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blood, it is not strange that the mighty warriors and hunters of the world should have chosen to array themselves with the spoils of Lions, Leopards, Tygers, and Bears, their rivals in cruelty. But the servants of God, who had the more valuable ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, are said to have wandered about in sheeps skins and goats skins, in a world that was not worthy of them. They preferred the appearance of those Creatures, who like themselves had been helpless, persecuted, and yet most serviceable to the world. Our Saviour supposes all his followers to be in sheeps-clothing"; warning us at the same time that many

should assume the habit of the sheep, though allied more nearly in their appetites and manners, their internal character, to the ravening wolf. And it seems agreeable to reason, that the Providence of God hath designedly furnished the sheep with the best materials for human clothing, as it were to remind us daily what Spirit we should be of. It is difficult to account for those coats of skins * which God gave to Adam and Eve, to clothe them before their expulsion from Paradise, but by supposing them to have been the skins of animals slain for sacrifice, in consequence of the fall: and if such, they were of the clean sort, amongst which the Sheep had the preference, being afterwards appropriated to the daily service of the Tabernacle and Temple.

XVII. In the modern Science of Honour, commonly called Heraldry, the principal Characters are taken from the animal kingdom. But here again the chief place is given to Beasts and Birds of the savage and rapacious kinds. Cornelius Agrippa, in his work upon the Vanity of the Sciences, which is a Satire upon

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all orders and professions, but rather too precipitate and unmerciful, takes occasion from this circumstance to fall foul upon all the Titles of Honour and Nobility, as having their original in Theft, Murder, and Rapine. " It is unlawful (saith he) for Noblemen to “ bear in their Coats an Ox, a Calf, a Sheep, a Lamb,

a Capon, an Hen, or any of those Creatures which

are necessary for the use of mankind; but they " must all carry for the Ensigns of their nobility the “ resemblances of cruel monsters and birds of Prey. – There be many of the smaller animals also that “ claim a prerogative in the shields of great men,

provided they are the documentors of mischief “ Those shields that are blazoned with things that

are less noxious, as Trees, Flowers, Stars, or are s otherwise distinguished only by variety of colours, " are accounted much more modern and less noble “ than the other, as not being acquired by any acts

of war, or other artifices of Ruin and Destruction *.* It is indeed very true, that the chief and perhaps the only merit of some, who have been raised to that Honour by which their posterity are ennobled at this day, consisted in their adhering to the fortune of some Tyrannical Invader, who took that to which he had no Right but from the Sword; and rewarded his accomplices with Inheritances violently taken away from the lawful Possessors. Yet after all, there is a Military Virtue, which ought to be distinguished as a proper foundation of Nobility. For as some have been raised by the ruin of the innocent; others have received the honours they justly deserved for delivering their Country at the hazard of their lives: a service which the strictest laws of Christianity have not

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* Chap 1xxxi.


condemned, though peace on earth is its principal object. For, as things are now constituted, peace and good order are the consequences only of war: and John the Baptist, who was sent to reform all orders of men, did not censure but rectify the profession of a soldier : who ought never to begin a quarrel, nor proceed to bloodshed upon false accusations. And all Kings, who are Soldiers by their office, should lay up this Counsel in their hearts.

XVIII. But leaving Heathens, Mythologists, and Heralds, it concerns us more immediately as Christians to consider how it comes to pass, that we are not now obliged to a literal observation of this Law. For this there are two Reasons. 1. Because it is bet. ter to fulfil the Spirit than to observe the Letter of the Law. The Gospel enjoins all that purity without a figure, which the Law suggested to the Jews under the distinction of meats. He, who has attained that purity of heart, hath already answered the end of the Law; in which case the descriptive or ceremonial part may be rejected as a yoke of bondage no longer necessary. In this moral part the Jews miscarried : the Apostle having taught us, they were not profited by the meats in which they were occupied*. It was the design of the Great Lawgiver that they should be profited: such was the admonition which this distinction held forth to them: but they were not. They had the form, without that grace to which it should have led them: while Christians, on the contrary, having that grace which the Jews wanted, are dispensed with concerning the form. The Law and its meaning is written in their hearts, and manifested in their lives. Instead of making void the law, they

• Heb. xiii. 9.

The king

establish it by keeping up to its intention. dom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost: it is all that the figurative meat and drink of the Law signified and recommended. The food that is clean and holy is a true faith, and a life separated from Sin. He, who is thus distinguished from other men, is the Guest of God, and hath communion with Christ, whose meat was to do the Will of the Father that sent him.

On this consideration we are released from the li. teral observation of the Law. That practice is now superseded by a better, which will bring us to a nearer alliance with God. Another consideration is this; that the Gentiles, being admitted to the Gospel, are no more to be accounted common or unclean. For the separation of the Jews was kept up, as Dr. Spencer hath learnedly remarked, by the observation of this Law in particulars and as that separation subsists no longer, the law is of course become obsolete.

XIX. But though the Divine Mercy hath accepted men of every kind to the privileges of Christianity, it cannot be too often repeated, because it ought never to be forgotten, that Jesus Christ did not come to save men in their sins, but from the dominion of sin and all its evil consequences. The Church is therefore not to be used as a sanctuary to all manner of iniquity. On the contrary, they who enter into it should put off their savage natures, as the animals which entered into the ark of Noah. The Gospel is more excellent than other Systems, because it hath a power of changing the manners by rectifying the passions. For Pride will have the effects of Pride; Covetousness 'will be followed by fraud and rapine; Ambition and worldly Policy will transform Chris

tians into monsters, let them loose upon one another and introduce such disorders amongst them as formerly among the Heathens. This is finely touched by Dr. Young, and in such terms as fall in with our present subject;



Eager ambition's fiery chace I see;
I see the circling hunt of noisy men
Burst Law's Enclosure, leap the mounds of Right,
Pursuing and pursued, each others prey:
As wolves for rapine, as the fox for wiles;
Till Death, that mighty Hunter, earths them all.

Night IV.

XX. Let every man then examine his own heart, and review his Character as it is reflected to him in this Mirror of the Animal Creation. Let him consider whether he is honest, industrious, and profitable to Society, as the labouring Ox; meek and patient as the Lamb; or whether he returns as the Dog to his vomit, and as the Sow that is washed to her wallowing in the mire: whether he is harmless as the Dove, or subtle as the Fox, and rapacious as the Vulture: whether he avoids the Truth, as the Owl avoids the Light; or whether he rejoices in it, as the Lark which rises toward the Heaven with the appearance of the morning. For though Jews and Gentiles are incorporated together for the present, the immutable distinction between Good and Evil shall at length prevail over the temporary Naturalization of men in the Christian Society; an eternal separation shall take place; and they only who shall have put on Purity, Temperance, Resignation, and Patience, shall have their final Portion with the Lamb of God.

XXI. While we are aspiring to this moral use of

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