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the nragistrates; men who have enlightened and liberal views, and who are truly zealous for every useful improvement. As their jail is a new one, it is evident that they are placed under very difficult circumstances; but although the faults in the building are many of them irreparable, I am confident that nuch of what is now objectionable in the arrangements of the prison, will be obviated by the care and ingenuity which these gentleinen are evidently disposed to direct to this most important object.

GLASGOW BRIDEWELL.

This extensive house of correction is built on nearly the same plan as the Bridewell at Aberdeen; for it cousists of several Hats or stories, each fat containing a long gallery wih cells ranged on either side; except the highest flat, which is occupied by two large rooms, the one an infirmary, the other a chapel. There are also some thread mills attached to this Bridewell, in which a large number of prisoners are, during the day, constantly at work. Those who are not in the mills are also fully employed the men chiefly in weaving, the women in preparing thread for the mills, ornamenting muslins, &c. All are well clothed, well fed, and provided with good bedding. They are visited at stated times by a clergyman, a medical man, and a school-master. Much attention is given to cleanliness: the whole house was, when we visited it, in a state of neatness; and the prisoners are obliged to wash frequently, and are bathed when they enter the prison. A Bible is placed in every sleeping-cell.

The profit of the prisoners' labor is applied to their own maintenance in the Bridewell; if there be a surplus, it is given to them when they are again set at liberty.

Of these regulations, which are generally excellent, the effect may be traced in the alteration for the better, which sometimes takes place in the character and liabits of these prisoners, and which becomes conspicuous after they have quitted the prison and settled in common life. It must, however, be remarked, that there is much in this Bridewelt to check all tendency to reform.

The prisoners are able to communicate with one another out of their respective cells by day and by night. During their hours of work it depends upon their own inclination whether they are industrious or otherwise, for constant inspection is impossible; and as their windows look over a small plain on to the public road or street, every little noise and every fresh object on the outside diverts their

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Visited ninth month 10th, in company with Baillie Smith, James
Ewing (late Dean of Guild), and other gentlemen.
VOL. XV.

Pam.
NO. XXIX.

R

women.

attention from their regular duties. As we approached the prison we observed a great majority of these windows crowned with spectátors.' The great evil however here, as in the Bridewell at Edinburgh, is the excessive number of the prisoners as compared with the accommodations of the prison.

The principle of the Glasgow Bridewell is solitary confinement -one cell for one prisoner; but now there are two persons in every cell. Thus the course of that evil communication which “ corrupts good manners” is perfectly easy and uninterrupted, and its consequences inevitable. There were at this time iwo hundred and twenty prisoners in the Bridewell; namely, sixty men, and one hundred and sixty women.

As the numbers are so great, it appears highly desirable that another house of correction should be erected; and then, that one should be allotted to men, the other entirely to

William Brebner, the governor, who (like the governor of the Jail) is much devoted to his duties, informed us that he experienced no difficulty whatever in procuring for his prisoners a sufficiency of work. One effect of their being thus constantly employed is that the institution throws but a very trifling burthen upon the public. The whole expense of it during the first half-year of 1818, including all salaries, was 441. 6s. 10d.! It will be remembered that two hundred prisoners were maintained in it.

It gave us great satisfaction that an opportunity was afforded us, through the kindness of the magistrates, of forming in this city a Committee of Ladies, who have benevolently undertaken to visit and superintend the females both in the Jail and in the Bridewell. The object of the Committee is to instruct the ignorant, to provide the unemployed with work, to promote a daily reading of the Scriptures, and to watch over these criminals individually, not only when in prison, but, as far as possible, after they leave it.

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This jail is situated nearly opposite to the new and magnificent Court-houses, with which it forms a singular and melancholy contrast. It is an old building, excessively limited in its accommodations, and unfit in almost all respects for the purpose to which it is applied.

Pains are however taken to ensure the industry of these prisoners, by setting them such tasks of work as it is known they are able to perform. If these tasks are not completed, the prisoners are punished by the loss of a meal, which is found to have a powerful effect.

2 Visited on the 15th of the ninth month in company with several magistrates.

You enter into a large court-yard containing nearly an acré: of ground, and guarded only by a brick wall fifteen feet high. On your left is the prison; aud on the right, the jailer's house and a small chapel, which admits of no separation during the time of service between the male and female prisoners. We were first introduced to that part of the jail, in which the debtors reside, and which consists of three well-sized rooms. In these they not only pass the day but sleep, in large companies. There is no separate accommodation for women debtors. The consequence is deplorable : when an unfortunate woman becomes involved in debt, and is arrested,-however respectable, however virtuous she may be ---she is compelled to live day and night with a number of men, who are utter strangers to her; or, if she prefer the sad altervative, with felons and criminals, the desperately wicked of her own sex. Where is the law which justifies the exposure of an inuocent woman to so evident and so terrible a contamination?

A fourth room, immediately connected with the debtors' apartments, is allotted to the confiners--to those, who for certain crimes have been sentenced to various terms of imprisonment.

There is, during the day, no separation whatever between this description of criminals and the debtors. Their.rooms open one upon another, and the great court is the airing-ground common to both these classes. The female criminals of all descriptions, whe-, ther tried or untried, are confined in two small rooms, the one measuring sixteen feet by, thirteen, the other sixteen feet by nine and a half. In these rooms the unfortunate women pass both day and night, cook their victuals, wash their linen, and sleep on straw : they have the use of 'no airing-ground. Those, indeed, whose health requires it, have occasional permission to walk in the great court; but this liberty cannot be enjoyed except at the price of ex-posure to all the men in the prison.

In the remaining part of the building are confined the male felons, the tried and untried together. Their accommodations consist of a day-room twenty-two feet long by sixteen in breadth, four ill-ventilated sleeping-cells severally measuring nine feet by seven, and a small square court, separated from the large court by a double but open iron palisade.

Every sleeping-cell was fitted up with some straw, two blankets, and a rug. At the time of our visit, there were sixteen felons here, and four slept together in a cell. Sometimes the number of felons has amounted to forty: when they are thus numerous, a large proportion of them are obliged to sleep in their day-room.

This jail is white-washed twice in the year, and was at this time very cleanly. It is attended occasionally by a medical man, and once in the week by a chaplain. The prisoners are allowed no fir

1

ing, clothing only in cases of emergency, and for their maintenance not quite three pence-half-penny per day.

This allowance is cruelly small; for, except when bread is very cheap, it is absolutely insufficient for the due support of life. Small as it is, it is not the smallest allowance made in the jail. The debtors have from ninepence to one shilling and threepence per week; those committed for neglect of orders of bastardy, nothing.

The felons are heavily ironed, and are without any employment.

The reader will observe, that the most remarkable feature of the Carlisle jail is the total want of classification. No separation between the men and women debtors; none, during the day, between the debtors and confiners; none between the various descriptions of female offenders ; none between the tried and untried felons. It may be added, that since the felons' yard is separated from the great court only by an open palisade, nine feet wide, the freest opportunity of communication with the felons is afforded not only to the debtors and continers, but to any one, who happens to be walking in the court. This unchecked association amongst the various classes of prisoners, connected as it is with a condition of complete idleness, must assuredly be an easy and a certain method of spreading corruption and producing crime. The introduction of improper articles into the prison is also peculiarly easy; for every stranger, who is admitted into the great court, may convey what he pleases to the debtors, the confiners, and, through the iron palisade, to the felons themselves. The quantity of ale which is said to he introduced into the jail is almost incredible, and is of course frequently productive of great disorder.

The Court-houses, which are very near the Jail, are superior in point of splendor and accommodation to almost any in the kingdom. It is much to be regretted that the erection of a new prison 'should not have been a prior object of attention : but I ain informed that this also is in contemplation. Certainly, measures cannot be too early taken to do away with an evil which is eating rapidly into the very vitals of the community.

ON THE

CESSION OF THE FLORIDAS

TO THE

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

AND ON THE

NECESSITY OF ACQUIRING THE

ISLAND OF CUBA

DY

GREAT BRITAIN.

SECOND EDITION.

WITH CONSIDERABLE ADDITIONS.

[Printed. Exclusively in the Pamphleteer.]
BY J. FREEMAN RATTENBURY, Esq.

Chaque nation doit se gouverner selon le besoin de ses affaires et le conservation du bien publique.

MONTESQUIEU.

LONDON:

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