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NEWTON, BANBURY, ADDERBURY, &c. Then visiting Friends through BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, at Long-CRENDON, ILMERE, MENDLE, WESTON, CHOLSBERRY, CHESHAM, &c., I came to Isaac Pennington's, where I stayed a few days; and then turning into HERTFORDSHIRE, visited Friends at CHARLEWOOD, WATFORD, HEMPSTEAD, and MARKET-STREET, at which places I had meetings with Friends. From Market-Street I went in the morning to Luton in BEDFORDSHIRE, to see John Crook, with whom I spent good part of the day, and went towards evening to Alban’s, where I lay that night at an inn. And visiting Friends at SOUTH-MIMS, BARNET, and HENDON, where I had meetings, I came to LONDON the 8th of the 3rd Month. It being the fourth day of the week, I went to Gracechurch-Street meeting, which was peaceable and well; and many Friends, not knowing I was come to town, were very joyful to see me there ; and the Lord was present with us, refreshing us with his living virtue ; blessed be his holy name!

The parliament was sitting when I came to town, and Friends having laid their sufferings before them, were waiting on them for relief against the laws made against Popish recusants, which they knew we were not; though some malicious magistrates took advantages to prosecute us in several parts of the nation upon those statutes. Friends attending on that service when I came, I joined them therein ; and there was some probability that something might be obtained towards Friends' ease and relief in that case, many of the parliament-men being tender and loving towards us, believing we were much misrepresented by our adversaries. But when I went down one morning with George Whitehead to the parliament house, to attend upon them on Friends' behalf, suddenly they were prorogued, though but for a short time.

About two weeks after I came to London, the Yearly Meeting began, to which Friends came up out of most parts of the nation, and a glorious heavenly meeting we had. O the glory, majesty, love, life, wisdom, and unity, that were amongst us! The power reigned over all, and many testimonies were borne therein against that ungodly spirit, which sought to make rents and divisions amongst the Lord's people; but not one mouth was opened amongst us in its defence, or on its behalf. Good and comfortable accounts also we had, for the most part, from Friends in other countries; of which I find a brief account in a letter, which soon after I wrote to my wife, the copy whereof here follows ;

“ DEAR HEART, “To whom is my love in the everlasting Seed of life that reigns over all. Great meetings here have been, and the Lord's power hath been stirring through all, the like hath not been. The Lord hath in his power knit Friends wonderfully together, and his glorious presence did appcar among them. And now the meetings are over, blessed be the Lord! in quietness and peace. From Holland I hear things are well there : some Friends are gone that way, to be at their Yearly Meeting at Amsterdam. At Embden, Friends that were banished are got into the city again. At Dantzic, Friends are in prison, and the magistrates threatened them with harder imprisonment; but the next day the Lutherans rose, and plucked down (or defaced) the Popish monastery; so they have work enough among

themselves. The King of Poland received my letter, and read it himself; and Friends have since printed it in High Dutch. By letters from the half-yearly meeting in Ireland, I hear that they are all in love there. At Barbadoes, Friends are in quietness, and their meetings settled in peace. At Antigua also and Nevis, truth prospers, and Friends have their meetings orderly and well. Likewise in New England and other places, things concerning truth and Friends are well; and in those places the men's and women's meetings are settled ; blessed be the Lord! So keep in God's power and Seed, that is over all, in whom ye all have life and salvation; for the Lord reigns over all in his glory, and in his kingdom; glory to his name for ever, Amen. In haste, with my love to you all, and to all Friends."

G. F. London, the 26th of the 3rd Month, 1678.

The letter to the King of Poland mentioned is as follows :

To Johannes III. King of Poland, &c. "O KING! “We desire tly prosperity both in this life and that which is to come. And we desire that we may have our Christian liberty to serve and worship God under thy dominion ; for our principle leads us not to do anything prejudicial to the king or his people. We are a people that exercise a good conscience towards God through his Holy Spirit, and it do serve, worship, and honour him; and towards men in the things that are equal and just, doing to them as we would have them do unto us; looking unto Jesus, who is the author and finisher of our faith ; which faith purifies our hearts, and bring us to have access to God; without which we cannot please him; by which faith all the just live, as the Scripture declares. That which we desire of thee, O king, is, that we may have liberty of conscience to serve and worship God, and to pray unto him in our meetings together in the name of Jesus, as he commands, with a promise that he will be in the midst of them. The king, we hope, cannot but say that this duty and service is due to God and Christ; and we give Cæsar his due, and pay our tribute and custom equal with our neighbour, according to our proportion. We never read in all the Scriptures of the New Testament, that Christ or his disciples banished or imprisoned any that were not of their faith or religion, and would not hear them, or gave them any such command; but, on the contrary, let the tares and the wheat grow together, till the harvest; and the harvest is the end of the world. Then Christ will send his angels to sever the wheat from the tares, &c. He rebuked such as would have had fire from heaven to consume those that would not receive Christ'; and told them that they did not know what spirit they were of. He came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them.

“We desire the king to consider how much persecution there has been in Christendom, since the apostles' days, concerning religion. Christ said, they should go into everlasting punishment, that did not visit him in prison; then what will become of them that imprison him in his members, where he is manifest ? None can say that the world ended; and there

fore how will Christendom answer the dreadful and terrible God at his day of judgment, that have persecuted one another about religion, before the end of the world, under pretence of plucking up tares; which is not their work, but the angels', at the end of the world? Christ commands men to love one another, and to love enemies, and by this they should be known to be his disciples. O! that all Christendom had lived in peace and unity, that they might, by their moderation, have judged both Turks and Jews; and let all have their liberty that do own God and Jesus, and walk as becomes the glorious gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ. Our desires are, that the Lord God of heaven may soften the king's heart to all tender consciences, that fear the Lord, and are afraid of disobeying him.

“We entreat the king to read some of the noble expressions of several kings and others, concerning liberty of conscience; and especially Stephanus, king of Poland's sayings, viz. : 'It belongeth not to me to reform the consciences ; I have always gladly given that over to God, which belongeth to him; and so shall I do now, and also for the future. I will suffer the weeds to grow till the time of harvest, for I know that the number of believers is but small: therefore,' said he, when some were proceeding in persecution, 'I am king of the people, not of their consciences. He also affirmed, that religion was not to be planted with fire and sword.' Chron, Liberty of Religion, part 2.

“Also a book written in French by W. M., anno 1576, hath this sentence, viz. : “Those princes that have ruled by gentleness and clemency, added to justice, and have exercised moderation and meekness towards their subjects, always prospered and reigned long; but, on the contrary, those princes that have been cruel, unjust, prejudiced, and oppressors of their subjects, have soon fallen, they and their estates, into danger, or total ruin.'

“Veritus saith, Seeing Christ is a Lamb, whom you profess to be your head and captain, then it behoveth you to be sheep, and to use the same weapons that he made use of; for he will not be a shepherd of wolves and wild beasts, but only of sheep. Wherefore, if you lose the nature of sheep,' said be, and be changed into wolves and wild beasts, and use fleshly weapons, then will you exclude yourselves out of his calling, and forsake his banner; and then will he not be your captain,' &c.

“Also we find it asserted by King James, in his speech to the parliament, in the year 1609, “That it is a pure rule in divinity, that God never planted his church with violence of blood.' And furthermore he said, “it was usually the condition of Christians to be persecuted, but not to persecute.'

King Charles, in his 'Ecùy Baoilleki, page 61, said, in his prayer to God, Thou seest how much cruelty amongst Christians is acted under the colour of religion; as if we could not be Christians unless we crucified one another.'

Page 28, • Make them at length seriously to consider, that nothing violent nor injurious can be religious.'

Page 70, ‘Nor is it so proper to hew out religious reformation by the sword as to polish them by fair and equal disputations among those that

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are most concerned in the differences; whom not force, but reason, must convince,

“Page 66, "Take heed, that outward circumstances and formalities in religion devour not all.'

* Pages 91, 92, 'In point of true conscientious tenderness I have so often declared, how little I desire my laws and sceptre should entrench on God's sovereignty, who is the only King of conscience.'

* Page 123, ‘Nor do I desire any man should be further subject unto me, than all of us may be subject into God.'

“Page 200, 'O thou Sovereign of our souls, the only Commander of our consciences !'

“Page 346 (In his “Meditations on Death '), 'It is indeed a sad state to have his enemies to be his accusers, parties, and judges.'

“The Prince of Orange testified, anno 1579, That it was impossible the land should be kept in peace, except there was a free toleration in the exercise of religion.'

«« Where hast thou read in thy day (said Menno) in the writings of the apostles, that Christ or the apostles ever cried out to the magistrates for their power against them that would not hear their doctrine, nor obey their words ? I know certainly,' said he, 'that where a magistrate shall banish with the sword, there is not the right knowledge, spiritual word, nor church of Christ; it is, Invocare brachium seculare (to invoke the secular arm).'

“It is not Christian-like, but tyrannical (said D. Philipson), to banish and persecute people about faith and religion ; and they that so do are certainly of the Pharisaical generation, who resisted the Holy Ghost.'

** Erasmus said, “That though they take our money and goods, they cannot therefore hurt our salvation; they afflict us much with prisons, but they do not thereby separate us from God.'-In de Krydges wrede, fol. 63.

“Lucernus said, “He that commandeth anything, wherewith he bindeth the conscience, this is an antichrist.'-In de Bemise Disp. fol. 71.

“Irenæus affirmed, that all forcing of conscience, though it was but a forbidding of the exercise which is esteemed by one or another to be necessary to salvation, is in no wise right nor fitting. He also affirmed, that through the diversity of religions the kingdom should not be brought into any


Constantius, the emperor, said, “That it was enough that he preserved the unity of the faith, that he might be excusable before the judgment-seat of God; and that he would leave every one to his own understanding, according to the account he will give before the judgmentseat of Christ. Hereto may we stir up people (said he), not compel them; beseech them to come into the unity of the Christians, but to do violence to them we will not in any wise.'— Sebast. Frank, Chron. fol. 127.

“ Augustinus said, 'Some disturbed the peace of the church wbile they went about to root out the tares before their time; and through this error of blindness (said he) are they themselves separated so much the more from being united unto Christ.'

“Retnaldus testified, “That he who, with imprisoning and persecuting,

seeketh to spread the gospel, and greaseth his hands with blood, shall much rather be looked upon for a wild hunter, than a preacher, or a defender of the Christian religion.'

«« I have for a long season determined (said Henry IV., king of France, in his speech to the parliament, 1599), to reform the church, which, without peace, I cannot do: and it is impossible to reform or convert people by violence. I am king, as a shepherd, and will not shed the blood of my sheep, but will gather them through the mildness and goodness of a king, and not through the power of tyranny: and I will give them that are of the reformed religion right liberty to live and dwell free, without being examined, perplexed, molested, or compelled to anything contrary to their consciences; for they shall have the free exercise of their religion, &c.'[Vid. Chron. Van de Underg. 2. deel, p. 1511.]

“Ennius said, “Wisdom is driven out when the matter is acted by force. And therefore the best of men, and most glorious of princes, were always ready to give toleration.'

Eusebius, in his second book of the life of Constantine, reports these words of the emperor: 'Let them which err, with joy receive the like fruition of peace and quietness with the faithful; sith the restoring of communication and society may bring them into the right way of truth: let none give molestation to any; let every one do as he determines in his mind. And indeed, there is great reason for princes to give toleration to disagreeing persons, whose opinions cannot by fair means be altered; for if the persons be confident, they will serve God according to their persuasions: and if they be publicly prohibited, they will privately convene: and then all those inconveniences and mischiefs, which are arguments against the permission of conventicles, are arguments for the public permission of differing religions, &c., they being restrained and made miserable, endears the discontented persons mutually, and makes more hearty and dangerous confederations.

“The like counsel, in the divisions of Germany at the first reformation, was thought reasonable by the Emperor Ferdinand, and his excellent son Maximilian ; for they had observed, that violence did exasperate, was unblessed, unsuccessful, and unreasonable; and therefore they made decrees of toleration.'

“The Duke of Savoy, repenting of his war undertaken for religion against the Piedmontese, promised them toleration; and was as good as bis word.

“It is remarkable, that till the time of Justinian the emperor, Anno Domini 525, the Catholics and Novatians had churches indifferently permitted, even in Rome itself.

“And Paul preached the kingdom of God, teaching those things which concerned the Lord Jesus Christ, with all confidence; and no man forbade him: and this he did for the space of two years in his own hired house at Rome, and received all that came to him.

“Now, O king, seeing these noble testimonies concerning liberty of conscience from kings, emperors, and others, and the liberty that Paul had at Rome in the days of the heathen emperor, our desire is, that we may

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