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21 Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God.

22 Wives, submit yourselves unto own husbands, as unto the Lord.


23 For the husband is the head of the wife, even wife, even as Christ is the head of the Church: and he is the saviour of the body.

24 Therefore as the Church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in every thing.

25 'Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the Church, and gave himself for it;

26 That he might sanctify and cleanse. it with the washing of water by the word,

27 That he might present it to himself a glorious Church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish.

28 So ought men to love their wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his wife loveth himself.

29 For no man ever yet hated his own flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as the Lord the Church:

30 For we are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones.

31 10For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall be joined unto his wife, and they "two shall be one flesh.

32 This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the Church.

33 Nevertheless let every one of you in particular so love his wife even as himself; and the wife see that she reverence her husband.

Or, discovered. 5 Isa. 60. 1. 6 Col. 4. 5. 7 Col. 3. 18. Tit. 2. 5.
10 Gen. 2. 24. Matt. 19. 25. Mark 10.7.

1 Pet. 3. 1. 81 Cor. 11. 3. 9 Col. 3. 19.
111 Cor. 6. 16.

Verse 12. "Done of them in secret."-Whitby, Chandler, and others, think there is here an allusion to the sacred mysteries of the heathen. They were celebrated in the night; and, although none of the initiated might divulge them, on pain of death, it transpired that all manner of abominations were committed on such occasions. This may be included; but the apostle's allusion seems to have a larger and more general application.

18. "Be not drunk with wine.”—We are disposed to take this as a general dehortation from excess in wine, under any circumstances, without supposing it bears any exclusive reference to the notorious Bacchanalia of the heathen. But, no doubt, such celebrations are included, as offering too conspicuous an exhibition of excess, to be by any possibility overlooked or left out of consideration. These dissolute ceremonies were celebrated in honour of the god of wine, and during their continuance, men and women made it a point of religion to intoxicate themselves, and ran tumultuously about the streets, fields, and vineyards, with wild songs and shoutings. Some think that the apostle glances at this last part of such celebrations in the ensuing recommendation of decent and edifying psalmody. Plato says that, during the Bacchanalia, scarcely a sober person could be found in the whole territory of Athens; and the case seems to have been much the same in other places.

19. "Psalms and hymns and spiritual songs."-Some think that these are synonymous terms, associated to strengthen the sense. In itself, this would be not unlikely, since the ancient taste was studious of that accumulation of synonymous and cognate words, which the modern taste rejects and avoids as a blemish. But, in the present case, we are disposed to agree with those who conclude that different things are intended by these words. The psalms (faxμs), some explain of the Psalms of David only; but it appears rather that, while the term includes these, it also comprehends other compositions, adapted, as they were, to instruments and voices. The hymns (vμvos) may be presumed to have been other and plainer compositions (chiefly of praise), both in words and as set to music; and were perhaps in one part, if not entirely, without instrumental accompaniments. The spiritual songs (dai), Bloomfield (whom we are following here) agrees with the ancient and best modern commentators in regarding as signifying not merely religious, or spiritual and edifying, in opposition to the carnal and impure songs at the heathen festivals and entertainments, but as being suggested by the Holy Spirit. These, as may be conjectured, were sung by one person alone, like our solo

anthems: it however appears probable, from Col. iii. 16, that they were not always sung, but merely recited; and if so, these "spiritual songs" would have been something like the strains of the Italian improvisatore, in that sort of cumposition, half poetry and half prose, so characteristic of the Oriental style. The commentators instance the songs of Elisabeth, of Mary, and of Zacharias, recorded by St. Luke, ch. i.


1 The duty of children towards their parents, 5 of servants towards their masters. 10 Our life is a warfare, 12 not only against flesh and blood, but also spiritual enemies. 13 The complete armour of a Christian, 18 and how it ought to be used. 21 Tychicus is commended. 'CHILDREN, obey your parents in the Lord: for this is right.

2 Honour thy father and mother; which is the first commandment with promise;

3 That it may be well with thee, and thou mayest live long on the earth.

4 And, ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath: but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.

5 'Servants, be obedient to them that are your masters according to the flesh, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as unto Christ;

6 Not with eyeservice, as menpleasers; but as the servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart;

7 With good will doing service, as to the Lord, and not to men:

8 Knowing that whatsoever good thing any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, whether he be bond or free.

9 And, ye masters, do the same things unto them, forbearing threatening: knowing that your Master also is in heaven; 'neither is there respect of persons with him.

10 Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might.

11 Put on the whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil.

12 For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against 'spiritual wickedness. in 'high places.

13 Wherefore take unto you the whole withstand in the evil day, and having done armour of God, that ye may be able to all, to stand.

14 Stand therefore, having your loins girt about with truth, and having on the breastplate of righteousness;


15 And your feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel of peace;

16 Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked.

17 And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God:

18 Praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication for all saints;

19 "And for me, that utterance may be given unto me, that I may open my mouth boldly, to make known the mystery of the Gospel,

20 For which I am an ambassador "in bonds: that "therein I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak.

21 But that ye also may know my affairs, and how I do, Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithful minister in the Lord, shall make known to you all things:

22 Whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that ye might know our affairs, and that he might comfort your hearts.

23 Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

24 Grace be with all them that love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. Amen.

¶ Written from Rome unto the Ephesians by Tychicus.

1 Col. 3. 20. 2 Exod. 20. 12. Deut. 5. 16. Ecclus. 3. 8. Matt. 15. 4. Mark 7. 10. 3 Col. 3. 21. 4 Col. 3. 22. Tit. 2. 9. 1 Pet. 2, 18. Or, moderating. 6 Some read, both your and their master. Ecclus. 35. 12. Rom. 2. 11. 8 Or wicked spirits. 9 Or, heavenly. 10 Or, having overcome all. 11 Col. 4. 3. 2 Thess. 3. 1. 12 Or, in a chain. 13 Or, thereof. 14 Or, with incorruption.

7 Wisd. 6. 7.

Verse 11. "Put on the whole armour of God.”—See the note and cut at 2 Cor. vi. There can be no question that, as there stated, the allusions to armour and arms in the New Testament have a particular reference to the appointments of the Roman soldiers, who were in those times dispersed everywhere in the countries and towns in which the sacred writers lived, or which they visited, and to which they wrote. The cut will furnish a general illustration of the kind of armour and arms to which the apostle alludes in the ensuing specification; and for ample illustrations, pictorial and literary, of the several articles mentioned in the enumeration, we may more particularly refer to the copious notes on these subjects which have been given in the Old Testament.

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14. "Having your loins girt about with truth."—It is not sufficient to explain this as an allusion to "the belts with which the flowing robes of the Orientals required to be girded up for any active employment." (Bloomfield.) For all

the allusions being to "armour," this must be comprehended as part of the "whole armour," which the apostle exhorts the Christian warrior to put on. It was therefore the military girdle, which was not only one of the most ornamental parts of military equipment, but was also important for defence, covering, as it did, the joints of the armour, keeping the whole compact and firm, as well as strengthening the loins of those who wore it. See the note on 1 Sam. xvii. 5. "Breastplate."-See the note on 1 Sam. xvii. 5.

15. "Your feet shod," &c.-Here military sandals or boots are classed with armour, the propriety of which will appear from the note and cuts under Ruth iv. 8. If, with some commentators, we suppose the reference is to firmness of standing, as in the base or foundation of an edifice, the apostle may be well imagined to have had in view those military caligas which were furnished with spikes, to enable those that wore them to stand firm and unmoved. Or if, with others, the allusion is supposed to be merely to the defence of the feet from the roughness of the way, and from the designs of enemies, who were wont to throw caltrops into the fields and to set spikes in the ground, to impede the march and wound the feet of the soldiers-then we may well conclude the text to bear a reference to the boots, greaves, or sandals, which, to defend the feet from such annoyance, were composed of, or furnished with, brass, iron, or other metals. Specimens, serving to illustrate either explanation, will be found in the cuts under Ruth v., and to the note there we may also again refer.

16. "Shield."-See the note on Judges v. 8.

"Fiery darts."-This is an evident allusion to the arrows and javelins which, being charged with combustible matters and set on fire, were discharged against the enemy. These were easily extinguished if opposed by a shield; for while on this, being covered with metal, the fire could take no effect, we learn from Arrian that these "fiery darts" were easily extinguished by any rapid or sudden jerk; for they had no great force, as, if arrows, they were necessarily discharged from a slack bow, as the fire went out if a tight one were employed. It was also necessary that, in order to have their destined effect, they should meet some soft substance in which they might fix. Hence, on both grounds, we see the peculiar propriety with which the apostle describes these missiles as being extinguished by a shield. These fiery darts, whether as fire-bearing arrows or javelins, were used both to distress and injure the persons of the enemy, or to set their tents and wooden buildings on fire. These missiles were, in their more simple form, twined round with tar and pitch, and discharged in a burning condition: but the more complete and injurious weapon, is described by Ammianus Marcellinus (1. xxiii. 4), as a hollowed reed, to the lower part of which, under the point or barb, was attached a round receptacle, made of iron, for combustible materials, so that such an arrow had much resemblance to a distaff. The reed was filled with burning naphtha: and when the arrow was discharged, if allowed to take full effect, it struck the enemies' ranks, or the objects at which it was directed, and remained infixed, the flame consuming whatever it met with, and was of such a nature that water had no effect upon it, but rather increased its violence, nor could it be extinguished but by being smothered with earth.

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long after you all in the bowels of Jesus Christ.

9 And this I pray, that your love may abound yet more and more in knowledge and in all judgment;

10 That ye may 'approve things that 'are excellent; that ye may be sincere and without offence till the day of Christ;

11 Being filled with the fruits of righteousness, which are by Jesus Christ, unto the glory and praise of God.

12 But I would ye should understand, brethren, that the things which happened unto me have fallen out rather unto the furtherance of the Gospel;


13 So that my bonds in Christ are manifest in all 'the palace, and in all other places;

14 And many of the brethren in the Lord, waxing confident by my bonds, are much more bold to speak the word without fear.

15 Some indeed preach Christ even of envy and strife; and some also of good will:

16 The one preach Christ of contention, not sincerely, supposing to add affliction to my bonds:

17 But the other of love, knowing that I am set for the defence of the Gospel.

18 What then? notwithstanding, every way, whether in pretence, or in truth, Christ is preached; and I therein do rejoice, yea, and will rejoice.

19 For I know that this shall turn to my salvation through your prayer, and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ,

20 According to my earnest expectation and my hope, that in nothing I shall be ashamed, but that with all boldness, as always, so now also Christ shall be magnified in my body, whether it be by life, or by death.

Or, mention. 2 Or, will finish it. 3 Or, you have me in your heart. 4 Or, partakers with me of grace. 7 Or, differ, Or, for Christ, Or, Caesar's court. 10 Or, to all others.

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21 For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain.

22 But if I live in the flesh, this is the fruit of my labour: yet what I shall choose I wot not. 23 For I am in a strait betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; which is far better:

24 Nevertheless to abide in the flesh is more needful for you.

25 And having this confidence, I know that I shall abide and continue with you all for your furtherance and joy of faith;

26 That your rejoicing may be more abundant in Jesus Christ for me by my coming to you again.

27 Only "let your conversation be as it becometh the Gospel of Christ: that whether I come and see you, or else be absent, I may hear of your affairs, that ye stand fast in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the Gospel;

28 And in nothing terrified by your adversaries: which is to them an evident token of perdition, but to you of salvation, and that of God.

11 Ephes. 4. 1. Coloss. 1. 10. 1 Thess. 2. 12.

PHILIPPIANS. This is another of the Epistles written by St. Paul during his imprisonment at Rome, as is manifest from various allusions which the Epistle itself contains (i. 7, 13; iv. 22). And it may further appear that it was written towards the end of his confinement, and was most probably the last of the series; for there are distinct intimations that he had already been a considerable time at Rome, and was in expectation of being speedily released: he even meditated to allow Timothy, his most confidential assistant, to depart, and in a short time to come himself to them (i. 12, 14; ii. 19, 26).

29 For unto you it is given in the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on him, but also to suffer for his sake;

This is a very gratifying Epistle. Philippi enjoyed the distinction of being the first city of Europe in which the Gospel was preached by St. Paul; and its church was, consequently, the first founded by him. And what is more, this church appears to have remained steadfast in those doctrines which it had received, without being disturbed by those divisions and controversies, or dishonoured by those irregularities, which in most of the other churches occasioned so much anxiety to their founder. Hence this Epistle is, as Horne observes, "the only one of St. Paul's letters to the churches, in which not one censure is expressed or implied against any of its members; but, on the contrary, sentiments of unqualified commendation and confidence pervade every part of the Epistle. Its style is singularly animated, affectionate, and pleasing."

30 Having the same conflict which ye saw in me, and now hear to be in me.

It moreover appears that the church at Philippi had on all occasions manifested the most affectionate and generous interest in the apostle's welfare and comfort. When the Gospel was first preached in Macedonia, no other church, except that of Philippi, contributed to his support. Although Thessalonica was the chief city of the province, yet when the apostle was there, the considerate Philippians twice sent him money, lest the success of the great cause in which they felt so much interest, might be hindered by his becoming burdensome to the Thessalonians (iv. 15, 16). They did the same when he was at the wealthy Corinth, and "to cut off occasion from them that desired occasion," declined to accept the wages of his labour from the church there. And now, when the kind-hearted Philippians heard or guessed that their venerated teacher, in imprisonment at Rome, needed assistance, they hastened to send to him Epaphroditus, one of their pastors, with supplies of money. On his return home, Paul sent by him this letter, in which he gratefully acknowledges their kindness to him. From the manner in which he expresses himself, we learn, with some surprise, that he had really been in circumstances of considerable want at Rome: but this may be easily accounted for by the recollection, that not having converted the Romans, he did not think himself entitled to receive his support from them; while in most of the other churches there were factions opposed to him, and from such churches it was his rule not to accept assistance. We may also consider that his situation at Rome, as a prisoner, probably precluded him from deriving much advantage from his trade. Under this concurrence of circumstances, it so happened that the church at Philippi was the only one to which the apostle could concede the privilege and honour of ministering to

his wants.

Verse 1. "Philippi."-For some particulars concerning Philippi, see the notes on Acts xvi. 12. Specimens of the coins which, as there mentioned, substantiate the statement of St. Luke, that one of the Roman provinces of Macedonia was called Macedonia Prima, and that Philippi was a colony, we have caused to be engraved; and we here introduce them.

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