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hated by almost all his people, and abhorred by God, as his end showeth, in that he died in his unrighteousness, without repentance or any reparation for his evil deeds."

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HENRY I (BEAUCLERK).

Reigned from 1100 to 1135. Birth.-Henry, “the scholar, as flattering historians named him," was born at Selby, in Yorkshire, about 1070.

Descent.--He was the brother of William II, and youngest son of William I.

Marriage. His first wife was Matilda, or Maud, the daughter of Malcolm Canmore, by his wife, Margaret, the sister of Edgar Atheling; his second wife was Adelicia of Louvain.

Children. William, and Matilda, who married Henry V, Emperor of Germany, and, on his death, Geoffrey of Anjou.

Important Events. Robert, whose claim to the throne of England was superior to that of Henry, returned from the crusades shortly after the death of William; and in 1101 he invaded the country ; but a compromise was effected without recourse to arms, it being arranged that Robert should resign his pretensions to the English crown, and should receive instead thereof a yearly pension of 3000 marks. Henry soon violated the treaty by punishing his brother's late adherents on various pretexts; and on the duke coming to England to remonstrate, he found that he had endangered his security thereby, and was glad to purchase his liberty by surrendering his pension (1103). Three years after, Henry, taking advantage of his brother's indolence and mal-administration, invaded Normandy, and Robert was captured at the battle of TENCHEBRAI (1106). He was brought to England and kept in confinement till his death, which occurred at Cardiff Castle in 1135.

• Brougham's "British Constitution."

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Robert's son, William, a child six years old, on his father's capture, was entrusted to Hélie de St. Saen, who, when Henry afterwards sought to get the young prince into his own hands, withdrew from Normandy, and solicited the help of some of the continental barons on behalf of his ward. As the prince grew towards man's estate, Louis VI, of France, Baldwin, Earl of Flanders, and Fulk, of Anjou, espoused his cause, and endeavoured to conquer Normandy for him, but without success ; and in 1119, Louis was defeated by Henry at the battle of BRENVILLD. This defeat led to an accommodation between the two monarchs, and Louis renounced his connexion with William ; but after a time he renewed the alliance, and gave him his sister-in-law in marriage (1127). On the death of the Earl of Flanders, which occurred in the next year, Louis put him in possession of the earldom to which he had pretensions as the eldest lineal descendant of his grandmother, Matilda, wife of the Conqueror ; but William did not long enjoy his good fortune, for in a skirmish at Alost with the Landgrave of Alsace, who also claimed Flanders, he was wounded in the hand; and the injury being neglected, mortification ensued, which caused his death (1128).

Henry's son, William, died about eight years before his cousin. He was coming from Normandy in the “ White Ship,” and the mariners, being mad with drink, heedlessly ran the vessel on a rock, when all perished except Berold, a butcher, of Rouen. It is said that the king was never afterwards seen to smile.

On the death of his son, and the failure of issue by his queen, Adelicia, Henry anxiously sought to secure the succession for his daughter, to whom the barons were induced to swear fealty as their future queen.

In this reign a colony of Flemings was established at Ross, in Pembrokeshire. A new standard of measure was adopted, the yard measure being determined by the length of Henry's arm. The coin, which was so debased and clipped that hardly

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one penny in twelve would pass in the markets, was reformed in 1125, and large numbers of the delinquents were vigorously punished. Henry enclosed a park at Woodstock for deer, and formed a menagerie therein, in which were lions, lynxes, leopards, and camels. He also founded three monasteries, the most celebrated being that of Reading. As he passed much of his time on the continent, he ordered that the rent of the crown lands, which since the time of the Conquest had been paid in kind, should henceforward be paid in money. He was called the Lion of Justice, from the severity with which he punished serious breaches of the peace; on one single occasion no less than forty-four robbers were executed ; but though thus strict in chastising offenders, he was frequently guilty of very arbitrary conduct towards his unoffending subjects.

[The order of Knights Templars instituted 1118.]

Death. Henry died at Rouen, Dec. 1, 1135. His death is generally ascribed to a surfeit of lampreys. In accordance with his wish, his body was interred in Reading Abbey.

STEPHEN.

Reigned from 1135 to 1154.
Birth. He is believed to have been born at Blois, about the

year 1096.

Descent.--He was the third son of Stephen, Count of Blois, and Adela, daughter of William I, and therefore nephew of the last sovereign.

Marriage.--His wife was Matilda, daughter of the Count of Boulogne.

Children. Eustace, who died in 1153, William, Baldwin, Mary, and Maud.

Important Events.---Though Stephen's popularity enabled him to ascend the throne, yet Matilda, the daughter of Henry I, was regarded by many as entitled to it; and David, King of Scotland (who was uncle both to her and to Stephen's

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queen), invaded the country soon after in her behalf. Stephen, however, persuaded him to agree to a treaty of peace, which was broken in 1138, when David again invaded England. At Northallerton, about thirty miles north of York, he was encountered by the northern barons, who, to augment the courage of the native population, brought to the field the banners of St. Peter of York, St. Wilfred of Ripon, and St. John of Beverley. The contest which ensued was accordingly called the BATTLE OF THE STANDARD ; it ended in the triumphant overthrow of the Scots, who lost in the engagement and the flight more than half their army (Aug. 22, 1138).

In the succeeding year, Matilda, accompanied by her halfbrother, Robert of Gloucester, landed in England. Just before her arrival, the king aroused against him the opposition of many of the clergy, by depriving the Bishops of Ely, Salisbury, and Lincoln (secret supporters of Matilda) of their castles ; and even his own brother, Henry, Bishop of Winchester, and papal legate, condemning the proceeding. However, Stephen's cause prospered on the whole till February, 1141, when he had the misfortune to be taken prisoner in a battle fought before LINCOLN. Thence he was carried to Bristol Castle, in which he was confined for about nine months.

Henry of Winchester now joined the side of Matilda, who was recognised as queen; but quarrelling with her, he retired to his own castle at Winchester, in which he was besieged by her troops. Stephen's wife, Matilda, however, accompanied by some of the Londoners, came to his aid, and the besiegers were obliged to retire. In the retreat, Robert of Gloucester was captured, and as his assistance was indispensable to Matilda, the ex-empress, he was exchanged for the king,

In 1145, on the death of Robert, she withdrew to Normandy, and no further attempt was made to wrest the crown from Stephen till 1152, when Matilda's son, Henry, landed with an army to vindicate her right. Some of the leaders of both parties were anxious to prevent the renewal of hostilies, and urged

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that the princes should come to an amicable arrangenient. Negotiations were therefore commenced, in the midst of which Stephen's eldest son diedman event which greatly facilitated the formation of a treaty. By it the king was to hold the crown for his life, and on his death it was to fall to Prince Henry.

In 1136 London was destroyed by fire; and in the course of the civil war, Winchester, Worcester, and Nottingham were given to the flames. Besides the large number of castles which had been erected prior to the king's accession, one hundred and twenty-six were strongly fortified during his reign. The barons who held these castles, taking advantage of the distracted state of the country, disregarded right and justice, plundered the adjacent districts, and placed in their dungeons the richer inhabitants. There the most horrible and excruciating tortures were inflicted to compel them to state where they had concealed their treasures.

[The second crusade (preached by St. Bernard) under Louis VII, of France, and Conrad, of Germany, 1147.]

Death. --Stephen died at Canterbury, Oct. 25, 1154.

Notes on the Norman Period.

The principal changes introduced in the government during this period were (in addition to the establishment of the feudal system) the separation of the ecclesiastical fronı the civil jurisdiction, and the employment in some cases, of trial by combat.

As the castles were of much importance, it may be serviceable to briefly describe one of them. The castle of a great baron was surrounded by a wall, about twelve feet high and of considerable thickness, and defended at suitable distances by turrets. Without the wall was dug a deep ditch, over which a drawbridge was thrown. The passage was protected by a tower, called the barbican. Within the walls was a large square court, in the centre of which was the keep, a strong quadrangular

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