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Both have εφύλαξα (Lk. N A BL) for έφυλαξάμην, both have ουρανούς for ουρανό, both omit στυγνάσας and substitute ακούσας, both omit μη αποστερήσης, and both omit εμβλέψας αυτώ ηγάπησεν attóv. These agreements are not sufficient to make a second source necessary.

16. diddoxale] CE al S1 S2 latt add åyadé, assimilating to Mk 10'7.tl dya8bv] dyaObv is omitted by S1 sa 112 238 248 for the same reason.

17. ol Me épwr@s Tepl toll ágaloû] So XBDL S S' latt. C E al assimi. late to Mk.

els totiv o dyalós] XBDL 1 22 Sla; and with d Oéos b cffla sé. CE al assimilate to Mk.

In these verses Mt.'s omission of dyadé after 88áokale, his insertion of αγαθόν after τι, his change of Mk.’s τι με λέγεις αγαθόν into τι με έρωτας περί του αγαθού, and his change of ουδείς αγαθός ει μή εις ο θεός into εις εστίν • ayaós, seem clearly due to a desire to warn readers of Mk. that the Lord did not refuse, as applied to Himself, a title which He admitted as applicable to God, and did not draw a sharp distinction between Himself and God. That these changes are due to Mt. himself rather than to the copyists of his Gospel, is suggested by the changes made by Mt. in the text of Mk., which are collected on pp. xxxi, xxxii of the Introduction.

The later copyists of the Gospel have assimilated the passage to the text of Mk.

20. epúlaga] Xob C D al Si Sa b ceff? hq add ek veótatós pov from Mk.-51 ÉTi jotep@] Om. S?.

21. év oópavois] BCD. But & E F have ev oúpavợ as in 620. S’ adds, "and take thy Cross.” The words are added in Mk. by A N X al aq S. 23-30. = Mk 1028-81,

23. And Jesus said to His disciples, Verily I say to you, That M a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of the heavens. And again I say to you.] Mk. has: "And Jesus looking round saith to His disciples, How hardly shall they who have riches enter into the kingdom of God. And the disciples were amazed at His words. And Jesus again answering saith to them, Children, how hard it is to enter into the kingdom of God.” Mt. by abbreviating avoids the redundancy of Mk., cf. Introduction, p. xxiv; and also the amazement of the disciples, cf. Introduction, p. xxxiv. nádiv is a reminiscence of the clauses omitted from Mk.

dvokółws] is an uncommon word. dvokolía occurs in Job 3480 ; dúokolos, Jer 498, Ezk 26 (Th); Ditt. Syll. 213. 33, dvokolov, Kaupôv, and in Galen, Arist., Plato, Xenophon, and other writers.

24. It is easier for a camel to enter through the eye of a needle, M than for a rich man into the kingdom of the heavens.] Mk. has : “It is easier for a camel to pass through the hole of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.”—EÚKOT ÚTEpos) see on 96. - ppatos) for Mk.'s late and rare tpupadas.eloeloelv] Mt. avoids the duplication of the verb διελθείν, εισελθείν in Mk.-ραφίς] add to the examples in Lexicons, Ox. Pap. iv. 736. 75, (A.D. 1).

25. And the disciples when they heard it, were very astonished, M saying, Who then can be saved I] Mk. has : “And they were

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exceedingly astonished, saying to Him, And who can be saved ?" Mt. inserts ακούσαντες and μαθηταί, substitutes his favourite σφόδρα for Mk.'s stronger περισσως, omits προς αυτόν, and substitutes τις άρα for και τίς. For tís ápa, cf. 181 1925 244, Mk 44 For

Mk.'s apòs aŭtóv, see Abbott, Johannine Grammar, 2366o. M 26. And Jesus looking upon (them) said to them, With men this is

impossible, but with God all things are possible.] Mk. has : "Jesus looked upon them and saith, With men it is impossible, but not with God. For all things are possible with God.” Mt. inserts a conjunction, and substitutes a past tense for dével, as often. He

omits the redundant åll' où napà deộ: cf. Introduction, p. xxiv. M 27. Then Peter answered and said to Him, Behold, we have left

all things, and followed Thee; what then shall we have ?] Mk. has: “Peter began to say to Him, Behold, we have left all things, and followed Thee.”—TÓTE] Mt. avoids Mk.'s abruptness and his ñpčato. His insertion of τί άρα έσται ημίν seems intended to relieve the ambiguity of S. Peter's statement as recorded in Mk., where “Behold we,” etc., is a half-interrogative statement evidently intended to provoke comment. “We have done what the young man could not

bring himself to do (v.22). What reward in heaven shall we have ?" M 28. And Jesus said to them, Verily I say to you, That.] Mk. has: “Jesus said, Verily I say to you." Mt. avoids Mk.'s abruptness.

Mt. here inserts the following: L Ye who have followed Me, in the regeneration when the Son of

Man shall sit on the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.] Lk. has somewhat similar words in 2228-30. — adevyevería] After the advent of the Messiah the Jews expected the creation of a new heaven and new earth.

Cf. Is 6517 6622, Dt 3212 (Onq.), Apoc. Bar 326 " the mighty One will renew His creation ”; 4412 “the new world,” cf. Charles' note on 326. Talivyevegia is used by Philo, Vita Mos. ii. 12, of the renewal of the world after the Flood, and de Mund. xv. of the restoration of the world after being burned. There seems to be no exact Aramaic equivalent. According to Dalman, Words, p. 177, new world” would be the nearest.—őtav kalion, K.7.1.] cf. Enoch 625 “Pain will seize them when they see that Son of Man sit on the throne of His glory”; and see on 1627.budàs Toù

'Iopaña] i.e. those to whom they had preached the gospel ; cf. 108. 23. M 29. And every one who hath left houses, or brethren, or sisters,

or father, or mother, or children, or lands, for My name's sake, shall receive a hundredfold, and shall inherit eternal life.] Mk. has : “There is no one who hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or children, or lands, for My sake, and for the gospel's sake, but he shall receive an hundredfold now in this present time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the coming age

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eternal life.” Mt. avoids Mk.'s harsh construction, oúdeis cotiv os άφηκεν– εάν μη λάβη. In Mk v.30 the thought is of the many advantages of incorporation into the Christian society. In it the convert should find fresh ties and new interests more satisfying ihan those from which he had cut himself adrift; cf. 1 Co 321 But in Mt.'s connection, after the insertion of v.28, the whole emphasis is on the future reward in the Talivyeveoia. This is why Mt. omits Mk.’s νύν εν τω καιρώ τούτω- διωγμών, for which his kinpovouňoei is a sort of substitute. The Apostles should sit on thrones; but even the humblest disciple should receive a manifold compensation, and inherit an estate greater than any which he had abandoned, namely, life everlasting.

30. But many first shall be last ; and last first.] The con- M nection of this clause with the preceding is obscure both in Mt. and in Mk. It would seem that the rolloi must refer to Christian disciples. All will inherit life everlasting, but many who are now first shall then be last. It seems best (with Swete) to understand the words as a rebuke to the self-complacent spirit implied in S. Peter's words: “It may be difficult for the rich to enter into the Kingdom, but we who have left all are in no danger of exclusion.” Christ's words are a warrant for this confidence, and at the same time a rebuke and a warning. The ambiguity lies in the “first” and “last.” Does He mean “Many who first became My disciples will find greater difficulty of entry than many who followed Me at a later period”? Or is the mpôtol used of rank rather than of time: “Many who now seem to hold a position of privilege will then find themselves in the lowest place”? Lk. (1330) has similar words in a different connection, and the saying occurs in the New Sayings of Jesus from Oxyrhynchus, 11. 25-27 in a doubtful context.

23-30. Mt. and Lk. in this section have a number of small points of agreement against Mk.

E.g.: Mt 23 = Lk 1824 8è- cinev. Both omit Mk v. 24 ; but Mt. has a trace of it in πάλιν δε λέγω υμίν. Mt 24 = Lk τρήματος. Mt 25 = Lk 26 åkoúcavtes. Mt 26 = Lk 27 cinev, and the omission of αλλ' ού παρά θεώ. Mt 27 = Lk 28 είπεν, ήκολουθήσαμεν. Mt 28 = Lk 20 6 8-cimev. Mt 29, Lk 80 hollandagiova (Mt. B L).

24. βασιλείας του θεού] Z curss abce S' S? have βασιλείαν των ουρανών. We should certainly expect the latter, but, in editing Mk., Mt. does not seem to have carried out his modifications with absolute uniformity, and he may have left Toù 0eoû here. If so, it was inevitable that it should be altered into twv oúpavwr. But in view of the facts given in Introduction, p. Ixvii, it must remain probable that twv oupavwv is original here, and that it has been changed into Toll Ocoû to assimilate to Mk.

τρήματος] N' B, but Nc DLX al, τρυπήματος.

29. untépa] NCK al SP add n yuvaika, which occurs in Lk 1820. It is omitted here by B Di Sabeffa. It is unnatural here after the express prohibition of divorce in vv.1-8.

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εκατονταπλασιόνα] So NCD X S1 S2. πολλαπλασιόνα as in Lk. is read by BL.

XX. 1-16. “For the kingdom of the heavens is like to a man, a householder," i.e. in the preparation for the kingdom, God deals with His servants as a householder does with his hired labourers, who pays them each and all the stipulated wage. Just so God when the kingdom comes will give to all who enter His service the eternal life which He has promised to them. The parable, as originally spoken, can hardly have had any other object than that of warning Christ's first disciples, that others who should become His disciples at a later date would also be partakers of privileges equal to theirs who had first joined Him (cf. Gal 16). The statement that the payment of wages began with the last hired, is a literary device to account for and to emphasise the dissatisfaction of the first hired labourers. The editor has been led by this feature to insert the parable here as an explanation of Mk.'s difficult v. 31 The first called will be as the last called, because all alike will receive an equal reward. A somewhat similar question is solved on parallel lines in 2 Es 541. 42. God has made promises of love to His people: “And I said, O Lord, Thou hast made the promise unto them that be in the end : and what shall they do that have been before us, or we, or they that shall come after us? And He said unto me, I will liken My judgement unto a ring: like as there is no slackness of them that be last, even so there shall be no swiftness of them that be first." Cf. also Apoc. Bar 302 "the first will rejoice, and the last will not be grieved.” This does not, however, exclude the thought of differences of position in the

kingdom ; cf. 1928. L 1. For the kingdom of the heavens is like-for the formula,

cf. on 1116 1324_to a householder, --cf. 1353,-who went out early -"the time of working,” says the Babyl. Talmud (Bab. Mez 832), “is from sunrise "—to hire labourers into his vineyard.] For the earthly estate owner as contrasted with God, see the parable from the Mechilta, cited by Fiebig, Altjüdische Gleichnisse Jesu, 69. For a somewhat similar parable, with, however, a very different application, see Jer. Talm. Berakhoth 58 quoted by Lightfoot.ulobáoar Oai épyáras] misses the ring of the original ''28972985;

cf. Bab. Mez 766. L 2. And having agreed with the labourers at the rate of a

denarius a day, he sent them into his vineyard. For the denarius, cf. on 1828 It was equivalent in value to the Greek drachma which Tobit received as his daily wage (514), and the word, like

many other Latin terms, passed into Jewish use. L 3. And he went out about the third hour, and saw others stand

ing in the market-place unemployed.)iyopá) had passed into Jewish usage. See Dalman's Wörterbuch. The third hour is 9 a.m.

4. And he said to them, Go also ye into the vineyard, and L whatsoever is fair I will give to you. And they went.]

6. Again he went out about the sixth (= 12) and the ninth L (=3 p.m.) hour, and did likewise.]

6. And about the eleventh hour (= 5 p.m.) he went out, and L found others standing; and he saith to them, Why have you stood all the day unemployed I]

7. They say to him, Because no one hired us. He saith to them, L Go ye also into the vineyard.]

8. And when it was evening, the master of the vineyard saith to L his bailiff, Summon the labourers, and pay to them the wage, beginning from the last unto the first.]—énitPotos] has passed into Jewish usage; see Dalman, Wörterbuch.

9. And they came (who had been hired) about the eleventh hour, L and received each a denarius.]

10. And the first came, and thought that they would receive L more ; and they also received each a denarius.]

11, 12. And having received it, they murmured against the house- L holder, saying that these last laboured one hour, and thou hast made them equal to us, who bore the weight of the day and the heat.]— yoyyúčev] only here in Mt. It is equivalent to dyanx, Jer. Talm. Berakhoth 58. It is a vernacular word found in the LXX, N.T., and later writers ; cf. Kennedy, Sources, 39. It occurs in Ox. Pap. i. 33, iii. 14, 2nd cent. A.D.-katowv) a colloquial word found in the LXX, N.T., and late writers ; cf. Kennedy, 154. καύσων occurs 15 times in the LXX, generally of a hot blasting wind= Heb. D'. It is used as here of heat in Athenæus, iii. p. 73 μελιλώτινοι στέφανοι πάνυ ευώδεις και καύσωνος ώρα ψυκτικώτατοι.

13. And he answered and said to one of them, Friend, I do not L wrong you : didst not thou agree with me at a denarius ?]—'Etaipos] cf. 1116. It occurs again in the vocative, 2212 2650.

14. Take what is thine, and go: it is my will to give to this L latest (comer) even as to thee.]

16. May I not do what I will with my own (or in my house) ? L or is thine eye grudging because I am liberal ?] i.e. "do you grudge my generosity ?” For πονηρός and οφθαλμός, cf. on 622

16. So the last" shall be first,and the "firstlast.”] E That is, “in a similar way the saying about first and last will be fulfilled. All alike will receive the reward of eternal life, whether they became disciples of the kingdom at an earlier or at a later period.”

At this point CD SS al add πολλοί γάρ εισιν κλητοι ολίγοι δε εκλεκτοί. But it is almost impossible to give the words any meaning in this connection. They are genuine in 2 214.

17-19. From Mk 1082-84. 17. And as Jesus was going up to Jerusalem, Ile took the twelve M

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