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The danger is undoubtedly not small, from the insidious character of the poison; but we look up to the eternal hills whence cometh our salvation, and our hope is stedfast, that the warnings exhibited to us by other nations, as well as the evidence afforded us from time to time, through the often renewed attacks of its advocates, of the delusive and immoral character of infidelity at home, will, in the Divine hand, serve as a beacon to our holy ark for ages yet to come.
We now hasten to redeem our only remaining pledge, which is, to give a view of theological education in the Dutch Universities. In doing this, we shall, in order to combine with due economy of room, the greatest perspicuity of arrangement and adherence to authority, digest into one view the statements which, in Mr. Fliedner's Work, lie promiscuously interspersed with other
The universities in Holland are three; those of Leyden, Utrecht, and Gröningen. The first is the most ancient and distinguished, and has many peculiar privileges.
Each university is distributed into five faculties; comprising, in addition to those of Reformed Theology, Jurisprudence, and Medicine, one of Mathematical and Physical Science, and another of Philosophy and Literature. The rank of these faculties changes yearly, the precedence always attaching to that of which the rector of the university is a member.' Vol. II., pp. 175, 6.
Nothing further is required of students, on their matriculation, than a subscription to the statutes of the university; this subscription must, however, be repeated at the commencement of every academical year, as it is considered of no force beyond the session *. Some days before the renewal of subscription, a list of the students in each faculty is sent to the dean of the same faculty, for circulation among the professors, whose duty it is to mark the names of those by whom their courses are attended. The names which remain unmarked are struck off the list:-a useful arrangement, well deserving of imitation.' Vol. II., p. 180.
No student is permitted to inscribe himself for either of the faculties of Theology, Medicine, or Jurisprudence, till he has spent some time, ordinarily two years, in the preparatory studies of philology, philosophy, history, and mathematics, and obtained, after examination, in case it is his intention to cultivate Theology or Jurisprudence, the degree of "Candidate of Literature," or that of "Candidate of Mathematical and Physical Science," if he contemplate the study of medicine.'
Every student who is admitted to his special course of study is obliged to continue it for three years at least. That of medicine
*The session lasts through the entire year, with the exception of three months in the summer.
must be continued for four years. Theology, also, is usually studied for an equal length of time.' Vol. II., p. 179.
The theological faculty is bound to deliver a course of lectures every year upon all the following subjects: 1. Natural Theology; 2. Church History; 3. Hermeneutics; 4. Doctrinal Theology; 5. Christian Ethics; 6. Homiletics and the Pastoral Office. Catechetics is entirely neglected. The professors of Theology, at the same time, discharge in common the office of University Preacher.'-Vol. II., pp. 175, 176.
With respect to the special studies of the theological course, these must, until 1820, have been preceded in the preparatory course of literature, by the study of Grecian antiquities, physics, astronomy, ethics developed on philosophical principles, and Dutch grammar. portion of these, however, has since that time been discontinued, so that it is now very usual for the students to have heard little or nothing more than a course on Dutch style and oratory. [Philosophy is not a popular branch of study. The young theologians, for the most part, attend only the logic class, and a few the class of metaphysics. Vol. II., p. 179.] The lectures on agriculture, which they formerly attended for two years of their preparatory study, are now confined to one. In the first year of their proper divinity course, they hear natural theology, church history, hermeneutics, and the exegesis of the Old and New Testaments; in the subsequent years, doctrinal theology, Christian ethics, and pastoral theology. The cognate dialects to the Hebrew, such as the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic, are also by many very diligently studied; Homiletics, on the other hand, both theoretical and practical, but very partially. . . . . Catechetics, also, both theoretic and practical, are almost entirely neglected, since the professor neither allows the students to catechise children, nor holds catechetical exercises in their presence.' Vol. II., pp. 182, 3.
'All the theological lectures are read in Latin, except those on homiletics and pastoral theology, which, as well as the courses on the mother tongue and on agriculture, are delivered in Dutch.
Besides what they deliver, the theological professors take occasion in every lecture to question the students respecting what they have taught. These questions are, in the Latin courses, propounded in Latin, and the students answer in the same language.' Vol. II., p. 184. So far Mr. Fliedner on the course of education, with respect to
The philosophical curriculum [separately considered] includes : 1. logic; 2. metaphysics; 3. the history of philosophy; 4. ethics, developed on philosophical principles; [to which are added as the literary curriculum, which forms in combination with it, the fifth faculty;] 5. 6. Roman literature and antiquities; 7. 8. Grecian literature and antiquities; 9. Hebrew literature; 10. Arabic, Syriac, and Chaldee literature; 11. Hebrew antiquities; 12. universal history; 13. the history of Holland; 14. the literature and oratory of Holland.'-Vol. II., pp. 177, 178.
which he principally blames the neglect of catechetics. On the other hand, as we have seen, he approves of the step which is taken in the case of students who have suffered the session to elapse without attending lectures, as calculated to prevent loss of time and indifference to study. The custom just referred to, of questioning the students, is also described by him as an arrangement well worthy of imitation, inasmuch as it is adapted to pre⚫vent the tedium of unbroken lecturing; to assist the understanding ' of what is delivered; and to increase the attention of the hearers, ' and their interest in the subject, simultaneously with their con'fidence in their instructors. No spiritual superintendence of the students takes place, although such as belong to the Reformed Church are required to bring with them a certificate of membership, to be delivered to the church session of the Reformed congregation in the University-town. It is usual for theological students, after the first or second year, to undergo examination for the degree of Candidate of Theology,' after which they are considered as invested with a portion of the ministerial character. In order to this, they must have preached twice at least, sub praeside professore, and in the presence of the students of the homiletic class. After this examination, which is represented as bringing them more immediately under the influence of the Professors, they continue their studies till the close of the fourth year, when they undergo their final examination before the Provincial Direction,' in Old and New Testament Exegesis, Church History, Doctrinal Theology and the history of doctrines, Christian Ethics, Homiletics, and Pastoral Theology. On this occasion they are required to preach another probationary sermon. Those candidates, however, who intend to proceed to their degree of Doctor in Theology, a promotion to which very great importance is attached in Holland, are dispensed by the Provincial Direction from all examinations in Exegesis and church history, on account of the severe trial to which they will be subjected on that occasion, and of the dissertation which they will then have to deliver and defend in public. It may be interesting to mention, that the zeal of the students in every branch of study is very greatly promoted by small scientific societies among themselves, each composed of from ten to twelve members, who meet once or twice a week, to read and discuss dissertations prepared for the occasion. The number of students in 1827, at Leyden, was 588, of whom 158 were theologians; at Utrecht, 498, of whom 169 were theologians; and at Gröningen, 287, of whom 92 were theologians. There were thus in that year 419 theological students at those three universities, principally in connection with the Reformed church,-leaving out of consideration those who were prosecuting their studies, at the same time, in the seminaries of the other denominations.
In the chapter following that from which we have extracted the preceding information, Mr. Fliedner has favoured his readers with some valuable thoughts on the state of practical theological education in the Prussian universities. Our Author here appears to very great advantage, both as a man and as a Christian divine; inasmuch as writing, as he does, for Germans, he has forborne to indulge in the tempting, but comparatively unuseful commendation of the scientific excellence of their institutions, and, with a friendly but searching hand, has endeavoured to probe the deficiencies in their practical arrangements. In us, however, who are writing for readers comparatively ignorant of the fulness of scientific provision which is there made for theological students, it would be neither just nor profitable to notice Mr. Fliedner's practical suggestions, without affording some insight into the matter he has passed over; and we therefore request the attention of our readers to the following digest of divinity lectures in the University of Halle, for a single semester. It is taken from the INDEX LECTIONUM, published under the authority of the Pro-rector, and which contains a list of the lectures to be delivered in the University, from the 25th of April to the 17th September, in the present year. We have arranged the Theological lectures under the four general heads of Exegetical, Historical, Systematic, and Practical Theology, which is the division most generally recognized in Germany, and have prefixed to the first division such lectures of a subsidiary character as were given in the same semester or half-yearly session.
On Theological Encyclopædia, with Methodological Hints. A course on the objects of theological study, with advice for commencing students. By Dr. Tholuck. Twice a week.
First Division.-EXEGETICAL THEOLOGY. With the subsidiary courses on Biblical Language, Antiquities, and Introduction.
I. SUBSIDIARY LECTURES.
1. On Hebrew Grammar. Two Courses, one by Professor Rödiger, comprising three lectures in each week, from the beginning to the end of the Semester, and another by Professor Tuch, of three lectures a week.
2. Syriac Grammar. By Dr. Gesenius, once or twice a
3. Chaldee Grammar. By Professor Rödiger. Twice a week. 4. Hebrew, or Bible Antiquities. By Professor Rödiger. Five times a week.
5. On Introduction to the Old Testament. By Professor Tuch. Five times a week.
II. EXEGETICAL LECTURES.
1. On the Old Testament.
1. On Genesis, and parts of the Pentateuch. By Dr. Gesenius. Five times a week.
2. Job. By Professor Rödiger.
3. The Song of Solomon. By Professor Tuch. Once.
4. Isaiah. By Professor Tuch. Five times.
5. The Messianic Prophecies of the Old Testament. By Dr. Fritzsche. Twice.
II. On the New Testament.
1. On the Gospels, synoptically expounded. By Dr. Wegscheider. Five times.
2. The Gospel of John. By Dr. Tholuck. Three times.
3. On the Evangelical History of the Passion and Resurrection of Christ. By Dr. Wegscheider. Once.
4. The Epistle to the Romans. By Professor Dähne. Four times.
5. The Epistles to the Galatians, Ephesians, and Colossians. By Dr. Tholuck. Three times.
6. On Select Passages of Paul's Epistles; in exegetical and homiletico-practical lectures. By Dr. Marks. Once or
Under this division, Dr. Fritzsche offers to exercise students in the interpretation of the New Testament.
Second Division.-HISTORICAL THEOLOGY.
1. General History of Christianity.
1. On the History of Religion and the Christian Church, from the commencement, till the most recent times. By Professor Dähne. Twice; with repetitions and examinations four times a week.
2. On the same Subject, till the Age of Pope Gregory the Seventh. Two courses, one by Dr. Gesenius, and another by Dr. Thilo; both six times a week.
II. History of Doctrines.
1. On the Universal History of Doctrines. By Dr. Ullmann. Six times a week, with repetitions and examinations at times to be announced.
2. On the recent History of Doctrines. By Dr. Ullmann.