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narrower compass, to have ensured it a more popular circulation. We recommend it to our reading friends, and especially to those who have any influence in circulating libraries, in most of which we fear Volney is to be found, and where this volume ought to be found also.

The following is a specimen of the author's manner :

"We now arrive at the acme of those audacious and unfounded assertions, by which Volney attempts to evade the notiees that are found in the Jewish history and prophecies, respecting the advent, the nature, and the offices of the Messiah. Though his account of these subjects becomes more fabulous, his tone of confidence is not at all diminished. He says, "It was recorded that, in the beginning a man and woman had, by their fall, brought sin and evil into the world.' By this was denoted the astronomical fact of the celestial Virgin,'and the Herdsman, (Boötes,) who, setting heliacally, at the autumnal equinox, resigned the heavens to the wintry constellations, and seemed, in sinking below the horizon, to introduce into the world the genius of evil, Ahrimanes, represented by the constellation of the serpent.'

"It is a common saying, that liars begin with deceiving others, and end with deceiving themselves.' Volney seems to write for those who either have too little intellect, or who have not the means of detecting his misrepresentations, or ignorance of those subjects on which he descants. If he had known any thing of astronomy, he certainly would not have so wantonly attempted to impose on the ignorant, as to make the assertion quoted above; as he must have known that the heliacal setting of Virgo is not a resignation of the heavens to the wintry constellations, to Ahrimanes, &c.; but that in something less than a month, emerging from the sun's rays, she rises heliacally, and continues her reign, if such Volney is pleased to call it, through winter and spring. It is also a gross perversion of language, to say that a person who retires, introduces another; in common parlance, the person who introduces or brings in another, must be present; and, if the Virgin retires, the Serpent may come in; but it cannot be said, without an unpardonable solecism, that the absent Virgin brings him in.

"He goes on to say, that the next part of the mythological history is, *that the woman had decoyed and se

duced the man :-And, in reality, the Virgin setting first, appears to draw the Herdsman (Boötes) after her.'

"According to Volney's interpretation, the Virgin seduces the man, and the man seduces the serpent; for the Herdsman sets before the serpent, as the woman does before the man; but the history which this impious nonsense is intended to parody, informs us that it was the serpent which seduced the woman.

"Another part of this tradition is, That the woman had tempted him, by offering him fruit, pleasant to the sight, and good for food, which gave the knowledge of good and evil. Manifestly alluding to the Virgin, who is depicted holding a bunch of fruit in her hand, which she appears to extend towards the Herdsman.' Depicted holding a bunch of fruit! Where? In Volney's book! We call for the authority on which these savans rest their assertions, that the ancients had any such artificial celestial globes as are used by modern astronomers. We utterly deny the possibility of any one proving the existence of such, in those times of which we speak, or of any such classification of stars as we now have. We may be mistaken in this; but let those who are able, prove that we are. Does there remain any drawing of the sphere of Eudoxus, or of any sphere of the same or more ancient time? And if there does, are the figures on it the same as those on the modern globes? Could they show that such is the case, and would they preserve any consistency in what they advance, we would inquire if they find any analogy between the figures on the modern globes, and those of the long-vaunted zodiacs of Dendéra and Esne? We indeed know that no such resemblance exists. Nor is it a bunch of fruit which the Virgin holds in her hand, but an ear of corn; a bright star of the first magnitude, the name of which, Spica Virginis, leaves no one to puzzle himself as to the nature of the fruit, nor why this festival sign bears in her hand an ear of corn.

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Again, he says, that this couple had been driven from the celestial garden, and that a cherub with a flaming sword had been placed at the door to guard it.' And when the Virgin aud the Herdsman sink below the western horizon, Perseus rises on the opposite side, and, sword in hand, this Genius may be said to drive them from the summer heaven, the garden, and reign of fruits and flowers.'

"To have made this jargon have any tolerable reference or application to the

subject, Perseus should have been close behind the unfortunate couple, and not at the distance of six thousand periods,' on the opposite side of the heavens; but such lame fables are not worthy of notice.

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"He next informs us, that from this Virgin would be born, would spring up a shoot, a child, that should bruise the serpent's head, and deliver the world from sin.' And that, by this was denoted the sun, which, at the period of the summer solstice, at the precise moment when the Persian magi drew the horoscope of the new year, found itself in the bosom of the Virgin, and which, on this account, was represented in their astrological pictures, in the form of an infant suckled by a chaste virgin, and afterward became the vernal equinox, the Ram or Lamb, conqueror of the constellation of the Serpent, which then disappeared from the heavens.'

Volney's frequent mention of the Persian books, the magi, and the astronomical or astrological priests, is nothing more than an affectation of learning and research, which may deceive the ignoraut, but which can gain no credit with those who are in the habit of weighing evidence, until they are directed to the authorities whence he drew that minute information, which enables him to know the precise moment at which the magi,' the magicians, or fortune-tellers, drew their horoscope of the new year; and many other things equally scientific, useful, and amazing. It is however impossible that the sun should have been, at the summer solstice, in Virgo, and in the Rum, at the vernal equinox: no horoscope of the twelve celestial houses was ever drawn by the most bungling astrologer, in which the summer solstice could be five signs, or 150 degrees distant from the first degree of Arics. This, like many of Volney's coincidences, is a thing which never happened, even on Dupuis's calculation of the 17,000 years which have elapsed since the vernal equinox was in Libra, and the nocturnal [autumnal] in Aries! and which never can happen, unless the fixed stars become erratic, if the world should continue for ever.

"We are next informed, 'That in his infancy, this restorer of the divine or celestial nature, would lead a mean, humbie, obscure, and indigent life. By which was meant that the winter sun was humbled, depressed below the horizon, and that the first period of his fourages, or the seasons, was a period of obscurity and indigence, of fasting and privation.' Now if the sphere was pro

jected in Egypt, Nubia, or the Arabian shore of the Red Sea, may we not enquire how much of inconvenience the inhabitants of those countries feel by the humiliation and depression of the sun? Certainly the sun does not sink below the horizon, (except at night,) but to those who inhabit the polar regions. Did this correct astronomer forget that in the tropical regions, and in their vicinity, there is no such sensible depression of the sun, nor any such difference in the length of time it is above the horizon, as in higher latitudes? But, perhaps, he thought that, in the present instance, it would better suit his impious purpose to forget his opinion, formerly expressed, of Egypt being the country in which astronomy, or astrology, gave rise to the fabrication of artificial spheres; and to adopt the opinion of M. Bailli, that Selingenskoi, in Asiatic Russia, between the latitudes of 50 and 60° North, was the place of its invention. Another trifling mistake into which he has fallen is, that his reasoning is grounded on those prophetic notices of the Messiah which represent him as a suffering Saviour, while he forgets that those who thought themselves most interested in his advent, dwelt so little on this circumstance, and so intensely on the glory and conquering prowess of their great Mediator, as to lose all recollection of his debased and humble state, in the ineffable blaze of his majesty.

"To complete the climax, he tells us, "That being put to death by the wicked, he would gloriously rise again, ascend from hell to heaven, where he would reign for ever;' and that, By these expressions was described the life of the same sun, who, terminating his career at the winter solstice, when Typhon and the rebellious angels exercised their sway, seemed to be put to death by them; but shortly after revived and rose again in the firmament, where he still remains.' When was he ever banished from that firmament in which he still remains? Who would not implicitly yield themselves to the guidance of Volney? What convincing arguments! What classical language! What beautiful metaphors! By being put to DEATH-was described the LIFE of the same sun.' But certainly by a figure of rhetoric which is exclusively Volney's; and in which there is as much propriety as there would be in inverting a telescope to view the stars. How a body, which appears to be continually in motion, can be said to terminate its career, in one part of its circuit rather than in another, we

readily confess our incapacity to discover; and we question much whether the united ingenuity of the infidel academy be able to offer any other reason for the use of such a term, than that Volney thought it would serve his cause to employ it. How the journey of the sun, through the ascending signs, from the hell of Capricorn, to the heaven of Cancer, can be understood as a reign for ever, we are equally at a loss to discover; though we have no doubt whatever, but the credulity of an Infidel can receive it from Volney, with as much devotedness as the votaries of the Grand Lama would receive pills of an extraordinary material, from the managers of that strange religion.

"He then states that those traditions also specified his astrological and mysterious names, sometimes calling him Chris, or conservator, and hence the Hindoo god Chris-en, or Christna; and the Christian Chris-tos, the son of Mary. That at other times he was called YES, by the union of three letters, which, according to their numerical value, form the number 608, one of the solar periods;' and that our Yes-us or Jesus, is nothing more than Bacchus, the clandestine son of the Virgin Minerva, and that the history of the God of the Christians shows that he is the star of the day, of which both Bacchus and Jesus are emblems. In fine, he says, 'You need not be told in what manner the rest of this system was formed, in the chaos and anarchy of the three first centuries,' &c. "It is said to have been the common practice of the continental Infidels to misquote and misrepresent ancient authors; and on this principle,- Where one reader is capable of detecting the false or disguised quotation, ten will not; of those who are able, not one in ten will take the trouble: and of those who detect the falsehood, where one steps forward to expose it, ten will be silent. It may therefore never be detected; but should it be detected, the voice of a single individual, when the efforts of a whole conspiracy are employed to drown it, will be heard to a very small distance.'

"Whether this charge can be brought home to the fraternity, we will not attempt to determine; but certainly, if we may judge from the manner in which Volney writes, we should feel inclined to pronounce the charge to be well founded. Perhaps no author ever more wantonly ventured his reputation, either as an honest man or scholar, than Volney, in his rhapsody on the astrological and mysterious

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names Chris, Chris-en,' &c. mological affinities are always calculated to excite either pity or contempt for the judgment of the person who can either adduce or admit them as auxiliaries in argument; and certainly his critique on the above-mentioned names could never have been adventured, on any other than the honest principle to which we have adverted. With the confidence of a Bramin, he informs us that Cris, Cris-en, or Crishna signifies a conservator; while those who are acquainted with the Indian languages assure us that Crishna signifies, not conservator, but black; but whatever it means, it has no affinity with the original name of Him to whom Volney applies it, either in signification or sound, until it is translated into a language foreign to that in which it was first used. Crishna has no more affinity, either in sound or signification, with the name in Hebrew or SyroChaldaic, of which Xporos is the translation, than Yahouh has in sound with Aia, the word used by Diodorus, which, although the same in signification as You-piter, (the name Voluey represents him as using,) is sufficiently different in sound to ruin his deduction. The word for Christ in Hebrew is T Mashiach, or, as we usually sound it in English, Messiah, and Y Yeshua ha-Mashiach signifies, the Saviour the Anointed,' not the black,' which last is the meaning of Crishna.

"Again: We assure the infidel academy, that, if they have any information to communicate, we very much need it, on a subject respecting which Volney says, You are not to be told how the rest of this system was formed in the chaos and darkness of the three first centuries.' We know of no reason why those centuries should be termed a dark and chaotic period, and if the Infidels do, we cannot see how that system, which was formed in the commencement of the Apostolic age, should be peculiarly affected by the circumstances of the ages which succeeded. If, by this system,' he means the errors in doctrine and practice into which many of the professors of Christianity fell, we would have him to understand, that we contend for no such system. Our system is contained in the Sacred Writings; and while we lament the deterioration to which the best things are subject, we maintain that the divine authority of these writings has been clearly shown by a host of learned, wise, and good men."(pp. 343-363.)

RELIGIOUS.

With occasional Characteristic Notices.

[The insertion of any article in this List is not to be considered as pledging us to the approbation of its contents, unless it be accompanied by some express notice of our favourable opinion. Nor is the omission of any such notice to be regarded as indicating a contrary opinion; "as our limits, and other reasons, impose on us the necessity of selection and brevity.]

A Selection of Prayers for Children and Young Persons. By C. Holmes. pp. vi. 154.-This neat little volume, the pious effort of a lady, for the benefit of the rising generation, appears to have been prepared for the press not only with the best intentions, "to promote the highest interests of faith," as she expresses her design in a modest preface; but also with considerable judgment in the selection of subjects, and the adaptation of language to the capacities of children. The sentiments throughout are strictly evangelical a great variety of subjects is contained in the numerous prayers for morning and evening, as well as in those for the Sabbath. Many occasional prayers are also given, tracing the great outline of Christianity; and some, (not the least excellent of the volume,) which will teach the young Christian the duty of praying for "all Jews, Turks, Infidels, and Heretics," and for the spread of the Holy Scriptures. Those who are endeavouring, not only to give instruction to children, but also to assist them in their devotions, and are thus furthering the great objects of the Christian ministry, by instrumentally preparing a people for the Lord, are, we think, deserving of all possible encourage ment, when their efforts are respectably executed, as in the case before us. We, therefore cordially recommend this little volume of prayers, joining fully in the wish expressed in a letter prefixed to the preface, from the Rev. W. Marsh, of Colchester, that the Holy Spirit may accompany the attempt, and that those who read them, may "lift up their hearts with their hands unto God in the heavens."

Hymns on the Lord's Supper. By the Rev. John and Charles Wesley. With a Preface,concerning the Christian Sacrament and Sacrifice, extracted from Dr. Brevint. 12mo. pp. 170. 2s.-This admirable volume was much more extensively used by the primitive Methodists, than it has been in later years. It passed through at least nine different editions, during the life-time of Mr. Wesley; and was doubtless a means of conveying spiritual benefit to the minds of thousands of those who were once under his pastoral care, and who are now his companions in the paradise of God. The Methodist Ministers, at their late Conference in

Bristol, agreed to revive the general use of these hymus on sacramental occasions; and we trust also that many private individuals will, in regard to their own personal edification, avail themselves of the help which may be derived from these sacred compositions. It has been common for sincere and conscientious Christians to prepare themselves, by deep humiliation, by fervent prayer, and by serious selfexamination, for an approach to the table of the Lord; and, after receiving the sacred elements, to retire into secret, for the purpose of confirming their pious resolutions, and of stirring up the gift of God within them: and we know of no manual of devotion which, in so small a compass, is calculated to afford such important aid in these holy exercises, as that which we now introduce to the notice of our readers. There is scarcely a sentiment that can arise in the mind of a mourning penitent, or of an exulting believer, at the sacramental table, but what is here expressed in beautiful and energetic verse. Of the treatise of Dr. Brevint, which is prefixed to these hymus, it is sufficient to say, that it was revised and published by Mr. Wesley, and that from it his brother Charles borrowed the thoughts contained in some of the finest stanzas he ever wrote. We think that it has long been the fault of the modern Methodists, that they have not more generally availed themselves of the vast stores of sacred poetry supplied by the two Wesleys; we therefore rejuice in the republication, in an elegant and inviting form, of the Family Hymn Book, and of the Sacramental Hymns; convinced, as we are, of their peculiar adaptation to promote spiritual religion in all its purity, and effectually to check whatever is either puerile or extravagant in the worship of Almighty God.

A Brief Sketch of the History and present Situation of the Valdenses, in Piedmont, commonly called the Vaudois. By Hugh Dyke Acland, Esq. 2s. 6d.

8vo.

By

Sermons on Various Subjects. Philip Doddridge, D.D. 4 vols. 8vo. 11. 16s.-These sermons, it is said, were, by the Doctor's will, consigned to the care of the Rev. Job Orton, with directions for their publication. Various circumstances have, however, prc

vented their earlier appearance; and, with the exception of the two last, none have ever before been printed.

Time's Telescope for 1826; or, A Complete Guide to the Almanack: containing an Explanation of Saints' Days and Holidays; with Illustrations of British History and Antiquities, Notices of Obsolete Rites and Customs, Sketches of Comparative Chronology, and Contemporary Biography. Astronomical Occurrences in every Month, comprising Remarks on the Phenomena of the Celestial Bodies; and the Naturalist's Diary; explaining the various Appearances in the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms, &c. &c. 12mo. pp. 330. 9s.-Thirteen years have now elapsed since the publication of this very interesting and instructive work was commenced; and during this period it has been deservedly popular among all classes of readers. It contains an endless and delightful variety of scientific notices, anecdotes, biographical sketches, poetry, historical facts, and so forth. Of the present volume it is a sufficient recommendation to say, that it is worthy of its predecessors. It is rich in original poetry, and is decidedly Protestant in its character. In narrating the occurrences of particular days, the Editor has given considerable prominence to the murderous exploits of the Church of Rome. For this peculiarity in his work, he has our cordial thanks, as well as for the other parts of his useful compilation.

Essays on some of the Peculiarities of the Christian Religion. By Richard Whateley, D.D., Principal of St. Alban's Hall, Oxford.

An Extract of the Life of the late Rev. David Brainerd, Missionary to the Indians. By the Rev. John Wesley, M.A. 18mo. pp. 422. 3s. The name of Brainerd has long commanded the cordial respect of all classes of devout Christians, as the designation of a most pious and exemplary servant of the Lord Jesus, whose life was devoted to the conversion of the heathen. His Life was compiled by the Rev. Jonathan Edwards, of New-Eng. land, and afterwards divested of much extraneous matter, and published in an abridged form by Mr. Wesley. This abridgment, which has been long out of print, and eagerly inquired for, is here presented to the lovers of religious biography in a beautiful pocket volume. It is a work which can never be read by serious persons without spiritual benefit.

Sermons Preached on several Occasions, in the Island of Barbadoes. By William J. Shrewsbury. 8vo. pp. 426.

-The circumstances under which the excellent author of these discourses was driven from his pastoral charge in Barbadoes, are well known to our readers in general. The chapel in which they were accustomed to assemble for the worship of Almighty God, was demolished by a lawless mob, who seemed also anxious to embrue their hands in the blood of the unprotected Missionary. This production of his pen is entitled to considerable attention, as consisting of fourteen sermons, the whole of which were preached in that island, and contain the doctrines which he statedly taught, and which his persecutors affected to regard as dangerous to the peace of the community. The volume is "respectfully inscribed to the Society and Congregation of Wesleyan Methodists in the Island of Barbadoes;" and in a brief preface we are informed, that the twelve former discourses were part of those which Mr. Shrewsbury delivered in the Methodist chapel in Bridge-Town, prior to its demolition; and that the two latter are specimens of that simple style of preaching which he employed when addressing congregatious of Slaves, on the different estates to which he was allowed access. "They are now made public," the author states, "that the world may judge of the character and tendency of those doctrines which the Wesleyan Missionaries preach in the West Indies; and that the Members of the Methodist Society in Barbadoes, may, by a recollection of what they have formerly heard, be encouraged to persevere in their Christian profession." Both these purposes will be advantageously answered by this publication. The subjects discussed in it are exceedingly important; and the manner in which they are generally treated, is highly creditable to Mr. Shrewsbury's ministerial abilities, as well as to his Christian zeal and faithfulness. Were we inclined to be fastidious, we might object to a few of the conclusions which he has deduced, in the long sermon entitled, "The Translation of Elijah," and which do not naturally flow from the premises. With a few minor exceptions of this description, among which we include the frequent quotations from the Hebrew, in that and another sermon, we earnestly recommend these discourses to the attention of our readers; and our hope is, that the author will soon have a demand for a second edition. The sermon entitled, "The Awakened Sinner's Struggles," on Rom. vii. 7-25, is an able and satisfactory exposition

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