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(6) There are some words and phrases which occur only or chiefly in this part of the Gospel ; e.g.:

λάθρα, 19 27.
Ιεροσόλυμα, fem. sing., 28 351.
παραγίγνεσθαι, 21 31. 13.
πυνθάνεσθαι, 24.
κατ' όναρ, 120 212. 13. 19. 22.

Besides only 2719. παραλαμβάνειν, 8 times. Besides from Mk 177 2017 2687.

Elsewhere, 1245 1816 2440. 41 2727. αναχωρείν, 5 times. Elsewhere, 924 1215 1418 1521 176. κατοικείν, twice. Elsewhere, 1225 2321. The construction αναχωρησάντων δε αυτών ιδού, 120 21. 18. 19.

Elsewhere, 932 2811. But this evidence is insufficient to prove the existence of a special written source for this part of the Gospel ; and the fact that the Old Testament quotations in 118–2 and in 279. 10 have probably been introduced by the editor into originally independent narratives, rather suggests that all the narratives above mentioned came to the editor as independent traditions, and not from a document into which they had been collected. 2652-54 and 314-15 may belong to the same cycle of traditions. 2616-20 is probably based on the lost ending of Mk. I have thought it advisable not to confuse these narratives peculiar to Mt. with the few narrative sections (see p. xliii) common to Mt. and Lk. The former are marked in the commentary by P (= Palestinian), the latter by X (=unknown source).

The quotations in 1 22-23 25. 6. 15. 17-18. 23 414-16 817 1217-21 1385 211-5 27° present peculiar difficulties.

(1) Five of them, viz. 414-16 317 1217-21 1385 214-5, seem to have been inserted into or appended to a section of Mk. by the editor.

(2) Six of them, viz. 123 26. 15. 17-18. 23 279, might seem to be an integral part of the narrative in which they stand.

(3) One of them, 223, cannot be verified. (4) All of them are introduced by a striking formula : 122 τούτο δε όλον γέγονεν ίνα πληρωθή το ρηθέν υπό του Κυρίου

διά του προφήτου λέγοντος. 26 ούτως γαρ γέγραπται διά του προφήτου. 215 ίνα πληρωθή, κ.τ.λ. 217 τότε επληρώθη το ρηθέν διά Ιερεμίου του προφήτου

λέγοντος. 223 όπως πληρωθή το ρηθέν διά των προφητών. 414 ίνα πληρωθή το ρηθέν διά Ησαΐου του προφήτου λέγοντος. 817 όπως πληρωθή το ρηθέν διά Ησαΐου του προφήτου λέγοντος. 1217 The same. 1385 The same, with the omission of 'Hoatov.

214 τούτο δε γέγονεν ίνα πληρωθή το ρηθέν διά του προφήτου

λέγοντος. . 279 τότε επληρώθη το ρηθέν διά Ιερεμίου του προφήτου λέγοντος.

(5) 123 agrees in the main with the LXX; 26 seems to be an independent rendering of the Hebrew; 215 is also a rendering of the Hebrew; 218 is apparently quoted from the LXX, with reminiscence of the Hebrew in tà téxva attīs; 223 cannot be traced; 415-16 is from a Greek Vs, but not from the LXX (see note, in loc.); 817 is an independent translation from the Hebrew; 1217-21 is from the Hebrew, with reminiscence of the LXX in the last clause, or more probably from a current Greek version, which is already implied in Mkil; 1385 seems to be an independent translation from the Hebrew, with reminiscence of the LXX in the first clause; 215 agrees partly with the Hebrew, partly with the LXX; 27o appears to be a free translation, with reminiscence of the LXX. Further, 26 seems to come in the main from Mic 514, with assimilation of the last clause to 2 S 52; 1218 from Is 421-4, with assimilation of the last clause to Hab 14 (Heb.); Mt 215 is a conflation of Is 6211 and Zec 9°; 278-10 comes from Zec 1113, but has probably been influenced by Jer 326-2.

With these quotations might be compared 1110, which occurs also in Mk 1°, and which therefore seems to have been current in Christian circles in a form slightly differing from the LXX. Here, too, there seems to have been a slight assimilation to Ex 2320.

It will be seen that there is a good deal of agreement with the Hebrew against the LXX. This makes it very unlikely that these quotations are due to the editor. For (a) in the quotations borrowed by him from Mk. the editor shows a tendency to assimilate the language more closely to the LXX. The single exception of change in favour of the Hebrew is Mk 1280 - Mt 2287. For such assimilation, see Mt 1315 kai idoopar autoús for Mk.'s και αφεθη αυτοίς; Mt 158 ο λαός ούτος for Mk.’s ούτος ο λαός ; Mt 195 adds και (προσ)κολληθήσεται τη γυναικί αυτού; Mt 2232 adds είμι ; Mt 2631 adds της ποίμνης. So LXX A. Mt 2746 ίνα τί for είς τι.

(6) In nine quotations not borrowed from Mk., viz. 44. 7. 10

27. 88. 484 918 = 127 2115, there is a general agreement with the LXX, except in kaì oủ, 913 = 127, which agrees with Heb. and • LXX AQ against LXX B.

It seems, therefore, probable that the eleven quotations introduced by a formula, and also 1110, were already current when the editor compiled his work in a Greek form. They may come from a collection of Old Testament passages regarded as prophecies of events in the life of the Messiah. In this connection 228 is very important, because it must have originated in Jewish Christian, i.e. probably in Palestinian, circles.



In making the second Gospel the framework of his own, the editor has adopted the general outline and plan of that Gospel, which is as follows:

A. Mk 11-18 Introductory. The Messiah had been heralded by the Baptist, had been declared to be the Son of God at His baptism, and had been prepared for His ministry by temptation.

B. 115–723 Ministry in Galilee.
C. 724–9 Ministry in the surrounding districts.

This period is marked by the confession of S. Peter, and by teaching as to Christ's death and resurrection.

D. 101-52 The Journey through Peræa to Jerusalem.
E. 11-168 The last days of the Messiah's life.

To this general framework the editor prefixes two chapters dealing with the genealogy, birth, and three incidents of the Messiah's childhood.1

[A. 1. 2 Birth and Infancy of the Messiah.)

He then inserts Mk.'s introductory section with considerable expansions. B. 3–411 Preparation for His ministry, (37-10. 12. 14-15 49-11)

] Passing to Mk.'s section B, the editor makes considerable alterations in the order of Mk 115-613. For a detailed examination of these alterations, see pp. xiii–xvii.

The result is as follows:
C. 4121520 Ministry in Galilee:

(1) Public appearance as a teacher, 412-17 (18-16].
(2) First disciples,
(3) Illustrations of His teaching and work:
(a) Preliminary,

[428-26) b) His teaching,

52–729 [52–727 (c) His work, 81–984 [85-18. 18-22,27-81

. 32-347 (4) Extension of His mission in the work of the Twelve,

986–112 [9855-88 105b-8. 10b, 15-16. 28–111) [(5) Survey of His ministry,

112-801 (6) Illustrations of His controversies with the Pharisees,

121-45 (5-7. 17-21. 22-23. 27-28. 30. 32-45). (7) His relations seek Him,

I 246-50. (8) Illustrations of His teaching in parables,


24-80. 83. 85-62].

13 (16-17

From this point the editor is entirely guided by the order of sections as they stand in Mk. (1428-81 and 1512-14 are not found in Mk.) (9) Various incidents,

1358_1520 Passages enclosed in square brackets are interpolations into Mk.'s narrative.


In the next sections he follows the order of incidents in Mk.'s section C. Thus : D. 1521–1835 Ministry in the neighbourhood of Galilee,

[1523-24 162-8. 17-19 17246-27 1884. 7. 10-86). E. 191-2034 Journey to Jerusalem, (1911-12. 28 201-15]

. F. The last days of the Messiah's life, 2128 (214-5. 10-11. 14-16

2 228-32. 43-45 221-14 23 (very greatly enlarged from Mk 1337b-40) 2426-28 25. 2625. 52-54 273-10. 19. 24-25. 43. 52-53. 62-66

289-10. 11-22) The life of Christ as thus presented in the Gospel is framed in an Old Testament setting.

He was the Jewish Messiah descended from Abraham, the father of the Jewish nation (1?, cf. 3o), and within narrower limits from David (11.20 1223 21%. 15 2242). In particular, he was the Messianic King (22 215 2711. 29. 37. 42), the Messianic Son of God (317 48 1127 1433 1616 175 2764), and the Messianic Son of Man. See pp. Ixxi ff.

Many of the incidents of His life had been foretold by the prophets. His birth (122-23) by Isaiah, at Bethlehem (26) by Micah, Herod's massacre of the children (217-18) by Jeremiah, Christ's return from Egypt (215) by Hosea, the settlement of His parents at Nazara by the prophets, the coming of His herald (38) by Isaiah, His own mission in Galilee (414-16) by Isaiah, His work of mercy in healing the sick (817) by Isaiah, His avoidance of publicity (1217-21) by Isaiah, His preaching in parables (1335) by the Psalmist, and the inability of the people to understand them (1314-15) by Isaiah; His entry as king into Jerusalem (214-5) by Zechariah, and the use to which the price of His life was put (279-10) by "Jeremiah.” His betrayal (2624. 54. 56), His desertion (2631), and many of the incidents of His death and burial had been foretold in Scripture (2734. 35. 39. 43. 57). And of His three days' sojourn in the tomb Jonah was a type, 1240.

Three features of the Gospel are prominent as characteristic of the editor's method:

(a) the grouping of material in 428-13 into sections illustrative of different aspects of Christ's ministry. () the massing of sayings into long discourses. (1) the Sermon on the Mount (5–727), which seems to

be an expansion of a shorter Sermon found in the

Logia. (2) the charge to the Twelve (10). (3) the chapter of parables (13). (4) the discourse about greatness and forgiveness (18).

15) the discourse about the last things (24-25). These are all ended by a special formula.



3-411 41-11

We might add :

(6) the discourse about the Baptist (11).
(7) the denunciation of the Pharisees (23).

(8) the parables of warning, 2128-2 214. (c) the arrangement of incidents or sayings into numerical groups. e.g. three, five, and seven:

three divisions in the genealogy,
three incidents of childhood,
three incidents prior to His ministry,
three temptations,
three illustrations of righteousness, 61-18
three prohibitions,

three commands,

77-20 three miracles of healing,

81-16 three miracles of power,

823-9% three miracles of restoration,

18-34 threefold “fear not,”

1026. 28. 81
threefold answer to question about

three complaints of the Pharisees,
three ουκ έστιν μου άξιος,
three parables of sowing,
three sayings about "little ones,” 186. 10. 14.
three prophetical parables,

three questions,
three parables of warning,

three prayers at Gethsemane,

2639-44 three denials of S. Peter,

three questions of Pilate,

2717. 21. 22. 23
three incidents which vexed the Pharisees, 121.24.
three petitions in the Lord's Prayer, 611-13
three aspirations in the Lord's Prayer, 610.
five great discourses,

5-727 10. 13. 18. 24-25,
ended with a formula.
five illustrations of the fulfilment of the law, 521-48.
seven woes,

23. Cf. also 1246 seven demons, 1821-22 forgiveness seven times, 2225 seven brethren, 1534 seven loaves, seven baskets.

Many commentators reckon seven beatitudes in the Sermon on the Mount, and seven petitions in the Lord's Prayer, and Sir John Hawkins reckons ten miracles in 81-934.

For two, cf. the two demoniacs, 828 ; two blind men, 2030 ; two false witnesses, 2660 ; two blind men, 927.

1 Hor. Syn. p. 134.

914-17 97-17 1037-38 131-92




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