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drives his dog-sledge; the Zulu milks his cows and drives his cattle to kraal; South American tribes live on, whole or mutilated, healthy or sick, as they left this world, leading their old lives, and having their wives with them again, though indeed, as the Araucanians said, they have no more children, for they are but souls.1 Soul-land is dream-land in its shadowy unreal pictures, for which, nevertheless, material reality so plainly furnished the models, and it is dream-land also in its vivid idealization of the soberer thoughts and feelings of waking life,
"There was a time when meadow, grove, and stream,
Well might the Mohawk Indian describe the good land of paradise, as he had seen it in a dream. The shade of the Ojibwa follows a wide and beaten path that leads toward the West, he crosses a deep and rapid water, and reaching a country full of game and all things the Indian covets, he joins his kindred in their long lodge.3 So, on the southern continent, the Bolivian Yuracares will go, all of them, to a future life where there will be plenty of hunting, and Brazilian forest-tribes will find a pleasant forest full of calabash-trees and game, where the souls of the dead will live happily in company.8 The Cxreenlanders hoped that their souls—pale, soft, disembodied forms which the living could not grasp—would lead a life better than that of earth, and never ceasing. It might be in heaven, reached by the rainbow, where the souls pitch their tents round the great
1 Crnss, 'Karons,' 1. e. pp. 30;>, 313; Le Joune in ' Rcl. dos Jes.' 1634, p. 16 ; Steller, 'Kanvtschatka,' p. 272; Callaway, 'Zulu Tales,' vol. i. p. 316; Klemm, 'Cultur-Gesch.' vol. ii. pp. 310, 315; J. G. M tiller, 'Amer. Urrel.' pp. 139, 286.
2 Bastian, 'Psychologie,' p. 224; Schoolcraft, 'Indian Tribes,' part ii. IV135;
3 D'Orbigny, 'L'Homme Americain,' vol. i. p. 364; Spix and Martins, 'Brasilien,' vol. i. p. 383; De Laet, Novus Orbis, xv. 2.
lake rich in fish and fowl, the lake whose waters above the firmament overflowing make rain on earth, and if its banks broke, there would be another deluge. But gaining the most and best of their living from the depths of the sea, they were also apt to think the land of Torngarsuk to be' below the sea or earth, and to be entered by the deep holes in the rocks. Perpetual summer is there, ever beauteous sunshine, and no night, good water and superfluity of birds and fish, seals and reindeer to be caught without difficult}', or found alive seething in a great kettle.1 In the Kimbunda country of South-West Africa, souls live on in " Kalunga" the world where it is day when it is night here; and with plenty of food and drink, and women to serve them, and hunting and dancing for pastime, they lead a life which seems a corrected edition of this.5 When we compare these pictures of the future life with such as have expressed the longings of more cultured nations, there appear indeed different details, but the principle is ever the same—the idealization of earthly good. The Norseman's ideal is sketched in the few broad touches which show him in Walhalls, where he and the other warriors without number ride forth arrayed each morning and hew each other on Odin's plain, till the slain have been " chosen " as in earthly battle, and meal-tide comes, and slayers and slain mount and ride home to feast on the everlasting boar, and drink mead and ale with the jEsir.3 To understand the Moslem's mind, we must read the two chapters of the Koran where the Prophet describes the faithful in the garden of delights, reclining on their couches of gold and gems, served by children ever young, with bowls of liquor whose fumes will not rise into the drinkers' heads, living among the thornless lotus-trees and bananas loaded to the ground, feasting on the fruits they love and the meat of the rarest birds, with the houris near them with beautiful black eyes, like
1 Cranz, 'Grtinland,' p. 258.
pearls in the shell, where no idle or wicked speech is heard, but only the words " Peace, Peace."
"They who fear tho judgment of God shall have two gardens.
Which of tho benefits of God will ye deny?
They shall lie on carpets brocaded with silk and embroidered with
gold; the fruits of tho two gardens shall be near, easy to pluck. Which of the benefits of God will ye deny?
There shall bo young virgins with modest looks, unprofancd by man or jinn.
Which of the benefits of God will ye deny?
With these descriptions of Paradise idealized on secular life, it is interesting to compare others which bear the impress of a priestly caste, devising a heaven after their manner. We can almost see the faces of the Jewish rabbis settling their opinions about the high schools in the firmament of heaven, where Rabbi Simeon ben Yochai and the great Rabbi Eliezer teach Law and Talmud as they taught when they were here below, and masters and learners go prosing on with the weary old disputations of cross question and crooked answer that pleased their souls on earth.3 Nor less suggestively do the Buddhist heavens reflect the minds of the ascetics who devised them. As in their thoughts sensual pleasure seemed poor and despicable in comparison with mystic inward joy, rising and rising till consciousness fades in trance, so, above their heavens of millions of years of mere divine happiness, they raised other ranges of heavens where sensual pain and pleasure cease, and enjoy
1 'Koran,' ch. lv. hi.
3 Eiseumeiiger, 'Eiitdccktes Judeuthum,' part i. p. 7.
ment becomes intellectual, till at a higher grade even bodily form is gone, and after the last heaven of "Neitherconsciousness-nor-unconsciousness " there follows Nirwana, as ecstasy passes into swoon.1
But the doctrine of the continuance of the soul's life has another and a gloomier side. There are conceptions of an abode of the dead characterized not so much by dreaminess as by ghostliness. The realm of shades, especially if it be a cavern underground, has seemed a dim and melancholy place to the dwellers in this " white world," as the Russian calls the land of the living. One description of the Hurons tells how the other world, with its hunting and fishing, its much-prized hatchets and robes and necklaces, is like this world, yet day and night the souls groan and lament.2 Thus the region of Mictlan, the subterranean land of Hades whither the general mass of the Mexican nation, high and low, expected to descend from the natural death-bed, was an abode looked forward to with resignation, but scarcely with cheerfulness. At the funeral the survivors were bidden not to mourn too much, the dead was reminded that he had passed and suffered the labours of this life, transitory as when one warms himself in the sun, and he was bidden to have no care or anxiety to return to his kinsfolk now that he has departed for ever and aye, for his consolation must be that they too will end their labours, and go whither he has gone before.3 Among the Basutos, where the belief in a future life in Hades is general, some imagine in this underworld valleys ever green, and herds of hornless speckled cattle owned by the dead; but it seems more generally thought that the shades wander ■ about in silent calm, experiencing neither joy nor sorrow. Moral retribution there is none.4 The Hades of the West African seems no
1 Hardy, 'Manual of Buddhism,' pp. 5, 24; Koppen, 'Rel. des Buddha,' vol i. p. 235, etc. s Brebeuf in 'Rel. des Jcs.' 1C36, p. 105.
3 Saliagmi, 'llist.de Nueva Espana,' book iii. appendix cli. i., in Kingsbornui;h, vol. vii.; Brasseur, vol. iii. p. 571.
4 CaaaliB, 'Basutos,' pp. 247, 254.
ecstatic paradise, to judge by Captain Burton's description: "It was said of the old Egyptians that they lived rather in Hades than upon the banks of the Nile. The Dahomans declare that this world is man's plantation, the next is his home,—it home which, however, no one visits of his own accord. They of course own no future state of rewards and punishments: there the King will be a King, and the slave a slave for ever. Ku-to-men, or Deadman's land, the Dahoman's other but not better world, is a country of ghosts, of umbrae, who, like the spirits of the nineteenth century in Europe, lead a quiet life, except when by means of mediums they are drawn into the drawing-rooms of the living." With some such hopeless expectation the neighbours of the Dahomans, the Yorubas, judge the life to come in their simple proverb that "A corner in this world is better than a corner in the world of spirits." 1 The Finns, who feared the ghosts of the departed as unkind, harmful beings, fancied them dwelling with their bodies in the grave, or else, with what Castrcn thinks a later philosophy, assigned them their dwelling in the subterranean Tuonela. Tuonela was like this upper earth, the sun shone there, there was no lack of land and water, wood and field, tilth and meadow, there were bears and wolves, snakes and pike, but all things were of a hurtful, dismal kind, the woods dark and swarming with wild beasts, the water black, the cornfields bearing seed of snakes' teeth, and there stern pitiless old Tuoni, and his grim w ife and son with the hooked fingers with iron points, kept watch and ward over the dead lest they should escape.3 Scarce less dismal was the classic ideal of the dark realm below, whither the shades of the dead must go to join the many gone before (is irKtovoiv l/«'tr0ai; penetrare ad plures; andare tra i piu). The Roman Orcus holds the pallid souls, rapacious Orcus, sparing neither good nor bad.
1 Burton, ' Dahonie,' vol. ii. p. 156; 'Tr. Kth. Soc' vol. iii. p. 403; 'Wit and Wisdom from W. Aft.' pp. 280, 449; see .1. G. Muller, p. 140.
2 Castien, 'Finn. Myth.' p. 120, etc.; Kalewala, Ruue xv. xvi. xlv. etc Meiuers, vol. ii. p. 780.