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go every one into his own country for her judgment reacheth unto heaven, and is lifted up even to the skies.

10 The LORD hath brought forth our righteousness: come, and let us declare in Zion the work of the LORD our God.

11 Make 'bright the arrows; gather the shields: the LORD hath raised up the spirit of the kings of the Medes: for his device is against Babylon, to destroy it; because it is the vengeance of the LORD, the vengeance of his temple.

12 Set up the standard upon the walls of Babylon, make the watch strong, set up the watchmen, prepare the ambushes: for the LORD hath both devised and done that which he spake against the inhabitants of Babylon.

13 0 thou that dwellest upon many waters, abundant in treasures, thine end is come, and the measure of thy covetousness.

14 The LORD of hosts hath sworn by himself, saying, Surely I will fill thee with men, as with caterpillers; and they shall lift up a shout against thee.

15 He hath made the earth by his power, he hath established the world by his wisdom, and hath stretched out the heaven by his understanding.

16 When he uttereth his voice, there is a multitude of waters in the heavens; and he causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth: he maketh lightnings with rain, and bringeth forth the wind out of his treasures.

17 "Every man "is brutish by his knowledge; every founder is confounded by the graven image: for his molten image is falsehood, and there is no breath in them.

18 They are vanity, the work of errors: in the time of their visitation they shall perish.

19 The portion of Jacob is not like them; for he is the former of all things: and Israel is the rod of his inheritance: the LORD of hosts is his name.

20 Thou art my battle ax and weapons of war: for "with thee will I break in pieces the nations, and with thee will I destroy kingdoms;

in pieces old and young; and with thee will I break in pieces the young man and the maid;

23 I will also break in pieces with thee the shepherd and his flock; and with thee will I break in pieces the husbandman and his yoke of oxen; and with thee will I break in pieces captains and rulers.

24 And I will render unto Babylon and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea all their evil that they have done in Zion in your sight, saith the LORD.

25 Behold, I am against thee, O destroying mountain, saith the LORD, which destroyest all the earth: and I will stretch out mine hand upon thee, and roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee a burnt mountain.

26 And they shall not take of thee a stone for a corner, nor a stone for foundations; but thou shalt be "desolate for ever, saith the LORD.

27 Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz; appoint a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers.

28 Prepare against her the nations with the kings of the Medes, the captains thereof, and all the rulers thereof, and all the land of his dominion.

29 And the land shall tremble and sorrow: for every purpose of the LORD shall be performed against Babylon, to make the land of Babylon a desolation without an inhabitant.

30 The mighty men of Babylon have forborn to fight, they have remained in their holds: their might hath failed; they became as women: they have burned her dwelling places; her bars are broken.

31 One post shall run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another, to shew the king of Babylon that his city is taken at one end,

32 And that the passages are stopped, and the reeds they have burned with fire, and the men of war are affrighted.

33 For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; The daughter of Babylon is like a threshingfloor, it is time to thresh her: yet a little while, and the time of her harvest shall come.

21 And with thee will I break in pieces the horse and his rider; and with thee will I break in pieces the chariot and his rider; 22 With thee also will I break in pieces man and woman; and with thee will I break 5 Heb. liers in wait. 6 Amos 6. 8. 7 Heb. by his soul. 12 Or, is more brutish than to know. 13 Chap. 10. 16. 16 Or, in the time that he thresheth her.

4 Heb pure. 11 Chap. 10. 14.

8 Heb. utter. 9 Gen. 1. 1, 6. 14 Or, in thee, or, by thee.

Chap. 10. 12, &c. 10 Or, noise, 15 Heb, everlasting desolations.

34 Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon hath devoured me, he hath crushed me, he hath made me an empty vessel, he hath swallowed me up like a dragon, he hath filled his belly with my delicates, he hath

cast me out.

35 "The violence done to me and to my flesh be upon Babylon, shall the "inhabitant of Zion say; and my blood upon the inhabitants of Chaldea, shall Jerusalem say.

36 Therefore thus saith the LORD; Behold, I will plead thy cause, and take vengeance for thee; and I will dry up her sea, and make her springs dry.

37 And Babylon shall become heaps, a dwellingplace for dragons, an astonishment, and an hissing, without an inhabitant.

38 They shall roar together like lions: they shall yell as lions' whelps.

39 In their heat I will make their feasts, and I will make them drunken, that they may rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake, saith the LORD.

40 I will bring them down like lambs to the slaughter, like rams with he goats.

41 How is Sheshach taken! and how is the praise of the whole earth surprised! how is Babylon become an astonishment among the nations!

42 The sea is come up upon Babylon: she is covered with the multitude of the waves thereof.

43 Her cities are a desolation, a dry land, and a wilderness, a land wherein no man dwelleth, neither doth any son of man pass thereby.

44 And I will punish Bel in Babylon, and I will bring forth out of his mouth that which he hath swallowed up and the nations shall not flow together any more unto him: yea, the wall of Babylon shall fall.

45 My people, go ye out of the midst of her, and deliver ye every man his soul from the fierce anger of the LORD.

46 And lest your heart faint, and ye fear for the rumour that shall be heard in the land; a rumour shall both come one year, and after that in another year shall come a rumour, and violence in the land, ruler against ruler.

47 Therefore, behold, the days come, that I will do judgment upon the graven images of Babylon: and her whole land shall be

confounded, and all her slain shall fall in the midst of her.

48 Then the heaven and the earth, and all that is therein, shall sing for Babylon : for the spoilers shall come unto her from the north, saith the LORD.

49 "As Babylon hath caused the slain of Israel to fall, so at Babylon shall fall the slain of all the earth.

50 Ye that have escaped the sword, go away, stand not still: remember the LORD afar off, and let Jerusalem come into your mind.

51 We are confounded, because we have heard reproach: shame hath covered our faces for strangers are come into the sanctuaries of the LORD's house.

52 Wherefore, behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will do judgment. upon her graven images: and through all her land the wounded shall groan.

53 Though Babylon should mount up to heaven, and though she should fortify the height of her strength, yet from me shall spoilers come unto her, saith the LORD.

54 A sound of a cry cometh from Babylon, and great destruction from the land of the Chaldeans:

55 Because the LORD hath spoiled Babylon, and destroyed out of her the great voice; when her waves do roar like great waters, a noise of their voice is uttered:

56 Because the spoiler is come upon her, even upon Babylon, and her mighty men are taken, every one of their bows is broken: for the LORD God of recompences shall surely requite.

57 And I will make drunk her princes, and her wise men, her captains, and her rulers, and her mighty men: and they shall sleep a perpetual sleep, and not wake, saith the king, whose name is the LORD of hosts.

58 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; "The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly 25 broken, and her high gates shall be burned with fire; and the people shall labour in vain, and the folk in the fire, and they shall be weary.

59 The word which Jeremiah the prophet commanded Seraiah the son of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah, when he went with Zedekiah the king of Judah into Babylon in the fourth year of his reign. And this Seraiah was a "quiet prince.

20 Or, shake themselves.

81 Heb. visit upon.

17 Heb. my violence. 18 Or, remainder. 19 Heb. inhabitress. Or, both Babylon is to fall, O ye slain of Israel, and with Babylon, &c. 23 Or, the country. 24 Or, The walls of broad Babylon. Or, made naked. 20 Or, on the behalf of. 87 Or, prince of Menucha, or, chief chamberlain.


60 So Jeremiah wrote in a book all the nor beast, but that it shall be "desclate for evil that should come upon Babylon, even all these words that are written against Babylon.

61 And Jeremiah said to Seraiah, When thou comest to Babylon, and shalt see, and shalt read all these words;

62 Then shalt thou say, O LORD, thou hast spoken against this place, to cut it off, that none shall remain in it, neither man

63 And it shall be, when thou hast made an end of reading this book, that thou shalt bind a stone to it, and cast it into the midst of Euphrates:

64 And thou shalt say, Thus shall Babylon sink, and shall not rise from the evil that I will bring upon her: and they shall be weary. Thus far are the words of Jeremiah.

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From a Drawing made on the spot, by J. B. Fraser, Esq.

Verse 13. "Thou that dwellest upon many waters."-The great river Euphrates, the neighbouring lakes and marshes, with the numerous canals of communication and irrigation, give a striking propriety to this allusion to its "many


25. "Make thee a burnt mountain."- See the conclusion of the statement concerning the Mujelibe, under Gen. xi. 30. "The mighty men of Babylon have forborn to fight," &c.-When the king of Babylon heard of the approach of the army of Cyrus, he marched out to meet and give him battle; but was defeated with little difficulty, and retreated to Babylon. From that time the Babylonians "forbore to fight," and remained in their strong city during the two years in which it was besieged by the Persians. Relying upon the high and thick walls, and having stored up provisions for many years, besides what might be produced within the walls of the town itself, they seem to have waited the result with little apprehension.

"They have burned her dwelling places."-In the short speech which Cyrus is reported by Xenophon to have addressed to his troops before they entered the bed of the Euphrates, he alludes to their principal danger, which appears to have been regarded with apprehension, of being assaulted by missiles from the house-tops as they passed through the streets. He said, that if the inhabitants retired to the house-tops, the best course would be to assail their doors by setting them on fire. He observed that the porches were very combustible, being made of palm-wood and coated with bitumen; and as the army was supplied with torches and tow in abundance, it would be easy to set the houses in flames; so that the inhabitants must either run from them or be consumed in them. This plan was probably carried into effect, and to this the prophet doubtless refers.

31. "One post shall run to meet another... to shew the king of Babylon that his city is taken at one end."—" From end to end," is Blayney's translation. The prediction clearly means that couriers should run from different parts, and so fall in with one another, all of them bringing intelligence to the king, that the city was taken at the point from which

they started. This is to be explained by a reference to the vast extent of the city, which Herodotus (who was a great traveller) says exceeded that of any city he had ever seen (Clio 180). In another place (191) he states that he was informed by some of the inhabitants, that, owing to the great extent of Babylon, those who dwelt in the outskirts were taken prisoners by the Persians, before the people in the centre of the town knew that the place was taken.

36. "I will dry up her sea."-The Euphrates must be meant by "the sea," that title being frequently applied in Scripture to large rivers, such as the Nile and Euphrates. We are doubtless to understand this as one of several allusione to the remarkable stratagem by which the city was at last taken by the Persians, after they had vainly wasted two years in the siege. To understand this, however, it should be premised that the Euphrates ran through the middle of the city, and that not only was the city walled all round towards the open country, but also along each side of the river. Cyrus was informed that a great annual festival was to be kept in the town, when the inhabitants were accustomed to spend the night in all manner of debauchery and drunkenness (see verses 39, 57, and ch. 1. 24), and he thought this a favourable opportunity to surprise them. He therefore made a distribution of the whole army, placing one part above the city where the river entered, and another below, where it came forth; giving directions that, as soon as the river should appear fordable, they were to enter its bed at both ends. Towards evening he opened the great dam of the trenches communicating with the lake, by which means the stream was diverted from its proper course, and the channel soon became fordable. The Persians then entered by the bed of the river, the water being little more than knee-deep, and took the city by surprise. This is the account of Herodotus (Clio 191): that of Xenophon (Cyrop. vii. 5) is somewhat different, but agrees in every essential point. Herodotus adds, that if the Babylonians had been before apprised of the intention of Cyrus, or if they had learned at the moment what he was doing, they might not only have saved themselves, but might have made the stratagem of the Persians recoil upon their own heads; for had they closed the gates towards the river, and ascended the walls which ran along it, the besiegers would have been taken as in a net. But the Persians came upon them quite unexpectedly, and from a quarter whence no danger was apprehended. All this was as the prophets had foretold long before Cyrus was born. They had said that the city should be taken unexpectedly, on a night of festivity; that the inhabitants should be then drunk or asleep (verse 57); that the gates should not be shut (Isa. xlv. 1); and that at the same time the stream of the great river should be exhausted. How convincing is all this! Many other most exact agreements might be pointed out; but as our limits do not permit this, we may recommend it to our readers, as a most interesting study, to compare the details of the prophecies concerning the taking of Babylon with the narratives of the event which are given by Xenophon and Herodotus.

39. "Drunken," &c.-We have just explained that there was a festival on the night when the city was taken. The speech of Cyrus shows that his anticipations corresponded with the prophetic predictions. He reminded his soldiers that the people against whom they now acted were the same whom they had formerly defeated, when they were sober, armed, and in battle array; and how much more easy a victory might now be expected, at a time when many of them were asleep, many drunk, and all in confusion.

42. "The sea is come," &c.—We are again to understand the Euphrates. This is true now, as we have shown in the note on Isa. xiv. 23. In connection with this subject, our present representation of the Birs Nemroud will be considered of peculiar interest, as it shows how the river comes up on Babylon, and overflows it so extensively as to form large pools of water" even around that distant heap of ruin.


1 Zedekiah rebelleth. 4 Jerusalem is besieged and taken. 8 Zedekiah's sons killed, and his own eyes put out. 12 Nebuzar-adan burneth and spoileth the city. 24 He carrieth away the captives. 32 Evil merodach advanceth Jehoiachin.

ZEDEKIAH was 'one and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.

2 And he did that which was evil in the eyes of the LORD, according to all that Jehoiakim had done.

3 For through the anger of the LORD it came to pass in Jerusalem and Judah, till he had cast them out from his presence, that Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon. 4 And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem, and pitched against it, and built forts against it round about.

5 So the city was besieged unto the eleventh year of king Zedekiah.

12 Kings 24. 18.

2 Heb. reigned. *2 Kings 25. 1. Chap. 39. 1.

6 And in the fourth month, in the ninth day of the month, the famine was sore in the city, so that there was no bread for the people of the land.

7 Then the city was broken up, and all the men of war fled, and went forth out of the city by night by the way of the gate between the two walls, which was by the king's garden; (now the Chaldeans were by the city round about :) and they went by the way of the plain.

8 But the army of the Chaldeans pursued after the king, and overtook Zedekiah in the plains of Jericho; and all his army was scattered from him.

9 Then they took the king, and carried him up unto the king of Babylon to Riblah in the land of Hamath; where he gave judgment upon him.

10 And the king of Babylon slew the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes: he slew also all the princes of Judah in Riblah.

11 Then he put out the eyes of Zedekiah; and the king of Babylon bound him in 'chains, and carried him to Babylon, and put him in prison till the day of his death. 4 Heb, blinded. • Or, fetters. Heb. house of the wards.

12 Now in the fifth month, in the tenth day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon, came Nebuzar-adan, captain of the guard, which 'served the king of Babylon, into Jerusalem,


13 And burned the house of the LORD, and the king's house; and all the houses of Jerusalem, and all the houses of the great men, burned he with fire:

14 And all the army of the Chaldeans, that were with the captain of the guard, brake down all the walls of Jerusalem round about.

15 Then Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard carried away captive certain of the poor of the people, and the residue of the people that remained in the city, and those that fell away, that fell to the king of Babylon, and the rest of the multitude.

16 But Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard left certain of the poor of the land for vinedressers and for husbandmen.

17 Also the pillars of brass that were in the house of the LORD, and the bases, and the brasen sea that was in the house of the LORD, the Chaldeans brake, and carried all the brass of them to Babylon.

18 The caldrons also, and the "shovels, and the snuffers, and the bowls, and the spoons, and all the vessels of brass wherewith they ministered, took they away.

19 And the basons, and the firepans, and the bowls, and the caldrons, and the candlesticks, and the spoons, and the cups; that which was of gold in gold, and that which was of silver in silver, took the captain of the guard away.

20 The two pillars, one sea, and twelve brasen bulls that were under the bases, which king Solomon had made in the house of the LORD: "the brass of all these vessels was without weight.


21 And concerning the "pillars, the height of one pillar was eighteen cubits; and fillet of twelve cubits did compass it; and the thickness thereof was four fingers: it was hollow.

22 And a chapiter of brass was upon it; and the height of one chapiter was five cubits, with network and pomegranates upon the chapiters round about, all of brass. The second pillar also and the pomegranates were like unto these.

23 And there were ninety and six pomegranates on a side; and all the pomegranates upon the network were an hundred round about.

24 And the captain of the guard took Seraiah the chief priest, and Zephaniah the second priest, and the three keepers of the "door.

25 He took also out of the city an eunuch, which had the charge of the men of war; and seven men of them that were near the king's person, which were found in the city; and the "principal scribe of the host, who mustered the people of the land; and threescore men of the people of the land, that were found in the midst of the city.

26 So Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard took them, and brought them to the king of Babylon to Riblah.

27 And the king of Babylon smote them, and put them to death in Riblah in the land of Hamath. Thus Judah was carried away captive out of his own land.

28 This is the people whom Nebuchadrezzar carried away captive: in the seventh year three thousand Jews and three and twenty:

29 In the eighteenth year of Nebuchadrezzar he carried away captive from Jerusalem eight hundred thirty and two "persons:

30 In the three and twentieth year of Nebuchadrezzar Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard carried away captive of the Jews seven hundred forty and five persons: all the persons were four thousand and six hundred.

31 And it came to pass in the seven and thirtieth year of the captivity of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, in the five and twentieth day of the month, that Evil-merodach king of Babylon in the first year of his reign lifted up the head of Jehoiachin king of Judah, and brought him forth out of prison,

32 And spake "kindly unto him, and set his throne above the throne of the kings that were with him in Babylon,

33 And changed his prison garments: and he did continually eat bread before him all the days of his life.

34 And for his diet, there was a continual diet given him of the king of Babylon, "every day a portion until the day of his death, all the days of his life.

8 Heb. chief of the executioners, or slaughtermen. And so vers. 14, &c. Heb. stood before. 10 Chap 27. 19. 11 Or, instruments to remove the ashes. 12 Or, basins. 13 Or, censers. 14 Heb. their brass. 17 Heb. threshold. 18 Heb. saw the face of the king. 21 Heb. good things with him, 22 Heb. the matter of the day in his day.

7 Or, chief marshall.
151 Kings 7. 15. 2 Kings 25. 17. 9 Chron. 3. 15.
19 Or, scribe of the captain of the host, 20 Heb. souls.

16 Heb. thread.

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