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and faith in Christ during this life? It is appointed unto every man to die, and after that the judgement. Why is the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews silent as to ages of further probation or purification ?
Early anticipation is not merely the test of true but of false development. Luther's doctrine of private judgement was an anticipation of that ó simple heresy or infidelity, which Lutheranism, according to Mr. Newman, has by this time universally become. Luther's rejection of the Epistle of St. James was an augury as well as the prolific parent of all Rationalism. So Calvinismn has become Socinianism. The latter is true as a fact; but, bear witness the death of Servetus, from a very different cause. It is the violent revulsion from that dark creed; the revolting against its obscuration or utter effacement of the attribute of benevolence from the Godhead; it is this which has thrown men back on a purely moral system : a system in which the benevolence of God will not demand even the propitiation of the Redeemer.
But we must hazard a few observations on this regular generation and descent of infidelity, of which it seems to be a standing argument, that all the sin is to be borne by Protestantism. We think it would be but common prudence for each party to hesitate before they throw the first stone. Infidelity been the prolific and spontaneous growth of Protestantism alone ? Rationalism has sprung up in Lutheran Germany, but has not something more arisen in Roman Catholic countries? Vanini, it is true, was burned in Italy, and our English Deists were not. Bolingbroke was a minister in England; so was Choiseul (to say nothing of Cardinal Dubois) in France. Frederick II. sate on a Protestant throne but we think that we could find contemporary monarchs in Romish Europe, not quite perhaps such clever unbelievers, but at least no better Christians. If Roman Catholicism has a right to disclaim Voltaire and Helvetius and D'Holbach, Lutheranism may protest against being answerable for Strauss or Bruno Bauer. According to an anecdote in Diderot's
Memoirs, mass was regularly celebrated at Grandval, the chateau of the Baron D’Holbach. Infidelity may have glided down in one case by more easy steps—in the other it was driven, for driven it was, a more violent leap. In one word, was it a Protestant nation which solemnly, publicly, deliberately abrogated Christianity; which dethroned, as far as it could, God and his Christ, from the sovereignty of the universe ?
Of all historical questions the gravest is, how far the infidelity, or at least the religious indifference, which was almost universally dominant throughout the highest and higher orders of Christian Europe during the last century, Roman Catholic as well as Protestant, is to be ascribed to the onward movement, caused not by the Reformation (for we hold Luther and Calvin to have been but instruments, the real Reformers were Faust and Gutenberg), or rather to the obstinate, and at first successful determination to maintain Mediæval Christianity with all its dogmas, usages, and sacerdotal power, stereotyped (as we have somewhere recently read) in the decrees of Trent and the creed of Pope Pius. But more of this before we close.
V. On the fifth test, Logical Sequence, we shall be extremely brief. Mr. Newman has adduced under other heads most of the illustrations which he brings forward under this. Of all guides to practical, or even speculative truth, none must be watched with greater jealousy than "logical sequence.' The world is a harmony of conflicting laws, life a balance of contending powers, the mind the concord of opposing faculties; religion itself a reconcilement of antagonistic truths. No principle followed out to its extreme conclusions, without regard to others, but will end in danger or abuse. Even our noblest dispositions must be mutually checked, and tempered, and modified, and brought into unison. Government becomes by rigid logical sequence despotism. The tyrant's irrefragable sorites, from the sanctity which hedges in a king,' leads him to cut off the heads of all, by whom by the remotest possibility that sanctity may be violated.
So grant the premises of liberty, and stop short if you can (without introducing any extraneous consider
ation) of anarchy. The Jacobin sorites led as straight to the guillotine. Give Bellarmine his first truths, and admit no others, he is irrefragable; but do the same to Barclay the Quaker, and he is equally so. Build up a monarchy, and limit it by no counterbalance, and where ends its power. Grant to Milton two words in St. Peter's epistle, and let him sternly advance, looking neither to the right hand nor to the left, he stands a solitary worshipper in communion with no living Christian. Follow out the Polytheism of Mediæval Christianity, and you end in Pantheism. Follow out Hegelism, and, the other way round, you land on the same shore.
VI. We have arrived at the sixth test; the very title of which might appal one less infatuated by a preconceived and predetermined system. It is Preservative Additions. Additions, no longer developments of admitted truths, or of traditions as declaring themselves of apostolic descent, and as claiming coordinate authority with apostolic Scripture; but avowed, ostentatious additions--additions framed with the daring purpose of protecting God's truth, but demanding at the same time the same submissive homage with that truth!
No doctrine of his new creed seems to have seized on the imagination of Mr. Newman so strongly as the worship of the Virgin Mary. On this subject his cool and logical language kindles into lyrical rapture. He is no longer the subtle schoolman; he is the fervent hymnologist. Saint Teresa and Thomas Aquinas are met together.
Whether from the natural conviction that this is the tenet of Mediavalism, which it will be most difficult to force back into the creed of England ; which our biblical religious faith will reject with the most obstinate aversion ; which our unpoetic and unæsthetic (may we venture the word ?) spirituality will still brand by the unsubmissive name of Mariolatry; or, from the complete possession which it seems to have obtained of his own mind, Mr. Newman urges this doctrine even with more than his wonted subtlety, labours at it with unwearied zeal, and recurs to it again and again. It is the favourite illus
tration of three of his tests of legitimate development; it was foreshown by the prophetic glance of early anticipation;' it is drawn out by the iron chain of logical sequence;' it is the grand preservative addition' which guards the precious treasure of the Lord's divinity. We have reserved the subject for our respectful examination.
The early anticipations' of that worship are singularly few and indistinct. “Little is told us in Scripture concerning the Blessed Virgin' so commenced Mr. Newman's sermon at Oxford in 1843, in which he first announced his theory of developments. As is well known, 'they (the special prerogatives of St. Mary, the Virgo Virginum) were not fully recognized in the Catholic ritual till a late date ; but they were not a new theory to the Church, or strange to her earlier teachers.'
We listened in reverential anxiety for these prophetic voices. According to this theory it was the deep predestined design of Infinite Wisdom to raise the Virgin Mary to an object of divine worship; the design was her DEIFICATION—(it is Mr. Newman's word, and runs in large distinct capitals along several pageswhether to warn or to startle the English mind we presume not to say); - and yet of the four Evangelists but one, St. Luke, is inspired by the Holy Ghost, or urged by his own prescient sense of her divinity, to record the brief and simple words of the angelic salutation, Hail, highly favoured !--xaîpe, kexapıtwuévn.—Let us suppose that word expressive of the utmost fulness of divine grace,— The Lord is with thee, blessed art thou among women’– ευλογημένη συ εν γυναιξίν. . What Christian heart will think that it can adequately conceive the blessedness of her who was the mother of Jesus, the mother of the Son of God-her blessedness among, her blessedness high above, all women? Who will deny himself the fond belief, that beauty, virginal beauty and maternal beauty, worked outward from the inward sanctity into the lineaments and expression of that countenance ?—who will refuse to gaze on the Madonnas of Raffaelle, and not surrender himself in unreasoning wonder to their truth as to their surpassing loveli
ness? Still, of more than that blessedness, or even of that blessedness, not one further word is betrayed by any one of the Evangelists. On the contrary, there is a careful seclusion, as it were, of the Virgin Mother in her humble, in (if we may so say) her human sphere. So far from having any active part in the redemption, she seems as much lost in wonder as the rest at the gradual expansion of the Son of Man into the manifest Son of God. The wonderful things which she had seen, and had kept and pondered in her heart, expound not even to herself the marvellous mystery. Wist ye not that I must be about my Father's business,' seems to her, as to others, incomprehensible. How exquisite and how true (we write with reference to the mythic theory of the New Testament), the blending of maternal tenderness and reverential awe in all the intercourse of the mother and the Divine Son; and * how completely, in his own language and in his acts, does He seem to stand forth alone and unapproachable, while she is but one, and not the most prominent, of the listening and faithful disciples! But we must not dwell on this. After the Lord's death, the Acts of some of his Apostles are recorded. Their Letters, which at least dwell on all the more important parts of Christian doctrine, are before us. Of the later life of the Virgin not one word; and so deeply latent in their hearts is this, which yet is to become a chief—we had almost said the chief — truth of Christian doctrine, that not one word, one incidental expression, drops from them. At length, in the obscure and mystic Apocalypse is discovered, or supposed to be discovered, the first 'early anticipation. By a fanciful system of interpretation—wild, we venture to say, as the wildest of Protestant applications of that dark book—the Virgin Mary is found in the woman, in the 12th chapter, with whom the dragon was wroth, and against whose head he made war. This is moulded up with the prediction in the beginning of the book of Genesis. All the analogy of prophetic language would certainly lead us to suppose this woman to typify the Church; but we enter not on the dream-land of Apocalyptic interpreta