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ailments in Palestine, and its cure forms a fitting introduction to a series of three healings of disease.

(d) The reason why, after inserting the healing of the leper, the editor did not continue with that of the demoniac, may have been that he wished to form a series of three healings of disease, and that in the Church tradition the healing of the centurion's servant was closely connected with the Sermon. Lk. has the same connection.

(e) Moreover, there were features in the story of the demoniac which did not recommend it to the editor, features which Lk. found it desirable to modify. See below, p. xxxiii.

After inserting Mk 140-45 and omitting 23-28, the editor inserts the healing of the centurion's servant, 85-13, and can then continue with Mk 129-81, thus forming a series of three healings of diseaseleprosy, paralysis, fever. He closes the series with words borrowed from the succeeding verses of Mk 82-84, adding a quotation from Isaiah. Thus: 814

Mk 140-45
86-18 are inserted.

1 29-31

182-84 817 is inserted. The next section in Mk. is 135-39. This would be out of place in a series of miracles, and is therefore omitted. Mk 140-45 has been already inserted. The editor, therefore, comes to Mk 21-22 This he postpones, perhaps because it occurred on a visit to Capharnaum different to that just described. By recording it here the editor would confuse the two visits. Mk 223–38 he reserves for a controversial section. 37-35 contain no miracle. 41-84 he reserves for his chapter of parables. He therefore comes to 485. Here Christ is surrounded by a crowd. The editor adapts this to his context :

Mk 495, inserts 819-22 and then takes over Mk 436–520 with considerable omissions : 823-34

Mk 436–520. In Mk 521 Christ returns to the western side of the lake. Mt. adds to this, that “He came to His own city": Mt 91

Mk 5218, and can then go back and borrow Mk 21-13 with its sequel 18-23 : Mt 92-17

Mk 21-22 thus completing a second series of three miracles which illustrate Christ's power over natural forces (823-27), over the hostility of demons (28-84), and in the spiritual sphere (the forgiveness of sins, 91-8).

The editor now postpones Mk 228 – 484 for the same reasons as before. He comes therefore to 522-48 This he abbreviates, and





adds two other miracles, thus forming a third series of three miracles illustrating Christ's power to restore life, sight, and speech :

Mk 522-48. 927-81 inserted

982-84 Having thus given illustrations of Christ's teaching and miracles, the editor now proposes to show how this ministry found extension in the work of the disciples. He therefore postpones Mk 61-6, and expands 6b into an introduction to this mission modelled on the similar introduction 423-25 : 986

Mk 66b. 986-88 inserted. Chapter 1o1 continues with Mk 67; but the editor here inserts Mk 316-19, which he had passed over. The rest of 10-111 is an amplification of Mk 68-11 : 101

Mk 67. 102_111

68-11. 112-80 inserted. There now follows a series of incidents illustrating the growth of hostility to Christ on the part of the Pharisees. For these the editor now goes back to Mk 223-28ff. :

Mk 223-28.

31-6 summarises

37-12 1217-21 inserted. Having already borrowed Mk 318-194 he now comes to 196-21 and 22-30, For this he substitutes a similar but longer discourse introduced by another miracle :

enlarged from and continues with the next section in Mk.

331-35 This brings him to Mk 4, which is a chapter of parables. The editor borrows this and adds other parables : 131-52

Mk 41-84 As he has already inserted Mk 485–548 he now comes to Mk 61-62 : 1363-68

Mk 61-6a. From this point the editor follows the order of Mk.'s sections. 8. The editor not infrequently abbreviates Mk.'s record.

(a) Some examples of abbreviation in expression are given below on p. xxiv.

(6) In other cases details are dropped from the narrative.
E.g. Mk 118 “He was with the wild beasts.”

120 “ with the hired servants.”
1 29" with James and John."
226 " in the days of Abiathar the high priest."

121-8 128-14 1216-16


Mk 3196-30,

1 246-50

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Mk 227 “ The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for

the Sabbath."
317c Boanerges.

upon the cushion.”
513 “about two thousand.”
612 the mission of the Twelve.
637 “two hundred pennyworth.”
630-40 “ by companies-green-in ranks, by hundreds and

by fifties."
78-4 the explanation of “unwashen hands."
98 'so as no fuller on earth can whiten them.”

“three hundred pence."
1451 the young man who fled naked.
1521 “ the father of Alexander and Rufus.”

1544 Pilate's inquiry about the death of Christ.
l'specially statements of the thronging of the multitudes and the
inconvenience caused by it.
E.g. Mk 188 "and the whole city was gathered together at the

1 45 “so that He would no longer enter into a city.”
22. 4 “And many were gathered together, so that there

was no longer room for them, no, not even
about the door. . . . And when they could

not come nigh unto Him for the crowd.”
30 “And He spake to His disciples, that a little boat

should wait upon Him because of the crowd,

lest they should throng Him."
310 "pressed upon Him."
320 “so that they could not so much as eat bread.”

631 “they had no leisure to eat.”
(C) Not infrequently sayings are omitted from a discourse. But,
for the most part, such sayings have already been inserted in an earlier
part of the Gospel. The left-hand column shows where the saying
has been omitted, the right-hand column where it has been inserted.
Mt 1323-24

Mk 421

Mt 515.

1323-24 1323-24

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72 1312


4214 4246


185 186

9376 941

1040 1042 513 614



21 22

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139b. 11-12


1017-20 (d) In other cases a whole narrative or section is given in a much abbreviated form.

E.g. Mk 37-12 is compressed into two verses in 1216-16. The

reason is obvious. The editor is collecting illustrations of the controversies between Christ and the Pharisees. Having just borrowed Mk 223–31-6, which is suited to his purpose, he comes to 37-13, which has nothing bearing upon the subject. He might well have omitted it, just as he omitted 136-39. But the thought of Christ's ministry of healing, Mk 310, suggested to him a contrast between the Lord's quiet work of love with its shrinking from publicity, Mk 312, and the hostile clamour of the Pharisees. He therefore shortened Mk 37-12 and added a quotation from Isaiah to emphasise this contrast.

Mk 5143 is much shortened in Mt 828-34 918-28. See notes on 828 918

Mk 614-29 is abbreviated in Mt 141-12.
Mk 914-29 appears in a shorter form in Mt 1714-20. See note on


4. Contrasted with this shortening of narrative sections is the amplification of discourses. E.g. Mk 17-8, the preaching of the Baptist is expanded into

Mt 37-12. Mk 322-26, the refutation of the charge of diabolical agency is

expanded into Mt 1224-45. Mk 4, the chapter of parables is considerably lengthened in

Mt 13.

Mk 68-11, the charge to the Twelve is expanded into Mt 105-42. Mk 935-50, teaching about greatness is expanded into Mt 182-35. Mk 1 2376-40, denunciation of the Pharisees forms the nucleus

of a whole chapter in Mt 23. Mk 13, the discourse on the last things is expanded in Mt

24-25 into double the length. Four of these bodies of discourse, formed by interweaving some other source or sources with the shorter discourses found in Mk., viz. chs. 10. 13. 18. 24-25, are closed by a formula: kai éyéveto ότε ετέλεσεν ο Ιησούς διατάσσων τους δώδεκα μαθηταίς αυτού, 111; και εγένετο ότε ετέλεσεν ο Ιησούς τάς παραβολάς ταύτας, 1358 ; και εγένετο ότε ετέλεσεν ο Ιησούς τους λόγους τούτους, 191; και εγένετο ότε ετέλεσεν ο Ιησούς πάντας τους λόγους τούτους, 261. These together with the Sermon on the Mount, chs. 5-7, which closes with a similar formula 728, cf. Lk 7', form one of the most striking features of this Gospel.

6. In linguistic detail there are a certain number of characteristic changes made in Mk.'s language.

(a) Mk.'s characteristic words kai cúdús, málv, the adverbial Trolló, and otı after verbs of saying, are frequently omitted, and de is repeatedly substituted for kaí.

cilús or kai cúdús occurs in Mk. about 41 times, in Mt. about 7 times only, all borrowed from Mk.

máliv occurs in Mk. about 26 times, in Mt. about 16, only 4 of these coming from Mk.

The Aramaising adverbial tollá occurs in Mk. about 13 times, in Mt. 4 times.

óti after verbs of saying occurs about 50 times in Mk. Of these about 42 are omitted by Mt. It occurs in Mt. some 38 times, 8 of these being from Mk. Of the others, about 20 occur in the formula, “I say unto you that.” In a few instances it is inserted in Marcan passages where Mk. omits it, e.g. 1311 198. 9. 23. 28 2 1 23.

Mt. substitutes Sé for Mk.'s kaí about 60 times. On kai in Mk., see Hor. Syn. p. 120.

(6) Mk.'s historic presents and imperfects are frequently supplanted by aorists, and his ñpšato with an infinitive is generally avoided. So also cival with a participle, and changes are made in the voices of verbs.

Sir John Hawkins 1 reckons 151 historic presents in Mk., of which Mt. retains only 21. Mt. has about 93 such presents, 2 I of them being from Mk. About 66 are cases of déyei or déyovoiv, about 11 of them being from Mk. Nine of the historic presents retained from Mk. occur in Mk 1427-41 = Mt 2631-45. It seems clear, therefore, that Mt. generally avoided the historic present when reproducing Mk., and some of the 21 cases where he retains it may be due to assimilation. In reproducing other sources he seems also to have avoided the present, except in the case of léyeu and déyovoiv. The small number of other exceptions occur in parables (but in the nature of things the Logia would not have many such presents), and in chs. 2–41. The presence of some 9 presents not including déyer in this section is very curious, and would be naturally explained by the theory that this section was drawn from a source in which such presents were a marked feature, if there were sufficient corroborative evidence. See below,

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Mt. substitutes aorists for imperfects in the following cases : Mk 132 έφερον.

Mt 816 προσήνεγκαν. 36 εδίδουν, B L; εποίουν, 1214 έλαβον.

Aal; εποίησαν, NC. 312 επετίμα.

1216 επετίμησεν.
43 εδίδασκεν.

138 ελάλησεν.
488 ελάλει.
s18 έπνίγοντο.

832 απέθανον.
517 παρεκάλουν, D.

834 παρεκάλεσαν. 67 εδίδου.

1ο έδωκεν. 620 έφοβείτο.

145 εφοβήθη. 1 Hor. Syn. pp. 114 ff.


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