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which have not only furnished objects of superstitious dread to the ignorant, but have proved to the poet and the painter a fertile source of images of gloom and terror. That the ancient Greek and Roman poets, furnished with exaggerated accounts of the animals infesting the remote regions with which their commerce or their conquests had made them acquainted, should have caught eagerly at those marvellous stories and descriptions, and rendered them subservient to their fabulous but highly imaginative mythology, is not wonderful ; and it is more than probable that some of the Indian species of Bats, with their predatory habits, their multitudinous numbers, their obscure and mysterious retreats, and the strange combination of the character of beast and bird which they were believed to possess, gave to Virgil the idea, which he has so poetically worked out, of the Harpies which fell upon the hastily-spread tables of his hero and his companions, and polluted, whilst they devoured, the feast from which they had driven the affrighted guests. But that the little harmless Bats of our own climate, whose habits are at once so innocent and so amusing, and whose time of appearance and activity is that, when everything around would lead the mind to tranquillity and peace, should be forced into scenes of mystery and horror, as an almost essential feature in the picture, is an anomaly which cannot be so easily explained.
• The views entertained, even by the most celebrated naturalists of antiquity, respecting the nature of these animals, were extremely vague. Aristotle himself, whose genius seems to have discovered, by an almost intuitive perception, the relations of natural objects, and the comparative value of external forms and structural characters, speaks of them as having feet as birds, but wanting them as quadrupeds; of their possessing neither the tail of quadrupeds nor of birds ;-of their being, in short, birds with wings of skin. He is followed, but with increasing error, by Ælian and by Pliny; the latter of whom says, that the Bat is the only bird which brings forth young ones and suckles them. Even up to a late period they were considered as forming a link between quadrupeds and birds. It were a vain and useless task to recount every slight modification of this pervading error. The time has long gone by when Nature was accused of the most extravagant vagaries by the professed investigators of her laws, and when the absurd expression of lusus naturæ,” or other equivalent follies, was forced into their service to account for all the wonders which their own limited views and scanty information failed to explain.
• The common language of our own ancestors, however, indicates a much nearer approach to the truth in the notions entertained by the people, than can be found in the lucubrations of the learned. The words Reremouse and Flittermouse, the old English names for the Bat, the former derived from the Anglo-Saxon “ Aræran,” to raise or rear up, and “Mus,”--the latter from the Belgic, signifying "flying or flittering Mouse,”-show that in their minds these animals were always associated with the idea of quadrupeds. The first of these terms is still used in English heraldry ; though, I believe, it has ceased to belong to the language of the country. The word Flittermouse, corrupted sometimes into Flintymouse, is the common term for
the Bat in some parts of the country; particularly in that part of the county of Kent, in which the language, as well as the aspect and the names of the inhabitants, retains more of the Saxon character than will be found perhaps in almost any other part of England.
Bell, pp. 8–10. Another class of insect-devourers, the hedge-hog, is next described; followed by the engineer mole, and the genus sorex or shrew. The badger, the otter, the weasel, and the marten then succeed; and the fourth Part introduces the Domestic Cat. Mr. Bell calls in question the accuracy of the general notion, that the common wild cat is the original form from which the domestic variety has sprung; and dismissing the hypothesis of its affinity to the Nubian Cat discovered by Rüppell, he concludes that, as in the case of many of our domesticated animals, we have yet to seek for its true original.
Of the ancient history of the Cat in this country, and especially of its first introduction here, little is positively known. Among the laws of the good old Welsh prince, Hooldda, occur probably the first detailed notices of its existence and utility. From the value then placed upon it, and the care which is taken to fix accurately its price, and to prevent imposition in the sale of it, it cannot be doubted that it was rare, and probably had been but a short time introduced into this country. A penny for a kitten before it could see, which was doubled from that time till it caught a mouse, and quadrupled for a mouser, were very high prices, if we consider the relative value of money at that period. A person who had stole the Cat that guarded the prince's granary, was to forfeit a milch ewe, its fleece, and lamb; or as much wheat as, when poured on the Cat, suspended by the tail, (the head touching the floor,) would form a heap high enough to cover the tip of the former."
It is difficult to treat of this animal without making some allusion to the old story of Whittington and his Cat, about whom so much has been said and sung. The true foundation of the story is, however, involved in much obscurity. It is remarkable that a similar narrative is to be found in most of the countries of Europe, and in some Asiatic nations, particularly Persia ; and there are many who are disposed to believe, that the venture from which the fortunes of that immortalized chief magistrate sprung, was, in truth, nothing more than the freight of a vessel of that kind, which in former times was called catta or gatta, and that all the interest of this romantic little history depends upon a simple equivoque. I cannot, however, bring myself to throw down at once all the delightful associations which spring in the mind of every child, and of many of a larger growth, at the mention of Whittington and his Cat; nor, without more certain grounds, to demolish all the romance of that pleasing and popular story. As long as the adventures of Whittington are held up as an example of successful probity by the honest citizen, sung by the poet of childhood, or painted by such a pencil as Leslie's, let his Cat still share her master's renown, and contribute to the interest and effect of the legend.'
•, pp. 92–3,
Part V. commences the history of the Dog; and, as we thus ascend in the scale of animal existence, the interest of the work of course rises; but we cannot indulge in further extract.
Mr. Jesse’s ‘Gleanings in Natural History' bave made him popularly known as a minute observer, a walking treasury of anecdotes and memoranda, and a devotee to the amusements of the pool and stream. His · Angler's Rambles' are discursive enough, being for the most part occupied with recollections of scenes and circumstances of the Author's younger days, interspersed with songs and snatches of verse, tales and stories, such as have, no doubt, enlivened many a convivial dinner of the Walton and Cotton Club, of which Mr. Jesse speaks so enthusiastically. None but a true and honest Angler, one who honours the memory of Isaac Walton, and is imbued with a love of the piscatory art, will thoroughly enjoy the rambling, chit-chat sort of work which is here presented to us. To none but the initiated would such stanzas as the following be quite intelligible.
March brown, and oak fly, and green grannam we'll try,
Sing trollilee, sing trolliloe,
A fishing, a fishing, a fishing we go!' A portion of the contents, however, is of a more substantial character. There are some curious remarks upon the derivation of the word Hampton, which seems clearly to be a corruption of the appellation by the Romans written Antona. It is well known that more than one of our British rivers were known under this name. The Nen or Northampton river is supposed to be the North Anton; the Test, the chief tributary to the Southampton Water, is the South Anton; and again, the Arun, which falls into the sea at Little Hampton, is also, Mr. Jesse thinks, entitled to the same appellation.
• Southampton Water is an estuary composed of three principal tributaries; the Anton or Test, the Itchin, and the Hamble river. Now Ptolemy, in his Geography of Britain, places on the southern coast of England, and in the immediate neighbourhood of Portus Magnus, or Portsmouth, a river which he calls Trisantona. This name, I can have no doubt, designates Southampton Water-formed of three tributaries, of which the Antón is much the greatest-as the Humber is called by ancient geographers Trifonia from its being also composed of three principal tributaries. But Ptolemy places Trisanton eastward of Portus Magnus, which has induced some authors (and amongst them the learned Stukely, I think) who were not aware of the local name of the Anton or Test, to consider Ptolemy's Trisanton at Chichester Haven;
whereas it is clear that Ptolemy, or his copyist, had made the mistake of transposing the two names, and that Trisanton can be no other than the Southampton Water.
· But we have still another Anton to dispose of, I mean the Manantonis. I forget whether this river is mentioned by Ptolemy. I am sure it is by the writer called Ravennas and by other authorities; and it is placed eastward of Trisanton and of Portus Magnus, just in the place where the modern name, Little Hampton, seems to indicate the original appellation.' Jesse, p. 149.
In Trifonia, we clearly recognize the word Avon, written by the Romans, Aufona, and which in all the Celtic dialects signifies a river or flowing water. In Welsh and Breton, it takes the form of Afon; in Cornish, auan; in Erse and Gaelic, abhan. Anton is, no doubt, in like manner a generic appellation, or noun common of similar import. An or Ana is a root which enters into the composition of many names of rivers, and is supposed to signify water. The compound Trisantona, or the Three Antons, clearly indicates, indeed, that the word must have had, in its original form, the sense of stream, whatever be its etymology.
Mr. Loudon's “ Arboretum Britannicum” is very properly styled a complete Encyclopædia of Arboriculture. The quantity of matter compressed into its pages is immense, and the work, when complete, will form two thick 8vo. volumes, consisting of above 1000 pages, with 300 plates of trees, and upwards of 1000 wood-cuts of shrubs and botanical details introduced into the letter-press. It cannot be necessary to give any specimen of such
The title-page sufficiently describes its nature and contents; and the name of its author vouches for its competent execution. Whatever literary assistance Mr. Loudon may receive in bringing out his various periodical publications, he must. assuredly be one of the most indefatigable of men. He is the conductor of the Architectural Magazine, a useful monthly work, now in its third volume, containing sometimes much valuable information of general interest. We ought not to forget to mention, that the price of the Arboretum will be raised to non-subscribers as soon as the work is complete, in consequence of the unforeseen expenses attending its completion, a greater number of plates being required than was at first contemplated.
The last work upon our list promises to be one of the best executed, and, at the same time, cheapest publications that have appeared in the branch of science to which it relates. Each Number is to contain, like the first, four plates; the figures drawn from nature of the full size, and coloured in the most careful manner, with the scientific description, for 1s. 6d. Annexed to every Number will be given a portion of a Glossarial Index to all Botanical Terms, both in Latin and English, by Professor Henslow, the details illustrated by wood-cuts. The aim of the Editor will be to make the work at once a scientific authority, and a vehicle of popular information relating to the history, properties, and habits of plants, so as to render the study as intelligible and as attractive as possible to readers in general. The Editor has our best wishes for his most ample success.
Art. VII. 1. The Tourist in Spain. By Thomas Roscoe Biscay and
the Castiles. Illustrated from Drawings by David Roberts. (Jen
nings's Landscape Annual for 1837.) Price 1l. ls. in morocco. 2. Ireland, Picturesque and Romantic. By Leitch Ritchie, Esq., Au
thor of "The Magician," &c. With Twenty Engravings from Drawings by D. M'Clise, Esq., A.R.A., and T. Creswick,
Esq. Super royal 8vo. Price 11. 1s. 3. The Keepsake for MDCCCXXXVII. Edited by the Lady Em
meline Stuart Wortley. Price Il. ls, in silk. 4. Heath's Book of Beauty. 1837. With nineteen beautifully finished
Engravings, from Drawings by the First Artists. Edited by the
Countess of Blessington. Price 11. ls. 5. The Biblical Keepsake ; or, Landscape Illustrations of the most
remarkable Places mentioned in the Holy Scriptures. Made from Original Sketches taken on the Spot, and engraved by W. and E. Finden. With Descriptions of the Plates, by the Rev. Thomas
Hartwell Horne, B.D. Third Series. London, 1837. 6. Forget Me Not ; a Christmas, New Year's, and Birthday Present
for MDCCCXXXVII. Edited by Frederick Shoberl. Il Plates. JENNINGS'S · Landscape Annual' is, as usual, excellently
got up, though we fancy that there may have been somewhat of injurious haste in the printing of the plates. The subjects, however, are well chosen and admirably treated, and Mr. Roberts has every reason to be satisfied with the engravers into whose hands his drawings have been put. Including
the vignette, there are twenty-one views. Among those which have pleased us best, we may mention the frontispiece,-High Mass in the church of San Isidro, a splendid architectural view, with a well managed effect of light and shade. Irun, from the Bidassoa, is a peculiarly interesting subject : the picturesque old building in the fore-ground, is a ben trovato. Burgos, with its fine cathedral and chapter-house, furnishes several rich subjects: there is a noble staircase which seems to produce its effect by setting at defiance every principle of architectural congruity; and a ruined gateway of the Carmelite Convent, to see which might be worth a journey to Spain. Segovia has furnished striking subjects in