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4 And when the chief

4 Και φανερωθεντος του

Shepherd shall appear, ye αρχιποιμενος, κομιείσθε τον αμαράντινον της δόξης ςεφα

shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.

5 Likewise, ye younger, submit yourselves unto the elder; yea, all of you be subject one to another, and be clothed with humility; for

God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the


6 Humble yourselves,

therefore, under the mighty hand of God, that he

may exalt you in due time.

8 Be sober, be vigilant;

because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion,

walketh about, seeking whom he may devour ;


5 Ομοιως νεωτεροι ὑποταγητε πρεσβυτεροις· παντες δε αλληλοις ὑποτασσόμενοι, την ταπεινοφροσυνην εγκομβωσασδε· ὅτι ὁ Θεὸς ὑπερηφανοις αντιτασσεται, ταπεινοις δε διδωσι χαριν.

6 Ταπεινώθητε ουν ὑπο την κραταιαν χειρα του Θεου, ἵνα ὑμας ὕψωση εν καιρῷ

4 Πασαν την μεριμναν i

7 Casting all your care

upon him; for he careth μων επιρριψαντες επ' αυτον, ότι αυτῷ μελει περι ὑμων.

for you.

8 Νηψατε,γρηγορησατε· ὅτι ὁ αντιδικος ὑμῶν, διαβολος, ὡς λεων ωρυομενος, περιπατει, ζη

των τινα καταπιῇ,

Ver. 4-1. Which fadeth not away. This is an allusion to the crowns of green leaves of trees and herbs, bestowed by the ancients as the rewards of military prowess, or of victory in the games. See 1 Cor. ix. 25. note 2. These, together with the honours of which they were the symbols, soon faded away. But the crown of glory, the reward to be given to faithful shepherds, will never fade, being a crown of righteousness, 2 Tim. iv. 8. and a crown of life, James i. 12.

Ver. 5.-1. For the like reason. So the word us signifies here. For the preceding, being an exhortation to the elders, to feed the flock, and not to lord it over God's heritages, the apostle could not begin his exhortation to the people with saying to them, In like manner subject yourselves to the elders: But he might say to them, with propriety, For the like reason that ye are to receive a crown of glory, subject yourselves to the elders.

2. Ye younger persons subject yourselves. As in the preceding part of this chapter the apostle by an elder, means a person holding a sacred office, such as a pastor or teacher, it is reasonable to think that he uses the word in the same sense here: Consequently, that rewregos which signifies an inferior of

4 And when the chief Shepherd (see chap. ii. 25. note) shall appear, ye shall receive the crown of glory, which fadeth1 not away.


5 For the like reason,1 ye younger persons, subject yourselves to the elders, Yea all be subject to one another, and be clothed with humility; for God resisteth the proud, but giveth grace to the humble.


6 Be humbled, therefore, under the strong hand of God, (chap. iv. 12.) that he may exalt you in due time.

7 Cast all your anxious care on him1 (rı, 254.) because he careth for you.

8 Be sober, be vigi. lant;1 (7) because your adversary the devil is walking about as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may swallow up.

4 And to encourage you, know that when the chief Shepherd shall aphear to judge the world, ye who have discharged your duty to your flocks faithfully, shall receive from him the crown of glory which fadeth not away.

5 For the like reason, ye the people subject yourselves to the elders, receiv ing their instructions and reproofs, with humility. Yea, all of you be subject to one another, in the various relations wherein ye stand to each other, and be clothed with humility; for God resisteth the proud, and casteth them down; but giveth the aid of his Spirit to the humble.

6 Seeing God resisteth the proud, be humbled under the strong hand of God; take his corrections patiently; that according to his promise he may exalt you to the possession of

heaven in due time.

7 In your distresses, cast all your anxious care en God, (Psal. Iv. 22.) because, in the most affectionate manner, he careth for you effectually.

8 Yet do not neglect lawful means for delivering yourselves out of trouble. Wherefore, Be temperate, Be vigilant at all times, because your adversary the devil, is going about continually as a fierce lion, seeking whom he may swallow up.

any kind, Luke xxii. 26. and which is opposed to it here, denotes the laity or people of the churches of Pontus, whom the apostle further exhorts to be subject to one another.

3. And be clothed with humility. Egnoμbwrnode. Julius Pollux, Onomast. lib. iv. c. 18. tells us that the snoμμ was a white cloak used by slaves. Whitby says it was a frock put over the rest of the clothes; and that the apostle's meaning is, "that humility should be visible over all the "other Christian virtues, in our whole behaviour."

Ver. 7.-1. Cast all your anxious care on him. Lest the brethren of Pon.



9 Whom resist stedfast

in the faith, knowing that the same afHictions are

accomplished in your brethren that are in the world.

10 But the God of all

grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye

have suffered a while, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you :

11 To him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

12 By Silvanus, a faith

ful brother unto you as I suppose, I have written briefly, exhorting, and testifying that this is the true grace of God wherein ye stand.

αυτά των

9 Ω αντιζητε ςερεοι τη πιςει, ειδότες, τα παθημάτων τη εν κοσμῳ ὑμων αδελφοτητι επιτελείσθαι.

1ο Ὁ δε Θεος πασης χαριτος, ὁ καλεσας ήμας εις την αιωνιον αυτου δοξαν εν Χριςῳ Ιησου, ολιγον παθοντας, αν τος κατάρτισαι ὑμας ςηρίξαι, σθενώσαι, θεμελιώσαι.

11 Αυτῷ ἡ δόξα, και το κρατος εις τους αιώνας των αιωνων. Αμην.

12 Δια Σιλουανου ὑμῖν του πιςου αδελφου, ὡς λογι ζομαι, δι' ολιγων εγραψα, πα ρακαλων και επιμαρτυρων ταυτην είναι αληθη χαριν του Θεου εις ἣν ἑξήκατε.

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tus might have been too much distressed with the fears of their being reduced to want by the persecution they were suffering, and of their being tempted thereby to renounce the gospel, the apostle exhorted them to be only moderately solicitous to avoid these dangers, and to cast their anxious care on God.

Ver. 8.-1. Be sober, be vigilant. This advice the apostle had given before, chap. iv. 7. (See note 2. there.) But he enforces it here by a new reason, That the devil is going about seeking whom he may swallow up: So the word aara literally signifies; being used concerning solids as well as liquids. It strongly expresses the insatiable rage of the enemy of mankind to hinder their salvation, and the danger we are in from his vices. For he sometimes attacks the people of God in person though not visible; and sometimes by his ministers the other evil spirits who are in league with him; and sometimes by wicked men his subjects, whom he instigates to tempt them by the terror of persecution. This account of the devil's malice is given with great propriety by Peter, to whom our Lord said, Simon, Satan bath desired to have you, that he may sifi you as wukeat; but I have fragel for thee. Peter likewise had good reason, as Doddridge observes, to recommend watchfulness, since he had fallen so shamefully himself, not withstand. ing this warning from his master.-Benson by the devil understands the unbelieving Jews who persecuted the Christians with great fury.

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Ver. 9.-1. Him resist, stedfast in the faith. To shew the efficacy of faith in enabling us to resist temptation, Paul calls it a shield, Eph. vi. 16. wherewith the fiery darts of the wicked one, &c.

Ver. 10.-1. After ye have suffered a little. St. Peter calls the sufferings of the first Christians oxyov a little, either in respect of time or of degree; or perhaps in respect of both, because compared with the joys of heaven, the sufferings of this life are both light and momentary.

Ver. 11.-1. To him be the glory, &c. By this doxology Peter expressed his firm persuasion that the devil hath no title to any honour from men, nor any dominion in the universe, nor power to tempt men, but by permission from God.

Ver. 12.-1. By Silvanus a faithful in other. If Silvanus, by whom this

13 The church that is at


Ασπαζεται ὑμᾶς ἡ iuas i Babylon, elected together εν Βαβυλωνι συνεκλεχτη, και

with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son.

Μαρκος ὁ ὑιος μου.

14 Greet ye one another

with a kiss of charity. Peace be with you all that

are in Christ Jesus. Amen.

14 Ασπασασθε αλληλους εν φιλήματι αγαπης. Ειρηνη ὑμῖν πᾶσι τοῖς εν Χριςῳ Ιη




letter was sent, is, as Oecumenius supposes, the person of that name, who joined Paul in writing the epistles to the Thessalonians, he is the Silas who is called, Acts xv. 22. A chief man among the brethren, and ver. 32. a prophet; and being Pawl's constant companion in travel, after the defection of John Mark, he no doubt assisted in planting churches in Galatia and the other countries of the lesser Asia mentioned in the inscription. So being well known to the brethren in these parts, he was a fit person to carry this letter. He is called here by Peter a faithful brother. And without doubt he must have been an excellent person, and very zealous in the cause of the gospel, who attended Paul in so many painful journeys, undertaken for the service of Christ and who on this occasion was willing to go into Pontus, Galatia, &c. with Peter's epistle to the churches in these widely extended countries. Probably after Paul's death, Silas attached himself to Peter as his assistant, and reckoned himself much honoured by this commission to carry the apostles's letter into the lesser Asia, which he executed faithfully.


2. A faithful brother as I conclude. Peter having become intimately acquainted with Silvanus only since Paul's death, he concluded him to be a faithful brother from his having so long jointly laboured with Paul in the work of the gospel.

3. And strongly testifying. According to Bengelius the preposition in the word profouμeros, is used to signify that Peter added his testimony to that of Paul and Silas, concerning the truth of the gospel which they preached to the Galatians, &c. But I think the meaning is simply, that Peter testified concerning the gospel which had been preached to the Galatians, that it is the true gospel: consequently, that the rites of the law were not necessary to salvation.


Ver. 13.-1. The church which is in Babylon. (See pref. sect. 5.) The word church is not in the original. But it is supplied in the Syriac, Vulgate, and other ancient versions, and by Oecumenius. Grotius approves of the addition and Beza observes very well that Peter omitted the word church, as is often done with regard to words of common use. But Mill and Wall think the translation should be, She who is in Babylon; and that the apostle meant his own wife; or some honourable woman in that city. Lardner says, it is not probable that Peter would send a salutation to the Christians of so many countries, from a woman not named.

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