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and men trained in this school became superior observers, surveyors, draftsmen, levellers, contourers, and examiners. Among so many who distinguished themselves it would be almost invidious to name any, but there were a few so conspicuous for energy of character, efficiency of service, and attainments, that to omit them would be a dereliction no scruples could justify. Their names are subjoined :

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Colour-sergeant John West, celebrated as an engraver. In 1833, the Master-General, Sir James Kempt, pointed out his name on the engraving of the index map of Londonderry to His Majesty William IV. in terms of commendation; and the Master-General while West was yet a second-corporal promoted him to be supernumerary-sergeant with the pay of the rank. Most of the index maps of the counties of Ireland were executed by him, and a writer in the United Service Journal 3 complimented him by saying that the maps already completed by him were as superior to the famous Carte des Chasses as the latter was to the recondite productions of Kitchen the geographer. His also was the master hand that executed the city sheet of Dublin, and his name is associated with many other maps of great national importance. The geological map of Ireland, 1839, engraved for the Railway Commissioners, was executed by him; and in all his works, which are many, he has displayed consummate skill, neatness, rigid accuracy, and beauty both of outline and topography. In October, 1846, he was pensioned at 1s. 10d. a-day and received the gratuity and medal for his meritorious services. He is now employed at the ordnance survey office, Dublin, and continues to gain admiration for the excellency of his maps.

Sergeant Alexander Doull was enlisted in 1813: After serving a station in the West Indies, he was removed to Chatham. There on the plan of Cobbett's Grammar,' he commenced publishing letters to his son on "Geometry," but after the second number appeared, he relinquished the undertaking. In 1825 he joined the survey companies, and was the chief non-commissioned officer at the base of Magilligan. He was a superior

3 ii., 1835, p. 454. ·

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mathematical surveyor and draughtsman, and his advice in difficult survey questions was frequently followed and never without success. Between 1828 and 1833 he had charge of a 12-inch theodolite, observing for the secondary and minor triangulation of one of the districts, and was the first non-commissioned officer of sappers it is believed who used the instrument. In July, 1834, while employed in the revision of the work in the neighbourhood of Rathmelton, he introduced a system of surveying similar to traverse-sailing in navigation, which effected a considerable saving of time in the progress of the work, and elicited the approbation of Colonel Colby. While on the duty he invented a plotting scale, and subsequently a reflecting instrument, both simple and ingenious in construction. After a service of twenty-three years, he was discharged in January, 1838. When the tithe commutation survey was thrown into the hands of contractors, Doull got portions of the work to perform, and his maps were referred to in terms of high commendation by Edwin Chadwick, Esq. Among several towns that he surveyed, one was Woolwich, the map of which, dedicated to Lord Bloomfield, was published by him in 1843. In the proposed North Kent Railway, Mr. Doull was assistant engineer to Mr. Vignoles, and he planned a bridge of three arches, having a roadway at one side and a double line of rails at the other with an ornamental screened passage between, to span the Medway where the new bridge is now forming, to connect Strood and Rochester; which, had the proposed railway not been superseded by a rival line, would have secured an enduring fame for the designer. This was the opinion of Mr. Vignoles and Sir Charles Pasley. Afterwards when the competing companies were preparing their respective projects, Mr. Doull represented the engineering difficulties of the opposing scheme in a pamphlet under the signature of "Calculus." In this his military knowledge and experience were well exhibited, inasmuch as he showed how the fortifica

• Frome's 'Surveying,' 1840, p. 40. Simms' 'Math. Inst.,' 1st edit.
5 Frome's 'Surveying,' 1840, p. 44.

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tions at Chatham would be injured by the adoption of that line; and the railway consequently, on account of this and other influences, has never been prolonged beyond the Medway at Strood. A few years afterwards he published a small work entitled, Railway Hints and Railway Legislation," which obtained for him, from the South-Eastern Railway Company-the one he so perseveringly opposed-the situation of assistant engineer to the line. More recently he issued a pamphlet on the subject of a railway in America, which for its boldness and lucidity gained for him the praise of a rising literary genius in the royal engineers. His last pamphlet on the subject of opening a north-west passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, a distance of 2,500 miles, is more daring, and evinces more pretension and merit than any of his previous literary efforts. Mr. Doull is also known as the inventor of several improvements of the permanent way of railways, and is a member both of the Society of Civil Engineers and the Society of Arts.

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Sergeant Robert Spalding was for many years employed on the survey of Ireland, from which, on account of his acquirements, he was removed to Chatham to be instructor of surveying to the young sappers. To assist him in the duty he published a small manual for the use of the students. It was not an elaborate effort, but one which detailed with freedom and simplicity the principles of the science. In 1834 he was appointed clerk of works at the Gambia, where his vigorous intellect and robust health singled him out for varied colonial employment, and his merits and exertions frequently made him the subject of official encomium. Five years he spent in that baneful and exhausting climate, and in 1840, just as he was about to sail for England, the fever seized him, and in a few days he died. In his early service as a bugler he was present

7 First published in a series of letters to the 'Morning Chronicle, and then collected, with additional matter, in a pamphlet.

8 Synges's 'Great Britain-one Empire.'

These he patented in November, 1851. A description of the improvements, with sixteen illustrations, is given in the 'Civil Engineer and Architects' Journal,' xv., pp. 164, 165.

in much active service, and was engaged at Vittoria, San Sebastian, Bidassoa, Nivelle, Nive, Orthes, and Toulouse.

Sergeant Edward Keville was a very fair and diligent artist. He engraved the index map of the county of Louth, and assisted in the general engraving work at the ordnance survey office in Dublin. In January, 1846, he was pensioned at 1s. 10 d. a day, and obtained re-employment in the same office in which he had spent the greatest part of his military

career.

Second-corporal George Newman was eminent as a draughtsman, and the unerring fineness and truthfulness of his lines and points were the more remarkable, as he was an unusually large man of great bodily weight. He died at Killarney in

1841.

Lance-corporal Andrew Duncan was a skilful and ingenious artificer. His simple contrivance for making the chains, known by the name of "Gunter's chains," is one proof of his success as an inventor. Those delicate measures, in which the greatest accuracy is required, have by Duncan's process been made for the last ten years by a labourer unused to any mechanical occupation, with an exactitude that admits of no question. The apparatus is in daily use in the survey department at Southampton, and the chains required for the service can be made. by its application with great facility and rapidity. He was discharged at Dublin in September, 1843, and is now working as a superior artizan in the proof department of the royal arsenal.

Equally distinguished were sergeants William Young, William Campbell, and Andrew Bay, and privates Charles Holland and Patrick Hogan, but as their names and qualifications will be found connected with particular duties in the following pages, further allusion to them in this place is un

necessary.

Colonel Colby in his closing official report, spoke of the valuable aid which he had received from the royal sappers and miners in carrying on the survey, and as a mark of consideration for their merits, and with the view of retaining in confidential

situations the non-commissioned officers who by their integrity and talents had rendered themselves so useful and essential, he recommended the permanent appointment of quartermaster-sergeant to be awarded to the survey companies; but this honour so ably urged was, from economical reasons, not conceded.

Seventeen years had the sappers and miners been employed on the general survey and had travelled all over Ireland. They were alike in cities and wastes, on mountain heights and in wild ravines, had traversed arid land and marshy soil, wading through streams and tracts of quagmire in the prosecution of their duties. To every vicissitude of weather they were exposed, and in storms at high altitudes subjected to personal disaster and peril. Frequently they were placed in positions of imminent danger in surveying bogs and moors, precipitous mountain faces, and craggy rocks and coasts. Boating excur sions too were not without their difficulties and hazards in gaining islands almost unapproachable, and bluff isolated rocks and islets, often through quicksand and the low channels of broad sandy bays and inlets of the sea, where the tide from its strength and rapidity precluded escape unless by the exercise of extreme caution and vigilance, or by the aid of boats. Two melancholy instances of drowning occurred in these services : both were privates,-William Bennie and Joseph Maxwell; the former by the upsetting of a boat while he was employed in surveying the islands of Loch Strangford, and the latter at Valentia Island. This island consisted of projecting rocks very difficult of access, and when private Maxwell was engaged in the very last act of finishing the survey a surf swept him off the rock. A lad named Conway, his labourer, was borne away by the same wave. The devoted private had been immersed in a previous wave by which his note-book was lost, and while stopping with anxiety, to see if he could recover it, another furious wave dashed up the point and carried him into the sea.10

10 In consideration of this event, the Board of Ordnance granted his widow a donation of 201.; and she was, moreover, assisted by a very handsome subscription from the officers and men of the district in which her husband had served.

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