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cantioned in the rubric concerning the examination of a possessed patient, not to believe the demon if he pretends to be the soul of some saint or deceased person, or a good angel (neque ei credatur, si dæmon simularet se esse animam alicujus Sancti, vel defuncti, vel Angelum bonum).? Nothing can bring more broadly into view the similar nature of souls and other spiritual beings than the existence of a full transitional series of ideas. Souls of dead men are in fact considered as actually forming one of the most important classes of demons and deities.

It is quite usual for savage tribes to live in terror of the souls of the dead as harmful spirits. Thus Australians have been known to consider the ghosts of the unburied dead as becoming malignant demons. New Zealanders have supposed the souls of their dead to become so changed in nature as to be malignant to their nearest and dearest friends in life ;3 the Caribs said that, of man's various souls, some go to the seashore and capsize boats, others to the forests to be evil spirits : 4 among the Sioux Indians the fear of the ghost's vengeance has been found to act as a check on murder ;5 of some tribes in Central Africa it may be said that their main religious doctrine is the belief in ghosts, and that the main characteristic of these ghosts is to do harm to the living. The Patagonians lived in terror of the souls of their wizards, which become evil demons after death ;? Turanian tribes of North Asia fear their shamans even more when dead than when alive, for they become a special class of spirits who are the hurtfullest in all nature, and who among the Mongols plague the living on

| Rituale Romanum : De Exorcizandis Obsessis a Dæmonio.

2 Oldfield, ‘Abor. of Australia'in “Tr. Eth. Soc.' vol. iji. p. 236. See Bonwick, .Tasmanians,' p. 181.

3 Taylor, ‘New Zealand,' p. 104. 4 Rochefort, ‘lles Antilles,' p. 429. • Schoolcraft, “Indian Tribes,' part ii. p. 195; M. Eastman, 'Dahcotah,'

p. 72.


Burton, “Central Afr.' vol. ii. p. 311 ; Schlegel, “Ewe-Sprache,' p. xxv. ; Falkner, ‘Patagonia,' p. 116 ; but cf. Musters, p. 180.

purpose to make them bring offerings. In China it is held that the multitudes of wretched destitute spirits in the world below, such as souls of lepers and beggars, can sorely annoy the living; therefore at certain times they are to be appeased with offerings of food, scant and beggarly; and a man who feels unwell, or fears a mishap in business, will prudently have some mock-clothing and mock-money burnt for these “gentlemen of the lower regions."2 Notions of this sort are widely prevalent in Indo-China and India; whole orders of demons there were formerly human souls, especially of people left unburied or slain by plague or violence, of bachelors or of women who died in childbirth, and who henceforth wreak their vengeance on the living. They may, however, be propitiated by temples and offerings, and thus have become in fact a regular class of local deities. Among them may be counted the diabolic soul of a certain wicked British officer, whom native worshippers in the Tinnevelly district still propitiate by offering at his grave the brandy and cheroots he loved in life.* India even carries theory into practice by an actual manufacture of demons, as witness the two following accounts. A certain brahman, on whose lands a kshatriya raja had built a house, ripped himself up in revenge, and became a demon of the kind called brahmadasyu, who has been ever since the terror of the whole country, and is the most common village deity in Kharakpur. Toward the close of the last century there were two brahmans, out of whose house a man had wrongfully, as they thought, taken forty rupees; whereupon one of the brahmans proceeded to cut off his own mother's


1 Castrén, Finn. Myth.' p. 122.

Doolittle, “Chinese,' vol. i. p. 206. 3 Bastian, 'Oest). Asien,' vol. ii. pp. 129, 416 ; vol. iji. pr. 29, 257, 278 ; *Psychologie,' pp. 77, 99 ; Cross, Karens,’ 1. c. p. 316 ; Elliot in ‘Journ. Eth. Soc.' vol. i. p. 115 ; Buchanan, 'Mysore, etc.' in Pinkerton, vol. viii.

r. 677.


* Shortt, "Tribes of India,' in “Tr. Eth. Soc.' vol. vii. p. 192; Tinling, • Tour round India,' p. 19.

6 Bastian, ‘Psychologie,' p. 101.

head, with the professed view, entertained by both mother and son, that her spirit, excited by the beating of a large drum during forty days, might haunt, torment, and pursue to death the taker of their money and those concerned with him. Declaring with her last words that she would blast the thief, the spiteful hag deliberately gave up her life to take ghostly vengeance for those forty rupees. By instances like these it appears that we may trace up from the psychology of the lower races the familiar ancient and modern European tales of baleful ghost-demons. The old fear even now continues to vouch for the old belief.

Happily for man's anticipation of death, and for the treatment of the sick and aged, thoughts of horror and hatred do not preponderate in ideas of deified ancestors, who are regarded on the whole as kindly patron spirits, at least to their own kinsfolk and worshippers. Manes-worship is one of the great branches of the religion of mankind. Its principles are not difficult to understand, for they plainly keep up the social relations of the living world. The dead ancestor, now passed into a deity, simply goes on protecting his own family and receiving suit and service from them as of old; the dead chief still watches over his own tribe, still holds his authority by helping friends and harming enemies, still rewards the right and sharply punishes the wrong. It will be enough to show by a few characteristic examples the general position of manes-worship among mankind, from the lower culture upward. In the two Americas it appears not unfrequently, from the low savage level of the Brazilian Camacans, to the somewhat higher stage of northern Indian tribes whom we hear of as praying to the spirits of their forefathers for good weather or luck in hunting, and fancying when an Indian falls into the fire that the ancestral spirits pushed him in to punish

1 Sir J. Shore in 'Asiatic Res.' vol. iv. p. 331.

? For some collections of details of manes-worship, sec Meiners, ‘Geschichte der Religionen,' vol. i. book 3 ; Bastian, Mensch,' vol. ii. pp. 402-11 ; * Psychologie,' pp. 72–114.

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neglect of the customary gifts, while the Natchez of Louisiana are said to have even gone so far as to build temples for dead men. Turning to the dark races of the Pacific, we find the Tasmanians laying their sick round a corpse on the funeral pile, that the dead might come in the night and take out the devils that caused the diseases; it is asserted in a general way of the natives, that they believed most implicitly in the return of the spirits of their departed friends or relations to bless or injure them as the case might be. In Tanna, the gods are spirits of departed ancestors, aged chiefs becoming deities after death, presiding over the growth of yams and fruit trees, and receiving from the islanders prayer and offerings of first fruits. Nor are the fairer Polynesians behind in this respect. Below the great mythological gods of Tonga and New Zealand, the souls of chiefs and warriors form a lower but active and powerful order of deities, who in the Tongan paradise intercede for man's benefit with the higher deities, who direct the Maori war parties on the march, hover over them and give them courage in the fight, and, watching jealously their own tribes and families, punish any violation of the sacred laws of tapu.* Thence we trace the doctrine into the Malay islands, where the souls of deceased ancestors are looked to for prosperity in life and help in distress. In Madagascar, the worship of the spirits of the dead is remarkably associated with the Vazimbas, the aborigines of the island, who are said still to survive as a distinct race in the interior, and whose peculiar graves testify to their former occupancy of other districts. These graves, small in size, and distinguished by a cairn and an upright stone slab or altar,

? J. G. Müller, ‘Amer. Urrel.' pp. 73, 173, 209, 261 ; Schoolcraft, 'Indian Tribes,' part i. p. 39, part iii. p. 237 ; Waitz, 'Anthropologie,' vol. iii. PP191, 204.

2 Backhouse, ‘Australia,' p. 105 ; Bonwick, "Tasmanians,' p. 182. 3 Turner, “Polynesia,' p. 88.

4 Mariner, “Tonga Is.' vol. ii. p. 104 ; S. S. Farmer, p. 126 ; Shortland, * Trads. of N. 2.' p. 81 ; Taylor, ‘New Zealand,' p. 108.

ö J. R. Forster, Observations,' p. 604; Marsden, Sumatra,' p. 258 ; *Journ. Ind. Archip.' vol. ii. p. 234.

are places which the Malagasy regard with equal fear and veneration, and their faces become sad and serious when they even pass near. To take a stone or pluck a twig from one of these graves, to stumble against one in the dark, would be resented by the angry Vazimba inflicting disease, or coming in the night to carry off the offender to the region of ghosts. The Malagasy is thus enabled to account for every otherwise unaccountable ailment by his having knowingly or unknowingly given offence to some Vazimba. They are not indeed always malevolent, they may be placable or implacable, or partake of both characters. Thus it comes to pass, that at the altar-slab which long ago some rule native family set up for commemoration or dutiful offering of food to a dead kinsman, a barbaric supplanting race now comes to smear the burnt fat of sacrifice, and set up the heads of poultry and sheep and the horns of bullocks, that the mysterious tenant may be kind, not cruel, with his superhuman powers.

On the continent of Africa, manes-worship appears with extremest definiteness and strength. Thus Zulu warriors, aided by the “amatongo," the spirits of their ancestors, conquer in the battle; but if the dead turn their backs on the living, the living fall in the fight, to become ancestral spirits in their turn. In anger the "itongo" seizes a living man's body and inflicts disease and death ; in beneficence he gives health, and cattle, and corn, and all men wish. Even the little children and old women, of small account in life, become at death spirits having much power, the infants for kindness, the crones for malice. But it is especially the head of each family who receives the worship of his kin. Why it is naturally and reasonably so, a Zulu thus explains. Although they worship the many Amatongo of their tribe, making a great fence around them for their protection; yet their father is far before all others when they worship the Amatongo. Their father is a great

* Ellis, ‘Madagascar,' vol. i. pp. 123, 423. As to the connexion of the Vazimbas with the Mazimba of East Africa, see Waitz, vol. ii. p. 360, 426.

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