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as it is expressed, even incomplete: "Do this and thou shalt live," vitiating it as far as the moods of verbs are concerned, and proving that a qualification such as, "in the same sense," should be inserted after verbs; and then the rule is unnecessary, for the mood of the verb must, under every variety of position, be adapted to express the sense intended. As regards the case of nouns and pronouns, too, such rule is wholly superfluous, as, being under the same government, they must be in the same case. In the foregoing example, the sentence is elliptical, and when completed would read thus,-"He spoke to him and (he spoke to) me;" wherein me is governed by the preposition to, and necessarily in the objective, according to the principle laid down in Rule 2.
In Rule 2, Observation 14, the necessity was pointed out of using after each word in a sentence its appropriate preposition or particle, should different words require to be differently constructed. The construction of words, that is to say, the peculiar particle or formula of words required after each, is not always known, and even when known, not always attended to; gross, and, as such, offensive blunders, may be pointed out in this respect even in reputable writers. The following list of words, with their peculiar construction, will, it is hoped, prove serviceable to the learner: it is not possible to give, in such list, all the words of the language which have a peculiarity of construction; to do so would swell the size thereof to an inconvenient degree; but the student's own observation and care combined, in addition to the assistance he will receive from having such a list to refer to, will be sufficient, it is hoped, to release him from any embarrassment he may labour under in this respect.
Attention is directed to the expression, " peculiarity of construction." Some words have a common construction. All past participles, for instance, take after them by, which introduces the agent; thus, "A man praised by his cotemporaries." Again, all nouns take after them, of, which, with the following noun, express the complement of the preceding noun, and are equivalent to the possessive case; thus, "The velocity of a falling body." The word equivalent, as a noun, is constructed with for; thus, "He peceived an equivalent for his labour;" whilst, as an adjec
tive, it is constructed with to; thus, "He received a reward equivalent to (not for) his services." The word equivalent is not constructed with the particle with; we do not say, "equivalent with his labour." Equivalent, however, may take after it a particle other than to and with, according to the idea intended to be conveyed: thus we may say, "He received a reward equivalent to his services in the position he was advanced to," wherein the preposition, in, follows equivalent. But it is observable, that in, with the succeeding clause, is accidentally introduced, and may or may not be expressed, at the pleasure of the speaker; whereas the to and for must follow the word in question, according as it is a noun or an adjective; they are, as it were, part and parcel of the word, and naturally belong to it as a kind of complement, it being impossible to speak of an equivalent without implying two things equal to each other, one of which is always expressed, and the other either expressed or understood.
This is what is meant by the peculiarity of construction of a word. Some words admit of different constructions in the same sense. Thus prejudice is constructed with towards and against, both introducing the same individual; we say, for instance, "He was actuated by fierce prejudice towards or against me." The word prejudice takes after it also of, but then its signification is different from that which belongs to it with the foregoing construction; thus, "Lady Jane Grey ascended the throne to the prejudice of Mary;" wherein prejudice implies hurt, damage to Mary's claim. We say, moreover, "The prejudice of one man towards another;" where the construction of with the following noun is merely the complement of prejudice, which it has in common with all nouns; but towards and against is the construction of the word prejudice, which other nouns have not, and which, therefore, are its particular construction.
EXAMPLES OF PARTICULAR CONSTRUCTION.
Accused of, by. (1.)
Dependent on. (20.)
Deliberate with, upon. (19) Fall under. (29.)
Deter from, by. (22.) Determined upon, to. Detrimental to.
Devolve on, upon.
Fight with, against. (30, Fire at, upon. (31.) Fitted to.
Frown on, upon.
Difference with, between, in,
Disappointed of, in (24.)
Disapprove of. (25.)
Glad at, of.
Eager in, to. (26.)
Encamp in, on, upon.
Encounter (noun) with. Endow with.
Engaged in, with.
Enmity towards, against.
Enraged with, at.
Hinted at, to. (36.)
OBSERVATIONS ON, AND
EXAMPLES OF, THE CONSTRUCTION OF SOME OF THE WORDS UNDER THE LETTERS A AND H INCLUSIVE.
1. Accused requires of followed by the crime, and by followed by the accuser.
2. Adjoining this word may take to, or omit it; thus, "He bought a house adjoining to (or adjoining) his farm." The latter is more used.
3. Affectionate, affectionately, affection: these words are similarly constructed, and it may be remarked that the adjective, verb, adverb, and noun of the same family, are, in most instances, constructed alike.
4. Apply: we apply to an individual for something at such and such a time, place, &c. &c.
5. Appeal: we appeal to a judge to retry our cause from one whose decision we are not content with; for, after appeal, introduces the object or purpose of appeal.
6. Attain : to, may be expressed or omitted: thus, “He attained to (or attained) his object."
7. Attend: a servant attends on or upon a master. The word in question is followed by to when casual, not habitual, attention is implied;,as, "Attend to your business;" and a person attends at a place when he calls there, and also attends at a certain time.
8. Averse: "He appeared quite averse to your proposal;" "He exhibited his aversion towards me very strongly."
9. Bargain, barter, are similarly constructed. Men bargain and barter with men for the article they receive in exchange.
10. Bear with, signifies, to put up with or receive patiently ill-treatment at the hands of another.
11. Call on, for: we call on a person when we pay a visit; also when we request him to do something; as, “I call on you for a song;" we call for a thing when we desire to receive it.
12. Calculated: "He calculated on receiving intelligence