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general principles of this theory, in order to afford a more exten. sive opportunity to those who have the care of the insane, to investigate, and thereby to confirm or to confute the particulars. I have myself constantly noticed, in examples too numerous to de tail, that mad persons are often deranged in the manifestation of those passions and faculties whereof the material organs (accord. ing to Gall's and Spurzheim's division) are the largest. While I proceed with and solicit research, I do not pretend to enough knowledge of insanity to assert positively the universal application of this theory. But facts are always useful; and the publication of them, by exciting inquiry, may lead to a nearer knowledge of their causes.
BY GEORGE FIELD,
AUTHOR OF TRITOGENEA, THE THIRD ORGANON, &c.
[Vide Pamphleleer, Nos. XVII. ard XXIV.]
The żeal with whịch natural and experimental Philosophy have been cultivated since the time of Bacon, has enriched the funds of experience with so many important discoveries and particulars, that the great end of natural Philosophy is no longer impeded by want of means for its establishment upon an universal basis à posteriori, according to the design and apticipation of that great
It is true indeed that the survey for a perfect universal induction in this department is absolutely illimitable, and only to be accomplished by the united labor of all men in all ages; there is therefore no danger of enquiry being exhausted ; the apprehension is rather that physics should obstruct their own progress by the multiplication of particulars on the one hand, or by too narrow and hasty inductions on the other.
It is true also that knowledge à posteriori thus eminently and successfully investigated in our own times, and with so much honor to the ingenious researches and industry of the moderns, must furnish the particulars for the generalogical or inductive process, without which these sciences can never be established, in harmony with experience, upon ground universally satisfactory to the mind. It has accordingly supplied a mass of materials which demands of the mind some principle of selection and rejection, upon which it may be reduced to science and order, its exuberances lopped off, and its wants disclosed.
It is not sufficient that we establish isolated sciences, nor that one science administers to niany, the principle of union upon which such administration depends must be unfolded, ere the whole body of science can move in concert.
All science (even that of the external) has its ground à priori, or in the mind, and to become perfectly legitimate, must be conformable to its requisitions. Every attempt however to erect the physical sciences upon such foundation bas hitherto failed, and consequently little progress has been made in the science of the external; for the stores of particular knowledge which we possess in this department are those of Natural History and experience under the false appellation of science,
The total failure of the ancients, upon this ground, owing to the want of proper materials, has brought discredit upon their more legitimate philosophy; nor have the attempts of the moderns to generalise our physical experience, and bring it under the prescription of reason and an universal theory, notwithstanding our inconparably more extended knowledge of facts and phenomena, been by any means successful.
An attempt in which both ancients and moderns have failed, if not presumptuous in the present advanced state of natural knowledge, is at least difficult and hazardous : its nature indeed admits not of entire accomplishment; hence all we can fairly hope or require is some progress toward the perfect reconcilement of Reason with Experience, while every attempt that supplies a new light may be hailed as the harbinger and incentive to a better : the greatest obstacle will be overcome when we have attained the right road; for such is the admirable nature of truth, that we no sooner get into her track, than new lights arise, and the way widens before
In such attempts, however, the distinctions of ancient and modern, and the prejudices of fashion and authority are to be discarded, that while we adopt the discoveries or reject the mistakes and errors of our predecessors and contemporaries, we may neither consecrate their illusions, nor extinguish the lights they have set up ; but recognising truth by its grand characteristics of unity and consistency, adopt it wherever it appear.
The following Essay aims at no more than to analogise those particulars of posterior experience which coincide with the prior requisitions of that universal theory which appears
upon the whole to embrace facts more widely than any other, to indicate where experience is wanting, and to reconcile the discrepances of the sciences in a manner altogether the most simple. We have therein claimed for the mind so much of the labors of Natural Philosophy as accords with its own ground or requisitions, independently of any assump