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which he had already delivered in the form of lectures in St. Clement's, and which remains to this day one of the most learned and finished compositions of English theology, be, nevertheless, conciliated the esteem of the Presbyterians by his immense erudition, his keen logic, his courtesy, and moderation. “He disputed,” says Baxter, "accurately, soberly, and calmly, and procured himself a great deal of respect from the ministers; and a persuasion that, had he been independent, he would have been for peace; and that, if all had been in his power, it would have gone well. He was the strength and honour of the bishops' cause.” Burnet gives his conception of Pearson in brief outline, but with full colours : “He was, in all respects, the greatest divine of the age; a man of great learning, strong reason, and a clear judgment."
RICHARD BAXTER was the soul of the Presbyterian conclave. It is very diffi. cult to do him justice. His holy life, his abundant labours—and these wrung from a sickly and tortured body-his incessant mental activity, his entire consecration of his powers to the service of God and man, are not over-appreciated even by his most admiring friends. Few men have been more inwardly and constantly moved by the Spirit of God. Few preachers have achieved a larger success. It is said that when he went to Kidderminster, “there might, perhaps, be a family in a street that worshipped God; but when he came away, there was not above a family on the side of a street which did not do it.” He found the place "like a piece of dry and barren earth . . .'. but, by a Divine blessing upon his labour and cultivation, the face of Paradise soon appeared in all the fruits of righteousness.” His devotional writings have been not less productive of good than his fervid impassioned discourses. Dogmatic in his opinions, he was catholic in spirit-too catholic to please either the Conformists or the Nonconformists of his day; yet men of all parties conspire to praise him, his ecclesiastical opponents leading the strain. Bishop Wilkins is quoted by Dr. Bates as saying, “ Mr. Baxter had cultivated every subject he had handled ; and if he had lived in the primitive times, he had been one of the Fathers of the Church. It was enough for one age to produce such a person.” And learned Dr. Barrow gives it as his judgment, “ that his prac. tical writings were never mended, and his controversial ones seldom confuted."
It is no less difficult to do justice to his defects than to his great qualities. We cannot but be very kind to virtues such as his, and the danger is lest we become more than a little blind to his faults. And yet, with all the rare virtues and endowments which compelled the esteem of the best men of his time, which even yet make his name a household word among us, there must have been grievous defects in his character. For to him must be mainly attributed the utter defeat of the hopes which ushered the Puritans to the Savoy Conference. He it was who, with his Reformed Liturgy, his fine-gpun distinctions and logical subtleties and perversities, gave the watchful politic prelates the occasion they sought. With a little less subtlety, and a little more broad common sense-less mataphysics, and more capacity of handling practical affairs—with a juster conception of the limited province in which logic is supreme, and the immense outlying kingdom in which words, even though raised to their highest syllogistic power, are but air-Baxter might have defeated-thank God he did not !the malign watchfulness of Sheldon, and compelled concessions which would have retained the Puritans within the pale of the Establishment. “He could say what he would, and could prove what he said," exclaimed a defeated but admiring antagonist. Yes ; but when he had proved it, what then? All the syllogisms in the world are powerless against facts; and all the logic useless as against men who have made up their minds to go one way, however clearly you bave proved that they ought to go another!. He was impatient, too, and, in these logical combats, not humble. Look at the pale, worn facewrinkled and macerated with pain and weary mental strife--and the large, rest
less eyes, which yet have a calmness and sweetness in them, too, and you can understand Clarendon's jest: “If you had been as fat as Dr. Manton, all might have gone on well ;" can understand, too, Baxter's wistful reply: “If your lord. ship could teach me the art of growing fat, you should find me not unwilling to learn by any good means.” Burnet says that "he was most unhappily subtle and metaphysical.” Tillotson, a charitable judge, thought him too much bent on making his own opinions “the rule and standard for all other men's.” Even Neal, the Puritan historian, admits that, while “ he was one of the most ready men of his time for an argument, he was too eager and tenacious of his own opinions." The spare Puritan Cassius! Of him, too, it might have been said
“He reads much ;
. . He has a lean and hungry look;
dangerous in this case, however, only to himself and his own party.
If Baxter was the Cassius, DR. MANTON was the Mark Antony of the Presbyters, one of the “fat” men, “ such as sleep o’nights,” that Cæsar would have loved to have about him. He is described as “a round, plump, jolly man.” He was a man of great learning, judgment, and moderation. Archbishop Usher used to say, “ He was a voluminous preacher;" "not,” adds his biographer, " that he was tedious for length, but he had the art of reducing the substance of divinity into a narrow compass." We suspect, however, that the Archbishop's encomium was intentionally ambiguous, intended to convey both meanings ; for, writing to Swift, Lord Bolingbroke promises : " My next shall be as long as one of Dr. Manton's sermons, who taught my youth to yawn, and prepared me to be a High Churchman, that I might never hear him read, nor read him more." Dr. William Harris, in his Memoir, tells a touching anecdote of Manton, which reveals at once his weakness and strength. “Being to preach before the Lord Mayor, the Court of Aldermen, &c., at St. Paul's, the Doctor choose a subject in which he had an opportunity of displaying his judgment and learning. He was heard with admiration and applause by the more intelligent part of the audience. But, as he was returning from dinner with the Lord Mayor in the evening, a poor man pulled him by the sleeve of his gown, and asked if he were the gentleman that preached before the Lord Mayor. He replied he was.
Sir,' says he, 'I came with hopes of getting some good to my soul; but I was greatly disappointed, for I could not understand a great deal of what you said : you were quite above me.' The Doctor replied, with tears, · Friend, if I did not give you a sermon, you have given me one, and, by the grace of God, I will never play the fool to preach before my Lord Mayor in such a manner again.'” None of the Savoy Commissioners were more earnest than Dr. Manton in the en. deavour to secure the peace of the Church by a comprehension of all Christian men within its pale. “He was no fomenter of faction, but studious of the public tranquillity. His generous constancy of mind in resisting the current of popular humour, declared his loyalty to his Divine Master.” He, who had been offered a deanery if he would subscribe, was imprisoned for his Nonconformity, and suffered many things for conscience' sake.
DR. EDMUND CALAMY was the most popular preacher of his time. No minister, we are told, was “more followed; nor hath there ever been week-day lecture so frequented as his, which was attended not only by his own parish, but by other eminent citizens, and many persons of the greatest quality, and that constantly, for twenty years together; for there seldom were so few as sixty coaches." Calamy seems to have been a gentleman and scholar, as well as a learned divine and eloquent preacher. His manner made him welcome in the most polished society; his courtesy and tact gave him great influence with his brethren. Appointed one of the King's chaplains at the Restoration, which he had done much to promote, and offered the bishopric of Lichfield if he would conform, he chose poverty rather than wealth, preferred a prison to a palace-for he was committed to Newgate for preaching—that he might keep a conscience void of offence. He was a man of amiable and conciliatory spirit, but knew how to speak roughly when occasion demanded. It was he who bearded General Monk in the height of his power. Preaching, soon after the Restoration, when the General was among his auditors, on filthy lucre, “Why," cried he, “is it called filthy, but because it makes men do base and filthy things ? Some men (waving his handkerchief towards the General's pew) will betray three kingdoms for filthy lucre's sake.”
DR. WILLIAM Bates was distinguished by grace and comeliness of person ; by a finished eloquence, which, together with a sweet and powerful voice, gained him the sobriquet, “ Silver-tongued Bates ;” and by a familiarity with poets and orators, and “the polite parts of learning,” which was somewhat rare among Puritan divineg. “A constant serenity reigned in his countenance, the visible sign of the Divine calm in his breast. His natural endowments were much beyond the common rate. His voice was charming; his language always elegant, but unaffected, free, and plain. .... His learning was a vast treasure. .... His wit was never vain or light, but most facetious and pleasant, by the ministry of a fancy both vigorous and lively, and most obedient to his reason. .... He had a catholic spirit, and was for a union of all visible Christians upon moderate principles and practices.” As long as there was any hope, he made vigorous efforts for a comprehension. When all hope was gone, he bade adieu to his people in a sermon remarkable alike for its peaceful modesty and its pure piety and love. In the single passage, personal to himself, he says, “I know you expect I should say something as to my Nonconformity. I shall only say this much: it is neither fancy, faction, nor humour, that makes me not comply ; but merely the fear of offending God. And if, after the best means used for my illumination-as prayer to God, discourse, and study-I am not able to be satisfied of the lawfulness of what is required, it be my unhappiness to be in error, surely men will have no reason to be angry with me in this world ; and I hope God will pardon me in the next.”
OUR CHURCHES AND THE BIBLE TRANSLATION SOCIETY.
BY THE REV. D. THOMPSON. READING the two valuable papers in his efforts. The flame of his devotion
THE CHURCH,” headed “ The Bengali ever burning, wearisome days and nights Scriptures,” and “The Sanscrit Scriptures," were given to his work. The Bible and we were led to ask ourselves, W83 not other helps before him, and the pundit by Carey divinely appointed to give the his side, he sought to give, with pious Bible to India ? His aptitude for lan- | prayerfulness, the mind of the Spirit. He guages, akin to the gift of tongues, enabled would not involve one letter, nor give a him, with great quickness and facility, to dark turn to one sentence; but he would master the dialects and languages of the make OPEN and PLAIN all the words of the East. With largeness of heart, and a con- | Holy Book. He felt it to be his paramount secration seraphic, he was untiring in all duty to translate the Scriptures; to transfer any part of them was no work of his — | Carey, Marshman, and Ward, which cannot the opposite of duty. His own motto, be otherwise equalled. " Expect great things from God; attempt It is worthy of remark, that our transgreat things for God," was the manifest lators gave the Bible to India some three history of his life. And God blessed the years before the formation of the British labour of his hand.
and Foreign Bible Society; and that this The 17th of March, 1800, is worthy of Institution adopted our versions, and supa place in the annals of Bible translation. ported them generously for twenty-five “On this memorable day," writes one of years. But we regret to say that they withthe missionaries, “ the first page of the drew their aid at the instance of some New Testament was composed for printing Pædobaptist missionaries. Faithful versions in Bengalee. Now, O Lord, let the day of God's Word are thus cast off-versions break, and the sun arise!” Eleven months where every word is translated correctly ; after, February, 1801, the last sheet of this where the word baptize has its legitimate precious book was issued from the press. rendering, similar to that given in the When the first copy was completed and Liturgy of the Church of England, and in bound, Carey and his coadjutors laid it on ancient versions of the Scriptures now the communion table, and, in the presence supported by the Bible Society. And of the whole members of the Mission, what makes the conduct of this Society so European and native, publicly gave thanks anomalous and unjust is, that they support to God for crowning their labours thus far versions where the “ vexed” word is transwith success. God had done great things lated cross and wash ; and where the word for them, whereof they were glad. Indeed, “ repent” is rendered penance ; thus, so overjoyed was Carey at the completion “Except ye do penance, ye shall all likeof this sacred book, that he felt ready to wise perish,” We know that the reason exclaim, “Lord, now lettest thou thy assigned by the Committee is necessity; servant depart in peace.” But these un that the Catholic nations, they say, will tiring servants of God had new conquests receive no other version, and that they before them. The sacred treasure was to would rather give an imperfect Bible than be unlocked to other people. New tongues none at all. Admit it ; grant that the end would speak the wondrous story of grace; justifies the deed (query): then, we ask, and sweet accents, in the rich melody of Why withhold aid from versions where the their own language, would charm their renderings are admitted to be faithful; and hearts. Thus Carey, a few years after, where no deadly error is taught ? Surely writes to Dr. Ryland: “We have it in our such conduct is partial, and cannot own power, if our means would do for it, righteously be justified. in the space of about fifteen years to have Our versions, thus abandoned by a prothe Word of God translated and printed fessedly catholic institution-made secin all the languages of the East. Our tarian by the act; the question has to be, situation is such as to furnish us with the asked—What must the Baptist denominabest assistance from the natives of the tion do? abandon their translations, or different countries. We can have types of | adopt and support them? THE BIBLE all the different characters cast here ; and TRANSLATION SOCIETY is the answer to about seven hundred rupees per month, the question. This was formed in the part of which, I hope, we shall be able to year 1840, and was supported by many of furnish, would complete the work. The our friends with considerable vigour. The languages are, Hindostanee, Mahratta, first years were marked by earnestness ; Creea, Felinqua, Bhotan, Burman, Chinese, and had succeeding ones improved their Cochin Chinese, Tonquinese, and Malay. opportunity, this Institution would now On this great work we have fixed our have occupied an honourable position. We
know what has somewhat tended to enSurely such labours may well excite grati feeble it; viz., the opinion that giving to tude in all our hearts; and lead us to pray | Our Missionary Society they were supportfor the kindlings of their spirit in our own ing our translations ; that the work of the souls. Their great work for India lays us one Society was only that of the other ; under great obligations to India. What | and that there was no need of a separate they have done must have perpetuation. I organisation. Had the two Societies been In giving a faithfully-translated Bible to altogether distinct, and the Bible Translathe world, there is erected a monument to tion Society taken a position similar to that of the British and Foreign Bible Society, | letter and circular; still sympathy and we conceive it would have had greater support have been withheld. Is it not sympathy and support. Still we are because the British and Foreign Bible thankful to know that this Society is re Society is their pet child? And have they gaining its ground, and that its field of not too little regard for our rejected transoperation never was so extended. Besides lations ? Must such a state of things our Eastern versions, thirteen in number, always last ? When will our rich Christian our translators are engaged in a Cingalese men and all our churches side with right version, in a version for Western Africa in and principle, and perpetuate virtues and the Dualla tongue, in a Chinese version ; labours that have such names as Carey, and the Society also supports the General Marshman, Ward, and Yates, of the past ; Baptists in their important Orissa version. and Wenger, Leslie, Parsons, and other This is all new work; so that the claims of brethren, of the present? Oh, for a worthi. the Bible Translation Society never were so ness and manifestations equal with the urgent.
labours of such great and good men! What support does the Society now It may be that ignorance of the nature receive from the churches ? This question and claims of the Society is one reason merits a careful, intelligent answer. Turn why it is not more generally supported. to the last Report, one of which now lies But surely a Society of twenty-one years' open before us, and we have the following standing, that has had a place from time facts :
to time in our magazines, &c., ought to In England, the amount subscribed is be known. There should not be either £1,198 65. 7d.' This is received from cities a minister or a church uninformed on a and towns in which there are 546 Baptist question so affecting the interests of transchurches : an average of rather less than lation and our versions. All should be £2 4s. per church. The non-subscribing well read on this matter, and be prepared churches are 1,047.
to appreciate conscientiousness and right In Wales,' the amount received is action. But is ignorance the only assign£163 10s. 8d. This is from cities and able cause for this lack of general sympathy towns in which there are 72 churches : an and support? Alas! no; for there are average of about £2 5s. 6d. per church. ministers and churches that are appealed to The non-subscribing churches are 327. year after year, that remain heedless and
In Scotland, the sum contributed is indifferent, from whom nothing is received. £308 13s. 10d. This is from places in Were there a greater degree of right Chriswhich there are 52 churches : an average of tian feeling, and more sympathy with Jesus nearly £6 per church. The non-subscribing | in his redemptive purposes, would there churches are 39.
not be a much higher appreciation of a In Ireland, there are 22 churches, all | faithfully translated Bible ? If there was non-subscribing.
more piety, there would be less ignorance Thus there are in the United Kingdom of our religious and benevolent institutions. 1,435 * churches, that take no practical Parsimony is the great evil of our day.. interest in the Bible Translation Society. | Let all our churches interest themselves Another painful fact strikes the reader of in our translations, secure, where possible, the subscription list ; namely, the very small annual subscriptions, and give collections, sums contributed in certain cities and and the Bible Translation Society will rise towns. The meagre amounts startle; and into greatness, and become, by God's bless you are led to imagine that the fault is in ing, à power for good at home and in the working of the Society—that very heathen lands. partial and imperfect means are used to “God be merciful unto us, and bless us, raise the funds. But this is not the case. and cause his face to shine upon us; that We know that earnest efforts have been thy way may be known upon earth, tby made to increase the amounts. There has saving health among all nations." been personal call, and repeated appeal by
* This number comes far short of the true total; for in many of the cities and towns from which money is received there are churches that make no contributions.