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mountains of Armenia, with 400 of his Turks. “ From thence they began their excursions ; and the other Turks associating with them, and following their standard, they gained several victories over the Tartars on one side, and over the Christians on the other. Ortogrul dying in 1288, Othman, or Osman, his son, fuccecded him in power and authority; and in 1299, as some fay, with the consent of Aladin himself, he was proclaimed Sultan, and founded a new empire; and the people afterwards (a mixed multitude, the remains of the four fultanies) as well as the new empire, was called by his name.'

“ In this manner, and at this particular time, the four angels were loofed to say the third part of men, that is, to conquer and to overs throw the subjects of the Roman Empire. The Latin or Western Empire was broken to pieces under the first four trumpets; the Greek or Eastern Empire was cruelly hurt and tormented under the fifth trumpet; and here under the fixth trumpet it is to be pain and utterly destroyed. Accordingly all Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Thrace, Macedon, Greece, and all the countries which formerly belonged to the Greek or Eastern Emperors, the Othmans have conquered and subjugated to their dominion. They first passed over into Europe, in the reign of Orchan their second


emperor, in the year 1357. They took Constantinople in the reign of Mohammed their seventh emperor, in the year 1453; and in time all the remaining parts of the Greek Empire shared the fate of their capital city. The last of their conquests were Candia, or the antient Crete, in 1669, and Cameniec in 1672. For the execution of this great work, it is said that they were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a’month, and a year k. Now it is wonderfully remarkable, that the first conquest mentioned in history, of the Othmans over the Christians, was in the year of the Hegira 680, and the year of Christ 1281. For Ortrogrul . in that year (according to the accurate Historian Saadi) crowned his victories with the conquest of the famous city of Kutahi upon the Greeks.' Compute 391 years from that time [according to established prophetic calculation) and they will terminate in the year 1672: and in that year, as it was hinted before, Mohammed the fourth took Cameniec froin the Poles "and forty-eight towns and villages in the territory of Cameniec were delivered up to the Sultan


the peace. Whereupon

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Prince Cantemir hath made this memorable reflection, . This was the lait victory by which any advantage accrued to the Othman state ; or any city or province was annexed to the ancient bounds of the empire.' Agreeably to which obfervation, he hath intitled the former part of his history, Of the growth of the Othe inan Empire, and the following part, Of the decay of the Othman Empire. Other wars and slaughters, as he fays, have ensued. The Turks even besieged Vienna in 1683; but this exceeding the bounds of their commission, they were defeated. Belgrade and other places may have been taken from them, and surrendered to them again : but still they have subdued nò new state or potentate of Christendom now for the space of between 80 and 90 years; and in all probability they never may again, their empire appearing rather to decrease than increase. Here then the Prophecy and the event agree exactly in the period of 391 years ; and if more accurate and authentic hiftories of the Othmans were brought to light, and we knew the very day wherein Kutahi was taken, as certainly as we know that wherein Cames niec was taken, the like exactness might also be found in the 15 days. But though the time be limited for the Othmans Naying the third part of men, yet no time is fixed for the


duration of their empire'; only this second woe will end, when the third woe, or the destruction of the beast, shall be at hand ?."

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And the number of the army of the borfemen were two hundred thousand thousand, or as the words may

be translated more literally, myriads of myriads.” It was the custom of the Tartarian tribes to count their forces by myriads; and Gibbon, speaking of the Turkish cavalry, adopts this mode of computation. The Historian, defcribing the peculiar manners and customs of their ancestors, fays “, their wandering life maintains the spirit and exercise of arms ; tbey fight on horseback.—The Sultan Mahmud inquired of a chief of the race of Seljuk, who dwelt in the territory of Bochara, what supply of men he

1038. could furnish for military service. If you send, replied Ismael, one of these arrows into our camp, fifty thousand of your servants will mount on borse-back. And if that number, continued Mahmud, should not be sufficient? Send this second arrow to the horde of Balik, and you will find fifty thousand more.

A. D.


· Newton, vol. iii. p. 46, &c..See the second Intraductory Chapter

- Gibbon, c. 57
n Gibbon, c. 57, p. 650.
G 3


said the Sultan, if I should stand in need of your whole kindred tribes ? Dispatch my bow, was the last reply of Ifmael, and as it is circulated around, the summons will be obeyed by two hundred thousand borse.

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there were,

When Alp Arslan invaded the

Roman empire, “his hopes of victory 1071.

were : placed in the arrows of the Turkish cavalry, whose squadrons were loosely distributed in the form of a crescent P.'

». At the last siege of Constantinople in the numerous army of Turks, which consisted of two bundred and fifty-eight thousand men, according to an historian quoted by Gibbon, only fifteen thousand Janizaries, troops which are known to be the principal infantry of the Ottomans ;-- so that if an allowance be made for forty thousand foot, collected together under other denominations, there will remain for the number of the army of the horsemen on this single occasion, literally twenty myriads, or two hundred thousand q.


• Gibbon, c. 57.
P Whitaker, p. 151.

q“ The Timariots, or Horsemen holding lands by Terving in the wars, are the strength of the Turkish gövernment; and these, as Heylin affirms, are in all accounted between seven and eight hundred thousand fighting men:


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