δε συν γηρα βαρεις at least to my apprehension ; aud it is Ιερεις, εγω δε ζηνος, οι δε τ' ηιθεων

expressly said, Christ did not baptize. Λεκτοι. .

Your Correspondent, (by the bye,) I I admit that there were children among into the foreground (in luis Plea) with

perceive, brings this passage forward them, perhaps in arms, but he addresses the whole group, as Παιδες οικτροι, οι

Infants will be admitted into which the scholiast remarks, Oux eis

the new community," &c. niay, Sc. He speaks not ibis so much with respect to their age, but that it might

Similar to this q.d. is what Calvin, accord with his benevolent feelings, as he says in a Connent on the above verse: had said at the begioning, A TENYA,

0

Hac voce tam parvulos, quam eorum Sons.

similes comprehendit. Insulsi enim Ana.

pien.

a q. d.

VOL. XIV.

4 M

So much for the word parvulus. not aware that your Correspondent But further still; had the word used could have reasoned from it, in favour by Tertullian been really infans, I am of his new-born babe, unless some ad.

jective had been placed beside it, debaptistæ pueros excludunt, à quibus ini termining its limits, as Cyprian applies tium fieri debebat. Ile had before said, recens-natus, or unless some circumItaque hanc clypeum Anabaptistis oppo- stance preceding or accompanying or nemus. Never was shield or a non temerè following infans, delermined its meanmore wantonly placed; before passages, ing, as we have seen in the example Matt. xix. 13–15; Mark x. 13-16; of parvus, from Virgil. We have al. Luke xviii. 15, 16, 18, where there is not ready spoken of infantuli martyres the slightest mention, nor, in my humble and infantuli lectores, and that is a opinion, the most distant allusion to water, diminutive of a lower order than even as those passages are harmonized by infans. If infans should be what they hinself. Harinonia ex Tribus Evange- call in Scotland a wee thing, infan. listis Composita, cum comment. p. 244. The word in each of the above verses: Infans is undoubtedly used for YT1649

tulus would be a wee,

tee thing. in the Greek Testainent by Dr. Harwood, (who professes to have followed in his one who canuot speak, or speak edition the Cambridge and Clermont MSS. plainly, corresponding to our word “ as approaching the nearest of any MSS. babe, bambino, bambolo, bambolino, now known in the world to the original Cabarev, bo Baselv, loquor, to speak text of the Sacred Records,") is wailia, indistinctly as children do; and eveu which the Latin Vulgate translates parvuli, 80 used, it would not carry precision, with the exception of Luke, where it has

as our old English words suckling, infantes, to correspond to fueron, which cradle-child, would. Jofavs, too, was soine MSS, bave in Luke, and which taken for one who could not speak his Grieshach has in his text of that place. mind in law; and by the Roman law, Some versions have pueri and pueruli.

With respect to Beepos, it must be ad- (under which Africa, as a Roman promitted that it is more commonly used in its vince, was,) though males arrived at lowest form for, recens-natus, and even puberty at 14, and therefore à tutelá lower still, for the fætus in the womb, erant liberati; yet they were not of the human species, (en ventre sa mère) complete age till 25, being then under €TKIPTYJE TO @pepos sy tony xoslige avonsi curators, that is, they were infants or Luc. i. 41, and of mere animals, as in minors. In this sense the word has Homer, Bpeopos Lovov. Iliad. ¥. Still passed into different languages, even pedos bas its vagueness. In Ana- know it has into our own, in which creon Cupid talks like a sufficiently stont a minor * is, in law, an infant; at 14 boy, βρεφος ειμι, μη φοβησαι, and does execution enough for a man, βρεφος μεν εσoρω, φεροντα τοξον:

in one of our old legends, quoted by Mr. Aνα αλλεται καχαζων"

Robinson, (and innumerable passages of s

similar import might be produced from old Συ δε καρδιην πονησεις. .

English and Scottish writers,)

Od. iii. The English word child, is liable to the

Seint Jolian was the beste bern, the game ambiguity; it is used by ancient

holi baptist, writers for boys of almost any age, and

That of wommen was i bore, withoute

Jhesu Crist. particularly for a noble youth, or son of a king: thus in Spenser we have Child In short, nothing but circumstances can Arthur and Child Tristram, in Shakes- limit the meaning of all sucb-like rague peare's King Lear we bave Child Roland; words. hence, too, Childe Harold; though child • Blackstone obserres, (Commentaries, (cylde, Saxon, probably from the Hebrew B.iv. Cb.i.) that the civil law distinguished word chil, filius) is analogous to the the age of minors, or those under 25 years Scotch word barne, which means not only old, into three stages; "in funtia, from the one in a state of childhood, but often one birth till seven years of age; pueritia, advanced in life, as implying relation to from 7 to 14; and pubertas, from 14 a parent; Barnis, (says Sanct Paul,) "obey years upwards.” Mr. Robinson refers to your father and mother in all points, for some Digest or some African Code, with this is God's command.” See Jamieson's the distinct titles of de Tutela, de lsScotch Dictionary: and yet barne is used fantia, &c. : and, I doubt not, he is cor for a young man,

and for one of almost any rect both as to the titles and the reason age; thus John Baptist is called a barne the reference, though be does not specify

as we

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Brief Notes on the Bible. No. VIII.

615

he is at years of discretion, and may aliene (has no voice in the disposal of) marry or choose a guardian, but he is his lands, goods and chattels, and is not of full'age, and therefore canuot therefore considered an infant. At

all events, infans was used for chil

dren of various ages, and is so used the book referred to : but I do not find, by Tertullian. But the word parvnithat is either of the four books of Justi- Jus, as Mr. Robinson properly obnian's Institutes, though there is a dis- serves, is more vague still; and yet tinct title, de Tulelis, Lib. i. Tit. xiii. vague as it is, by the reference made, that there is any title, de Infantiâ, or that and the circumstances attending that the word intans occurs once, though it is exact and complete in stating the limits judgment, be brought down to your

reference, it cannot, in my humble and condition of nonage. Mr. Robinson seems to speak, as tbough born, or at the breast.

Correspondent's babe, whether newsponsor and tutor or guardian, was one and the same office. Now I must doubt

This shall suffice for the former whether this was strictly and necessarily part of the compound, lofant-Baptism, the case. What he says of the office of in reference to Tertullian: with rethe tulor and curator, according to the spect to the latter part, Baptism, quocivil law of the Romans, is strictly con- tations in abundance have been given formable to what is laid down in the In. long since from that father, in refestitutes. But though the words tulors and

rence to the mode practised, and the curators are mentioned hundreds of times, persons baptized : and after combioit does not occur to me that sponsor

any where introduced as a synonysmi, or as

ing together the above observations naturally and necessarily related to them,

with those quotations, the reader will nor, indeed, that it is once mentioned. form his judgment on the point subThe inference, therefore, seems to be, that mitted to him, whether Mr. R. or the spousor was not, as a matter of course,

Mr. B. is most incorrect with respect connected with the office of tutor or guar

tu Tertullian on the subject of bapdian.

tism. For my own part, I scruple not The first Christian writer who mentions the word sponsor is Tertullian; and it Mr. B. is fundamentally wrong, that

to express my humble opinion, that should seem to be one connected merely be stumbles at the threshold, and with the Christian profession. When the baptism of children was first stirred, (and goes on stumbling: nor can I do jusas before observed, in the judgment of tice to the subject, without tracing many learned men it was first stirred in him a few steps further, licet non Africa,) a difficulty wonld natnrally arise passibus æquis. relative to the questions usually put to

D. those who asked for baptism, and the pro. fession that was to be made by thein; Brief Notes on the Bible. hence sponsors engaged for them. It

No. VIII. might happen, indeed, that a sponsor might

THERE are three resting-places, be a lutur or guardian, but I know of no law which provided that no Gentile could

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which the orthodox be a lutor or guardian of the child of a tomed to occupy, when pressed with Christian, and it does not appear bow a arguments against the possibility, Gentile tutor conld be a Christian sponsor. either of there being a second God, or The sponsor, therefore, seems rather to of the existence of a second person in have been a sort of Christian fide-jussor, the Godhead; (can a more prominent whether he was his tutur or not. The child might be considered a sort of god. bearn, and the sponsor wbut we now call tules, Tit. xiii. : Est autem Tutela (ut a god faiber. li does not, therefore, seem Servius definivit) Vis (aliter Jus) ac Pustrictly carrect to say the tutor (i. e. guar- testus in capile libero ad tuendum eum dian) or sponsor, because in certain cases qui propter ætatein se defendere nequit, (particularly where a guardian was not jure civili data et permissa. Tutores autem appointed in the will of a parent, and the sunt, qui eam vim (al. Jus) ac potestatem next of kin, on the male side, became babent, exque ipsâ re nomen acceperunt. Tatores legitimi, Instit. Jur. Civ. 1. i. ltaque appellantur tutores, quasi tuitores Tit. xv. or in the case of Toltores Fidu

atque defensores, sicut aditui dicuntur, ciarii, L. i. Tit. xiv, where the Tutela was qui ædes tuentur. The sponsor was a also Legitima) they might, it should seem, surety; a word nsed several times by be different characters. The office of tutor Cicero, and from biin, I suspect, it was or guardian is thus described in the Insti- derived.

are accus

example be cited of a distinction with least, if not of some importance, arises out a difference.)

out of this designation of the apostles, The miracles of Jesus.

The promise was given to the selected His remission of sins.

twelve, including Judas the traitor. His office of presiding at the final It was, in its terms, positive and unjudgment.

conditional; but, are we not to preThe miracles of Christ fall infinitely sume a condition implied, and that short of proving bis divinity, inas- the glorious appointment was formuch as Moses and other preceding feited by the subsequent treachery of prophets had worked stupendous mi- Judas? racles before him; and as he encou- The question also occurs, whether raged his apostles by an assurance Matthias, who succeeded Judas in the that they who believed (or felt an apostleship, succeeded to the prounwavering faith) in him, should be mise: otheru ise, one of the thrones able to effect greater works than his: would be vacant. which I consider as disposing of this I touch these matters but gentis, branch of the subject.

and with a view to the consideration The power to forgive sins would of them by some of your Corresposhave a more formidable aspect, had dents, better qualified than myself to not Jesus himself supplied an answer

discuss their bearings. to the assumption founded upon it by In the way of postscript, (premising committing the like, and even an ex- a reference to my exordium, No.VII.) tended power to his apostles in the I would observe it to be somewhat declaration, † “ If ye remit the sins remarkable that Jesus had intimated of any, they are remitted unto them, the defection of one of the twelve, † If ye retain them, they are retained." just before his ordination of them to As their authority to remit sins was the office of judging the tribes. that which he conferred upon them, It would be very gratifying to have so was his own in like manier deriva- this singularity explained. tive-as he was uniformly anxious to

BREVIS. impress upon his hearers-from his Permit me a few words upon a very Father.

different subject. In your last Nam. The power, therefore, to dispense ber [p. 558] Mr. Luckcock has introwith the penalty of moral transgres. duced an extract from Mr. Russell's sions, though an original attribute of (the resident at Hydrabad) letter, the Deity, is no more a proof in one announcing, first, that the Fort of instance, than in the oiher, of the Nowah had been taken by assault; commissioned possessor of it being and, secondly, that the greatest part super-human.

of the garrison, upwards of 500 men, Presiding in judgment upon the had been put to the sword. Mr. RusJuman race is, indeed, an awful and sell commences with “I have the magnificent prerogative; for, to what pleasure to inform you ;" and Mr. being but the Creator, to whom alone Luckcock ventures to ivfer that he all are responsible, could such a juris- contemplated the massacre with plea. diction be assigved? Let the words sure; tbay which there never was a of our Saviour answer that question more outrageous inference. Had he also, who (not to dwell in this place written, “I have the pleasure to inon the Father's having committed all form you that the fort was taken, judgment to the Sou I) animated his and that the garrison was put to the apostles with the prospect of " sit- sword,” Mr. Luckcock's premises ting on twelve throues, judging the might have justified the inference; twelve tribes of Israel." Even this bui the contrary appears. He comhigh prerogative, therefore, being municates, with pleasure, the taking communicable, must be rejected as a of the Fort, with a full stop; and proof of divinity accompanying the proceeds, as was his official duty, to possession of it.

state the afflicting consequence, which A question of some curiosity, at

. John xiv, 12.
I John v. 22—27.

+ John xx. 22.

Matt. xix. 28.

* For an implied exception, see 1 Cor. XV. 27.

+ Luke xxii, 21-30..

Life of Lady Russell.-Dr. Carpenter on Divine Influences. 617 ke does simply and dryly. No man motive to his wife, for such grievous acquainted with Mr. Russell can be submission. She sulmitled to exist Jieve that he had any pleasure in it, for thirty years! a devoted martyr to or did not deplore the necessity of duty, to morals, to religion. And I making such a communication. And am much mistaken, Mr. Editor, if when Mr. Luckcock was apostro- this martyrdom were not infinitely phizing at such a rate in the cause of more painful and illustrious, than humanity and Christian forbearance, those of the different ages which hisit ill became him to sport an uncha- tory has handed down to us wiih so ritable assumption, which, in the much triumph! It is easy to die like mildest character of it, is purely gra. Lord Russell, but not to live like tuitous.

Lady Russell! And, let me add, that B. the women of England, are many of

them worthy to class with this their Sir,

illustrious example, marty's 10 duty E TXAMPLES of pre-eminent vir- and patient in well-doing!

HOMO. united with it, pre-eminent suffering, are worthy of the notice and recom

Dr. Carpenter on Dirine Influences. mendation of every work, however connected as to sectarian and subor.

(Concluded from p. 550.) linate opinions. I presume, therefore, Y intermediate agency, God osten to recommend to your readers the character of Lady Russell, wife of rational offspring without their exLord William Russell, put to death pressly seeking for his mercy and fain the reign of the most imprincipled vour; but whatever be the nature of of our kings, Charles II. Some ac- his immediate influence on the human count of the Life of this Lady has heart, I see no scriptural warrant for been lately published in quarto, with the opinion, that he emploss it withher Letters to her Husband, when out our seeking for it. The best of he happened to be a few days absent spiritual blessings are promised to the from her, which seems always to have faithful, humble, and devout servants been against the inclination of each of of God, to those who trust in the the attached parties.

Lord with all their hearts, and lean These Letiers breathe an affection not to their own understanding, who which Lady Russell evidently felt to acknowledge bim in all their ways, be too powerful for expression. Be, whose chief aim is to serve and please tween the parties it is evident that him, whose chief desire is to obtain conjugal affection existed in its most bis approbation; but where is the powerful character. Such examples authority for believing that he affords seem natural, and, indeed, where ex- more than the opportunity of knowtremely distressing circumstances do ing and doing his will, to those who mot agitate the inind, one wonders do not fear the Lord, and endeavour that they are not universal. Yet it to walk in the path of his commandis not the case, though it seems diffi- ments ? cult to say how it comes to be other- The fact undoubtedly is, (I say un. wise.

doubtedly, because every one who The most infamous Court of Charles has observed the workings of the had no temptations for Lady Russell, heart in connexion with extraordinary All the delight of her existence cen- acts of sincere and earnest devotion, tered in domestic love. Her husband or who has tracell out the influence well appreciated, before his death, the of habitual piety, on the dispositions, great disparity of their several cir. the conduct, and the happiness of the cumstances. He said justly, his suf- servants of God, knows it to be so, ferings were nothing, the cutting off and the Scriptures most strongly and his head was like the drawing of a expressly declare the same thing) tooth; but he knew that She would the fact undoubtedly is, that he who abhor life, after his removal, and to knoweth our frame has made the ex. induce her to submit to drag on so ercises of piety, and especially the act painful and hateful an existence, he of prayer, the means of cherishing, gently suggested their children as a purifying, and strengthening the affecs

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