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Religion, practical lessons in, 229
facture, 133, 152, 176
on board of, 181
St. Lawrence, rapids of the, 107
physical, not a fit subject of
novelties in, not early appre-
Serpents," method of rendering docile, Struggle between an eagle and sal.
Study of Natural Philosophy, 211
Sun, first appearance of the, 179
Superciliousness and knowledge, 92
Switzerland, town of Aargau, 170
goitre and cretins of, 230
Talent, uses and abuses of, 112
discovered at Salisbury, 129 Tavlor, J., extracts from, 179
scription of, 166
Thomson, lines by, 161
Time, early modes of measuring, 7,
53, 83, 108, 143
marks of, 115
Toilette, materials for, 13, 91, 150, 183
Tory, origin of the term, 10
" Tower of the winds,” Athens, 54
Trained animals, exhibitions of, 157
the modes of, 250
Usefulness of self.denial, 130
Vegetables and animals, striking
resemblances between, 149
Vegotation, the best means of impio-
ving the air, 48
Wafer, preparation of, 62
uses of mineral, 97. 113
clock, description of, 108
cress, cultivation of, 137
resistance of plants to. 22
of nature, varicty of, 82
20 -X. Wafers, 62-XI. Slates,
INDEX TO THE ENGRAVINGS.
Echo, diagram to show the formation
61, 68, 69, 116, 117
Magvetic compensator, 127
- in the gibbous form, 74
AARBURGH, view 169
148, 149, 189
Falls of the Clyde, 185
practising, 44, 45
window in York Cathe-
machines to try the
sixteenth, and eighteenth century,
of the Cross in, 166
Skeleton of the Duke of Buckingham
discovered at Salisbury, 129
the cross in, 166
window in York Ca.
the 7th, 164
vessel, figure of, 208
public view at, 291
sion of, 8
Old Sarum, in the 19th century, 153
back view of the skull of, 32
Saturn, ring of, 73
Calabrian cart, 249
Quadrant, the, 128
taking of, 209
great and little
Jar, Leyden, figure of, 09, 116
satellites of, their motions, 77
Desert of El Zih, tomb of Aaron in,
vered at Salisbury, 129
Kildare, round tower at, 57
and 18th centuries, 81
Ring of the planet Saturn, 73
telescopic appearance of, 77
the Paps, 225
assistance of, 121
Waltham Abbey, gunpowder milis at,
clock, construction of, 108, 109
tion and plan of, 201
But not their joys alone thus coarsely flow,
tude, between Persia and Hindostan. Its eastern Their morals, like their pleasures, are but low; For, as refinement stops, from sire to son
boundary is the river Indus. It is bounded on the Unaltered, unimproved, the manners run;
north by an extensive chain of snow-clad mountains, And love's and friendship's finely pointed dart
called Hindoo Koosh and the Paropamisan range*; Fall blunted from each indurated heart. Some sterner virtues o'er the mountain's breast
on the west by Persia, with HERAT for its frontier May sit, like falcons, cowering on the nest;
town; and south by Beloochistan. It is situated But all the gentler morals, such as play, Through life's more cultured walks, and charm the way,
between the twenty-ninth and thirty-sixth degrees of These, far dispersed, on timorous pinions fly,
northern latitude, and the sixty-first and seventy-first To sport and Autler in a kinder sky.—GOLDSMITH. of eastern longitude. This country is peculiarly inte,
resting at the present time, as being the seat of war The inhabitants of mountain districts have in all between the Persians, favoured by the Russians, on ages been distinguished by a boldness of character one side, and the Afghans, assisted by the combined and intrepidity of conduct which have rendered them forces of Runjeet Singh and the British, on the other. formidable or admirable, according as the soft civili. The reader will probably remember that on a former ties of life have been neglected or cultivated. If occasion we gave an account of that extraordinary these important considerations be laid aside, we find individual, Runjeet Singh, whose name and character that the habits and customs of men are greatly, if not have been for several weeks past objects of public altogether, influenced by the nature of the soil and interest in our journals + climate which they inhabit. The rugged and intrepid
It is not of course our object to enter into the politimountaineer derives his character from that of his cal question which at present agitates the Afghans. We native bills: the warm and luxurious plains of the • The elevation of the mountains of Hindoo Koosh seems to be south impart indolence and inactivity: the cold and greater than that of the Andes. One of the peaks of this range has barren scenes of the north produce a brisk and per-| level of the sea. The Hon. M. Elphinstone found no diminution of severing energy.
snow on this lofty range in the month of June, although in the neighIf the reader will consult the map of Asia, he will bouring plain of Peshawer the thermometer marked a temperature of
113° in the shade. find Afghanistan, a kingdom of considerable magni.
See Saturday Magasine, Vol XII., p. 239. VOL. XIV.
propose to furnish a few interesting details respecting | made for the maintenance of their mollahs, or religious them as a nation : the only remark necessary to be doctors; but this neglect is common in Mohammedan offered, is that, for the safety and stability of the states. Their mollahs are supported by individual British dominions in India, it has been deemed advi- donation, by salary or occasional gifts, and sometimes sable by the British government in the east to lend by religious foundations. These mollahs form a united assistance to the Afghans in repelling the incursions body, called ulema, into which new members are of their invaders.
admitted after a due course of study and strict examiSome writers refer the origin of the Afghans to the nation. They are numerous, and often hesitate not Israelites, some to the Egyptians; but the more gene- to assert their rights by an appeal to arms; in which ral opinion is that they are derived from the Hun case they assemble in numbers often amounting to and Scythian tribes, who in former times were com- 3000; and although no match for the Afghan warpelled, by migration or conquest, to seek a new riors in arms, yet they generally gain their point abode; and who gradually settled in the mountain by their spiritual influence over the multitude. districts between Persia and Hindostan; a country in The chiefs of the Afghan clans are not hereditary. which they were not likely to be molested, on account Each chief, or khaun, is generally appointed by the of the sterility of the soil and the coldness of the king, but sometimes by the people. He is selected clime. They collected originally in toomans or clans, from the oldest family of the tribe, with a certain which continue to the present day. Many of their regard for age, character, and experience. The choice chiefs are celebrated in oriental history. In the tenth is often difficult, from the number of contending cancentury, the north-eastern part of the empire was didates, and generally not accomplished without conquered by a Khorassan chief; but the Afghans bloodshed. The meetings of the ooloos, or tribes, are themselves remained independent in their mountain called jeergas: each khaun holds his own jeerga, fastnesses. The family of this chief held the king- formed from the principal branches of his clan. dom for two hundred years ; but in 1159 the Afghans Most decisions receive the consent of the whole clan, reconquered the country, and burned the capital of unless in matters of sudden emergency, when the the usurper.
They were afterwards attacked by chief may at once decide. One principal object of Jenghis Khan, and the Mongol dynasty long occu- these meetings is the administration of justice, founded pied the plains, while the Afghans kept to
upon a rude and simple code, and regulated by the tains. From 1405, after the death of Tamerlane, the Koran. This code is called pooshtoomvullee, the first Afghans enjoyed a long peace till 1500, when they principle of which is, that all crimes are to be regarded were attacked by Baber. The plains of Afghanistan as injuries to the persons only who suffer by them; were as usual conquered; but the Afghans themselves and the object of the law is either to obtain compenremained secure, by again resorting to the mountains. sation for the injury to the injured, or to regulate the In 1707 the Afghans became the assailants, con- amount of retaliation on the part of the latter. It quered Persia, and founded an empire which endured is deemed honourable for an individual to redress but a brief space; for the celebrated Nadir Shah of his wrongs by private revenge; but if he exceed the Persia overthrew it, conquered the Afghans, and in- measure thereof, he is amenable to the state. Among cluded their kingdom in his own. The life and ex- some of the tribes, however, a more justifiable system ploits of Nadir have been made the subject of an is gaining ground. excellent historical novel, by Mr. Fraser, called the Criminal trials are conducted before a jeerga, at Kuzzilbash. On the death of Nadir in 1747, an officer which Mohammedan lawyers, called moollahs, are of the Afghan troop in the service of Persia, Ahmed allowed to plead. The proceedings are opened with Shah by name, returned to his own country, declared prayers: a Pooshtoo verse is then repeated, announcing its independence, and founded the present monarchy. that, although events are in the hands of Allah, man After the death of Ahmed the kingdom became a prey is allowed to deliberate. Since most crimes consist of to internal dissension. Runjeet Singh seized several of acts of violence committed according to the allowed its finest provinces, which he still retains, and defends principle of revenge, the act is generally admitted. by means of a large and well-disciplined army, under The jeerga has to decide upon its legality. There are the management and direction of General Allard*.
certain grave forms, and a rude, but highly-admired The population of Afghanistan includes Afghans, species of eloquence practised, and Mr. Elphinstone Tartars, Belooches, and Persians, amounting in all to says that the decisions are usually impartial, if not about eight millions; one half of which number, just. The mode of compensation is a very odd one; the Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone thinks, includes to understand which we must go into a few apparently AFGUANS.
irrelevant details. Although situated so near the Hindoos, the Afghans Although polygamy is allowed, yet the females are differ altogether from that people. Their features are not subjected to that seclusion which prevails in most harsh, and strongly marked. Their faces bronzed by Mohammedan states. Hence the female sex is not the sun; their hair and beards long and uncut; their so much degraded in this country as elsewhere in the rude dresses of skins, all present striking differences east. But to every woman is attached a certain between them and their Hindoo neighbours. The marketable value; and although attachments between arts of life are less cultivated; the luxuries of Hindo- the sexes are frequent, yet no man is allowed to marry stan unknown; and justice is administered in a ruder until he has earned the purchase-money of his misand more primitive manner than among the Hindoos. tress. To do this is often attended with delays and But rough and unpolished as the Afghans may appear, difficulties, which impart a romantic cast to the affair, they possess a proud martial spirit, a devoted attach- and form the theme of many a wild Afghan tale and ment to their own wild liberty, a love of sobriety and song. When a man is sentenced to penal infliction, of hospitality, and a general contempt for indolence his sentence is to deliver to the family of the comand pleasure, which make them appear in a far more plainant a certain number of young women, who favourable light than the weak and treacherous become part and parcel of the property of the injured Hindoos.
man, and may be sold as such by him. Twelve is The religion of the Afghans is strictly Mohammedan, the usual number of young women to be awarded in but they tolerate other doctrines. No provision is case of murder, six with portions, and six without; * See Saturday Magazine, before quoted.
the usual portion amounting to between seven and
JOHN W TARUKIR, Printor, 43, At. Martin's Lane, London,
eight pounds sterling. For cutting off a hand, an | ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE BIBLE FROM THE ear, or a nose, six women; for breaking a tooth, three MONUMENTS OF ANTIQUITY. No. XX. for a wound in the head, one. If the complainant
ALTARS AND INCENSE. consent, the defendant may pay the value of the
The altar of sacrifice was generally of a cubical women in money or goods.
form The Afghans are fond of robust sports and athletic
among the Jews and Egyptians. We have exercises. They are devotedly attached to hunting in already given an engraving * of the form in which all its forms; some of which are peculiar to them; testimony to the great extension of that mighty and
the bloody sacrifice was offered to the deity, bearing selves. One mode is, to form a large circle, and drive all the game up to a central point, where it is important truth which Natural Religion could never
have discovered, “without shedding of blood, there slain. The attum is a violent noisy dance, in which both sexes delight. Playing at marbles, hopping, portion of the blood was necessarily sprinkled upon
is no remission of sin." In this kind of sacrifice a jumping, &c., are favourite games; and as they delight the altar; it thus became hallowed, and we find that in feasts and convivial enjoyments, they generally it was used in the form of consecration prescribed play for a feast, and the loser has to entertain the con
for the high priests under the Levitical law. queror. They often pit cocks, quails, and other
And thou shalt take of the blood that is upon the altar, animals against each other, for a similar stake. With all the wildness and turbulence of a young upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon the gar
and of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it upon Aaron, and and free nation, the Afghans are nevertheless as ments of his sons with him: and he shall be hallowed, and active in mind as in body. They delight in stories his garments, and his sons, and his sons' garments with and tales, especially the rude poetry of their warrior
him. (Exod. xxix. 21.) chiefs, which celebrates the exploits of the clan. The In the Levitical law we find that great importance reading of poetry is a distinct occupation in many is ascribed to the actual sprinkling of the blood upon of the towns. They possess few works that are more the altar; for that law was designed constantly to than a century and a half old; and all of them are remind the chosen people of the blood of that Great said to be imitations of the Persian writers. It Atonement which was to be made once for all on happens unfortunately that the Afghans regard the Calvary, to expiate the sins of mankind. Persians as heretics, and will not resort to Persian The life of the flesh is in the blood : and I have given it colleges and schools. Their own schools are numerous, to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls : and they teach the rudiments of oriental learning, for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul. which is widely diffused. Their language is peculiar: (Lev. xvii. 11.) it is called pushtoo.
The burnt offering, or holocaust, was different The Afghans venerate birth and long descent: no from the bloody sacrifice; it was not expiatory, but man is considered a true Afghan who cannot trace his an act of homage or gratitude, as appears from the origin through at least six generations. Hence every directions given at the consecration of Aaron. man is provided with a long list of ancestors, whose Thou shalt also take one ram; and Aaron and his sons mighty deeds he dwells upon with great complacency. shall put their hands upon the head of the ram. And thou
These people are devotedly attached to the pastoral shalt slay the ram, and thou shalt take his blood, and life
. One division dwells in houses; another in tents. sprinkle it round about upon the altar. And thou shalt They shrink from the exercise of trade and manual
cut the ram in pieces, and wash the inwards of him, and
his legs, and put them unto his pieces, and unto his head, labour ; and regard those who exercise it with con
And thou shalt burn the whole ram upon the altar: it is a tempt. The fixed habitations of the lower orders of burnt offering unto the Lord: it is a sweet savour, an Afghans are rudely built with unburnt bricks, and offering made by fire unto the Lord. (Exod. xxix. 15—18.) roofed with wood. The palaces of the higher orders The act of homage is clearly distinguished from are on the Persian model, though inferior: their chief the act of expiation, in the sacrifice prescribed for ornaments are all Persian.
rulers who had been guilty of an involuntary crime. The Afghan costume is peculiar. It consists of
When a ruler hath sinned, and done somewhat through close tunics, and wide mantles of sheepskin, or coarse
ignorance against any of the commandments of the Lord woollen cloth, for the lower ranks, and velvet, silk, and his God concerning things which should not be done, and fine shawl-cloth for the higher. Boots are everywhere is guilty; or if his sin, wherein he bath sinned, come to worn;
and it is considered as a mark of disrespect to his knowledge; he shall bring his offering, a kid of the their associates to appear without them. The dress goats, a male without blemish: and he shall lay his hand of the ladies consists of jackets and pantaloons, both
upon the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where
they kill the burnt offering before the Lord: it is a sin of velvet, silk, or shawl-cloth. Gold and silver
offering And the priest shall take of the blood of the sin ornaments, as well as precious stones, are not un- offering with his finger, and put it upon the horns of the common.
altar of burnt offering, and shall pour out his blood at the Their food is simple, consisting chiefly of pilaus of bottom of the altar of burnt offering. And he shall burn mutton and broth: their drink is butter-milk or sher
all his fat upon the altar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace bet. They also use tobacco. Fruit and vegetables offerings: and the priest shall make an atonement for him
as concerning his sin, and it shall be forgiven him. (Lev. are remarkably cheap among them; and in the iv. 22—26.) absence of animal food, the consumption is great
It is of importance to observe that this distinction among the lower orders. When a sheep is slaughtered between the bloody sacrifice and the burnt offering it is usual for its owner to make a feast among his
which is so clearly made in the law revealed by neighbours and friends; and the guests are often Moses; and which so forcibly intimates that the valued in proportion to their story-telling abilities. former was the type of some future great and conThe diet of the rich is chiefly an imitation of that of summating sacrifice, is not found in the ritual of any the Persian nobility, where the food, often ornamented
heathen nation. In the contest between Elijah and with gold and silver leaf, is presented on trays of the
the priests of Baal, the latter confounded the two same material.
together, for they shed their own blood round about In conclusion, we may observe that the Afghans the altar they had erected to their pretended deity, are so named by the Persians. Their national name is Alkar, and they will own no other.
when they found that prayers were of no avail.
The Hindoos call them Patans.
* See Saturday Magazine, Vol. XIII., p. 149.
Elijah said unto the prophets of Baal, Choose you one them with brass. And the stares shall be put into the bullock for yourselves, and dress it first; for ye are many; rings, and the staves shall be upon the two sides of the and call on the name of your gods, but put no fire under. altar, to bear it. Hollow with boards shalt thou make it: And they took the bullock which was given them, and they as it was showed thee in the mount, so shall they make it. dressed it, and called on the name of Baal from morning (Exod. xxvii. 1-8.) even until noon, saying, O Baal, hear us. But there was This altar was to be for the burnt offerings of the no voice, nor any that answered. . And they leaped upon nation, but that of earth was probably permitted for the altar which was made. And it came to pass at noon, the use of separate tribes and private families. Inthat Elijah mocked them, and said, Cry aloud : for he is a god; either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in a deed, one of the most signal marks of the divine journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked. wisdom which dictated the law to Moses, is that he "And they cried aloud, and cut themselves after their has made provision in his ritual not only for the manner with knives and lancets, till the blood gushed out nomade state of the Israelites, collected into one conupon them. (1 Kings xviii. 25—28.)
gregation while wandering in the desert; but also for The altar of burnt offering differed in shape from the very different condition in which they would be the simple sacrificial altar; the latter, as we have when settled in the Promised Land. Utterly inconseen, was of stone, unwrought by human hands, but sistent as the two states of society are, we find that the former was commanded by Moses to be made ample directions are given for both conditions of the simply of earth.
Jewish polity; it is inconceivable that human reason An altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt could have sufficed to accomplish this double task, sacrifice thereon thy burnt offerings, and thy peace offerings, and we must therefore humbly recognise in it proofs thy sheep, and thine oxen: in all places where I record my of “the wisdom which cometh from above.” name I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee. (Exod. XX. 24.)
The altar of incense differed from the altar of The altar of burnt offerings erected by Solomon in burnt offerings in its dimensions and its covering; it the court of the temple was brasen, and of great
was only one cubit in breadth, and two cubits in capacity, but it was insufficient for the great sacrifice height, and it was overlaid with pure gold instead of which was offered at the solemn dedication of the brass. The inferior priests, and in some cases the temple.
heads of families, were permitted to make sacrifices Solomon offered a sacrifice of peace offerings, which he
and offerings, but among both the Egyptians and the offered unto the Lord, two and twenty thousand oxen, and Jews, the privilege of burning incense was reserved an hundred and twenty thousand sheep. So the king and for priests of high rank. The Egyptian priests enall the children of Israel dedicated the house of the Lord.gaged in this task are generally represented as wearing The same day did the king hallow the middle of the court a leopard's skin, to which, from various indications that was before the house of the Lord : for there he offered burnt offerings, and meat offerings, and the fat of the culiar sanctity was attached. However that may be,
on the monuments, we are led to conclude that pepeace offerings : because the brasen altar that was before the Lord was too little to receive the burnt offerings, and it is perfectly clear from all the records, both pictorial meat offerings, and the fat of the peace offerings. (i Kines and historical, that greater importance belonged to viii. 63, 64.)
this solemn act of homage, the offering of incense, Differing in many respects from tnose we have than to any other function of the sacerdotal office. described, was the altar of burnt offering, for the It was on account of the reservation of this privilege construction of which Moses gave the most precise
Aaron, that Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, rebelled particular directions, because it was always to against Moses, and accused him of claiming exclusive accompany the tabernacle.
sanctity for himself and his brother. And thou shalt make an altar of shittim wood, five cubits They rose up before Moses, with certain of the children long, and five cubits broad; the altar shall be four square: of Israel, two hundred and fifty princes of the assembly, and the height thereof shall be three cubits. And thou famous in the congregation, men of renown: and they shalt make the horns of it upon the four corners thereof: gathered themselves together against Moses and against his horns shall be of the same, and thou shalt overlay it Aaron, and said unto them, Ye take too much upon you, with brass. And thou shalt make his pans to receive his seeing all the congregation are holy, every one of them, ashes, and his shovels, and his basons, and his fleshhooks, and the Lord is among them: wherefore then lift ye up and his fire-pans: all the vessels thereof thou shalt make yourselves above the congregation of the Lord ? (Numbers of brass. And thou shalt make for it a grate of network xvi. 2, 3.) of brass; and upon the net shalt thou make four brasen
Moses was struck with consternation at their im. rings in the four corners thereof. And thou shalt put it under the compass of the altar beneath, that the net may piety, but be finally consented to the test which they be even to the midst of the altar. And thou shalt make had so madly demanded. He permitted them to staves for the altar, staves of shittim wood, and overlay perform the act of homage which had been expresel,