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would lead the human mind; for, as St. Paul excellently adds, “ He who, in these things, serveth Christ, is evageotos with respect to God, and doxipos to men.” Observe how that most interesting twofold gradation of goodness, which I have taken as the key to justification and sanctification, presents itself in the passage just quoted from Isaiah: “The work of righteousness shall be peace;” that is, its immediate result shall be to still “that troubled sea" whose waters cast up mire and dirt; to suppress those wars and fightings which arise within still more surely than without, from those lusts that war in the members. St. James well describes this first consequence of true righteousness (of 1 TIOTISM Evegyoupsevn di ayonnu) when he says, “the wisdom which is from above, is first pure, then peaceable;" for there can be no true steady peace without, till there be first peace within ; nor this, again, but through purity; nor this, but through rightly directed love; nor this, but through faith of the operation of God. The position of the Prophet, then, is strictly equivalent to that of the Psalmist : “ Great peace have they who love thy law.” But St. Paul adds to peace, the still more perfect and confirmed sentiment, joy; and, exactly in like manner, Isaiah carries forward the view to a second and more matured result, “ quietness and assurance for ever;" a state evidently the same as being “rooted and grounded in love,” or having that “ perfect love which casteth out fear.” Being described as the effect, while the former blessing, peace, is denominated the work, of righteousness, it gives the
idea of an advanced stage of the same course as clearly as words could convey it. On this passage of Isaiah, the collect for evening prayer, “O God, from whom all holy desires,” is a noble comment. Holy desires, good counsels, and just works, are the first elements of righteousness, and lead to a peace which the world cannot give; but this is not rested in -an heart set to obey God's commandments is aspired to, which is the very essence of sanctification, and brings with it a defence from fear, and the passing of our time in rest and quietness.
I cannot but observe, once more, that the two states of grace are accurately placed before us in two admirable petitions of the Litany. When we pray that it may please God to give us an heart to love and dread him, and diligently to live after his commandments, we evidently implore the very substance and soul of righteousness; and when we ask, further, for “ increase of grace, to hear meekly the Divine word, to receive it with pure affection, and to bring forth the fruits of the Spirit,”—what is this but the very essence of sanctification? I do not mean to suppose the compilers had these ideas distinctly in view ; I only think they were led to speak thus by obvious bearings of Scripture, as well as by what occurs in general experience.
I beg your pardon for this very long letter. I had no idea of such a one when I began to write. I have only to add, that, while I differ from Calvinists, it is far from my idea to depreciate them; they have had their great use, and may be yet
necessary to modify Christianity for certain sorts and conditions of men, and perhaps to keep up religion at all in the world as it has yet been. I look, however, for better times, and should be happy to accelerate them.
Yours most sincerely and faithfully,
LETTER TO THE REV DR. WOODWARD ON THE
CHURCH OF ENGLAND.
MY DEAR DOCTOR,
Dawson Street, March 3, 1809.
My silence may lead you to think me unmindful of you. But it is not so, I assure you. If wishing to write were enough to accomplish the thing, you would have heard from me long since. I felt that I must be exciting doubts in your mind, whether my regard for my friends was not an occasional business, taken up when convenient, and laid down again, like one's hat or gloves. But the truth is, my mind is so occupied from day to day, generally with some chain of thought, that, to sit down and write on any thing but the point in hand, requires a force not easy to be exerted, and, if one will do any thing to purpose, not always right to be exerted. This is the true and simple statement; and, I persuade myself, when it is weighed by so candid a man as yourself, it will be felt, that silence, under such circumstances, may look for pardon, and might even hope to get a line or two now and then, even though nothing should be said in reply. Be it deeply observed, that this is said on no ground of personal pretension to exemption from the common laws of intercourse. No, a simple fact is stated, and a hope is expressed, the hope
resting on nothing but the liberality and kindness of the party addressed, to wit, yourself.
And now, let me say something to you (though I say it) worth your attention. I have long been an uneasy listener to what men say on both sides of what are and what are not the doctrines of the Church of England; and I have asked myself, solicitously, how.shall this controversy be settled ? particularly, how shall a decisive and satisfactory answer be given to what is brought from the Thirtynine Articles and the Homilies ? A short time since, I have thought of a settling principle, which I now submit to your consideration.
The Church of England adopts one principle, which other branches of the Reformation hold in common with her, that Fundamentals must have Holy Scripture for their basis, and that nothing is, or can be fundamental, which is not to be proved from the Sacred Word. But she also maintains a second principle, peculiar, I believe, in the great reformed body, to herself, — that in elucidating fundamentals, or in deciding secondary questions, relating not to the essence of Christianity, but to the well-being and right-ordering of a Church, the concurrent voice of sacred antiquity, the Catholic rule-quod semper, quod ubique, quod ab omnibusis, next to Sacred Scripture, our surest guide; and, in the matters to which it is justly applicable, a providentially authoritative guide, nay, more than providentially, rather, where the indication is clear, divinely authoritative, because Christ has said “Lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the world.”