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rality requires to be re-inforced, and at the same time purified, by bringing the influence of evangelical motives to bear more directly on the consciences and habitual considerations, not of the covetous and worldly, but of the religious, and even the beneficent. With this view, incentives to liberality, such as those which Mr. Harris has eloquently pressed in his third part, and such as are enforced by Mr. Pike with much homely and practical good sense, are more likely, we think, to be effectively beneficial, than denunciations against covetousness. Till the love of Christ


possess us,' Mr. Harris justly remarks,

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the sublimest maxims

'will fail to reach the heart; and he is happy in the elegant simile which he employs to illustrate the beneficence.

force of this motive to

• Diodorus Siculus relates, that the forest of the Pyrenean mountains being set on fire, and the heat penetrating to the soil, a pure stream of silver gushed forth from the bosom of the earth, and revealed for the first time the existence of those rich lodes afterwards so celebrated. Covetousness yields up its pelf for sacred uses as unwillingly as if it were appointed to succeed the earth in the office of holding and concealing it; but let the melting influence of the cross be felt, let the fire of the gospel be kindled in the church, and its ample stores shall be seen flowing forth from their hidden recesses, and becoming "the fine gold of the sanctuary." pp. xiv, xv.

In casting our eye back over the somewhat desultory remarks which the subject has suggested, and which we have felt it an incumbent duty to offer, we perceive that we have scarcely done justice to the merit of Mr. Harris's Essay as a literary performance, or to the striking beauties of his composition. But we are sure that we need not apologize for having made this article less a review of his work, than an examination of the topic proposed for discussion. It would have been at once an easier and a more agreeable way of performing our task, could we have satisfied ourselves with echoing the general and fervent plaudits which this brilliant production has elicited. We will confess that, charmed with the forcible manner in which he has expatiated upon the general theme, and instructed, as every one must be, by many of the remarks, we felt disposed, under our first impressions, to pass a less qualified encomium upon the Essay. It was not till we sat down to the analytical examination of the Author's Work as an ethical treatise, that we found reason to question the correctness of the views assumed alike in the Original Advertisement, and in the manner in which the topic is treated. Thus have we been inadvertently led to add one more to the one hundred and fortythree Essays on Covetousness. It is, but due to the Author of the Prize Essay, to state, that he has devoted the hundred pounds so honourably earned to religious objects.

Art. III. Narrative of a Journey from Lima to Para, across the Andes and down the Amazon: undertaken with a View to ascertain the Practicability of a navigable Communication with the Atlantic, by the Rivers Pachitea, Ucayali, and Amazon. By Lieutenant W. Smyth and Mr. F. Lowe. 8vo. pp. viii. 306. London, 1836.

IT is a well ascertained fact, that the language and empire of

the Incas never extended far into the vast wilderness that stretches from the feet of the second Cordillera to the shores of the Atlantic; and hitherto, the streams which descend from the Eastern declivity of the Peruvian Andes, have neither afforded a channel to native civilization nor an inlet to foreign enterprise. Between the possessions of the Spanish conquerors and of the Portuguese traders, there extends an immense alluvial plain, covered with a rich and teeming vegetation, and traversed by a labyrinth of waters, in which man exists only as the hunter and the hunted, preying upon and preyed upon by his fellow. It might seem evident that the gloomy recesses of this primeval forest could be penetrated only by a skilful and cautious navigation; but no keel impelled by sails could hope to make its way up the interminable length of these rivers, in spite of the formidable obstacles and dangers which bar access, and embarrass progress. The discovery of steam navigation seems to have rendered it now only possible, since the creation of the globe, to reclaim this vast region from the wild animals or wilder outcasts of humanity, by whom alone it has hitherto been occupied.

The spirit of adventure, however, finds only excitement in difficulties; and accordingly, the project of accomplishing an overland route from Peru to Para has at different periods attracted the ambition of enterprising travellers. In 1828, Lieutenant Maw succeeded in reaching Para from Truxillo by this route. After traversing the rugged ridges and ladders of the Montaña, he embarked (on the 36th day) in a canoe, which carried him down a shallow, winding stream (the Cachi Yaco) to its junction with the Guallaga or Huallaga: by this latter stream he descended to the Amazons, or rather the great western headstream of that river, several days above its confluence with the Ucayale; and on the tenth day after entering the Amazons, reached Tavatinga, the frontier post of Brazil.

Lieut. Smyth, who does not seem to have had any previous knowledge of the achievement of his predecessor, and very imperfect information as to the nature and difficulties of the enterprise he was undertaking, pursued a different route. Starting from Lima on the 20th of September, he reached, on the 28th, the town of Cerro Pasco, seated in the heart of the richest mineral district of Peru, at an elevation of 14,278 feet above the

sea. Owing to the rarity of the atmosphere at this elevation, all new comers are sensible of an unpleasant tightness across the chest, and difficulty of breathing; and it is only after a residence of some time, that the lungs become accustomed to it. The town resembles in its appearance many of the villages of South Wales, being irregularly built on very uneven ground, rising in hills broken and bare. The houses are white-washed; some of them have a small glazed window; and the better 'sort have fire-places, for which luxury they are indebted to our countrymen.' Coal is found in abundance at a short distance. The town is divided into three districts or quarters, each having its church and priest, and each its separate band of miners, who are in perpetual hostility against each other, the consequence of which is frequent rows and affrays in the true Irish style.

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"The population fluctuates according to the state of the mines, for, when a productive mine is discovered, the Indians flock in from the country round to work at it: the average number may be taken at from 12,000 to 16,000. There are two squares: the principal one is called Cheupimarca, the other is called the Square of Commerce, where the market is held, which is well supplied with meat, fruit, and vegetables, from all the country round for many leagues. In the square of Cheupimarca is the cathedral, a building much like an English barn in its exterior, except that the latter would be built with more architectural regularity. The inside is little better than the out, and is adorned with a few gilded saints. The streets are dirty and irregular, and run in every direction: the suburbs are nothing more than a confused collection of dirty-looking mud cottages, which are hastily erected when required for the convenience of the miners, near any new mine that is opened, whilst those that are near a mine that has done working are deserted; consequently, the town is constantly altering its form. The mouths of the mines are frequently in the middle of the streets, which makes walking at night very dangerous, as there is no barricade or light hung near them. They are sometimes enclosed in the courts and yards of houses: in the house we occupied there was one turned to a very ignoble purpose.' pp. 39, 40.

Our Travellers were permitted to visit the mines, of which we must transcribe the description.

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Leaving our hats, and binding our handkerchiefs round our heads, a lighted candle was given to each of us; and, on the mayordomo joining us, we entered and descended a nearly perpendicular shaft for forty feet; after which we went in various directions, generally descending, until we reached the Socavon, or great drain, which communicates with and carries off the water from thirty-three mines. The Cañones, or passages, are seldom more than five feet in height, and in some places do not exceed three, and they follow the direction of the metal: these passages are, when the earth is loose, propped up with


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