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the is prefixed; thus, “ The potatoes are blighted;" meaning those growing at the time, or in some particular locality.

2. The indefinite adjective, a, is used before many nouns referring to a portion of time; as,

“ A hundred a year ;" “ Ten shillings a day.” A here does not signify for, but for is understood, governing the noun which follows a; as, “ The man earns ten pounds (for) a month ;" that is, “at the rate of ten pounds for a month ;” that is, “ ten pounds (as an equivalent for the service of) a month."

3. If several nouns require, some a, some an, the appropriate one must be prefixed to each; we do not say, ate a roll and egg for breakfast ;" but because the noun egg requires an before it, we say, “He ate a roll and an egg for breakfast.” [See Observation 9 on the etymology of the Adjective.]

4. The definite adjective, the, and indefinite, a, should be prefixed to the first only of several other adjectives qualifying the same noun; as, “A good, wise, and successful

When, however, each of the adjectives to which a or the is prefixed refers to a distinct kind, the a or the must be prefixed to each such, though they may all qualify the same noun; as, “He sent the long and the thick volumes in one parcel.” This conveys a different idea from

_ -“ He sent the long and thick volumes,” &c. In the first expression, there are two distinct kinds of volumes—one long, the other thick; in the second, there is but one kind of volume, that which was thick and long at the same time. [See also Observation 10 on the etymology of the Adjective.]

5. An and other, are frequently united in one word ; as, “He bought another farm.” The word


is sometimes substituted by way of emphasis for an; as,

"The succession was settled upon the survivor, of the existing royal pair; next upon the Princess Anne and her children ; and, finally, upon the children of William by any other consort,” This is more emphatic than another; for that other possibly might have been selected by the nation, whereas any other implies without any limitation whatever.

6. Other, is frequently followed by that or those, or some such word, when between the individual or thing for which such words stand and that preceding other, a sort of comparison is intended; thus, "He pleaded his cause

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with a voice other than that wherewith a man is wont to plead when conscious of guilt.” [See, also, Observation 13 on the etymology of the Adjective.]

7. Each, every, either, neither, are all used with a noun in the singular number only. Each, is used when reference is made to one and the other of two individuals; as, “ I saw each of your brothers yesterday ;" where the number of brothers should (grammatically) be only two. Every, refers to any number more than two, when all are referred to individually ; thus, “Every man must account for himself.” Either, refers to one or other of two individuals. Neither, means not either, that is, not the one or the other of two.

8. The adjective, in the English language, is not inflected in gender, number, or case, as it is in other languages; if it were, in the

expression, I saw excellent horses in the fair,” excellent should be in the masculine gender, plural number, and objective case, to agree in these several particulars with the noun horses. This ha been stated in the etymology of the Adjective; and to it may be added, that, though differing from the classical languages in this respect, the English language yet imitates them in using an adjective in many instances as an adverb. Of this an example is to be found in the Dissertation on the etymology of the Adverb. In such cases, the English adjective, like the Latin, would be in the neuter gender, were the adjective in English inflected as it is in Latin.

9. “I found your letter last.” This is no example of the adjective used as an adverb; the word last is an adjective, agreeing with the word letter, and the expression is equivalent to, “ I found your letter the last letter;" or, “I found your letter in the position of the last letter.” Different from this in meaning is the expression, “I found your letter at last ;" wherein at last is the adverbial phrase qualifying found, and thereby pointing out merely the time, after a long search, at which the letter was found, without any reference to the time at which another letter may haye been found.

io. An adjective and an adverb sometimes appear equivalent in force when used as substitutes for each other in qualifying the same verb: this, however, is not the case; the adjective always qualifies the noun ; thus, “ He performed his journey easy;" wherein easy is an adjective,

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*2. In the form his itself, the last that it has in father's &e.

“3. In the Slavonie. Lithuanic, and the genitive ends in z, just as it does in B if the woris father his would account for it would not account for the Sanskrit SE foot, the Greek Covtoc, the Latin dentis

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QUESTIONS ON CASE What appears to be the cause of so opinion on the true meaning of case? ing ideas attached by grammarians to the difficulties attending the acceptats sively. How have these difficulties beez many cases, then, are admitted genera Give the essential characteristics of eac term nominative is defective. Give an e the possessive, and show that it does not in meaning to the possessive. What case and prepositional form sometimes they so called? What cases are always How are they distinguished ? How is gular formed? How the possessive plur rule which obtains in placing the apostro sive singular and plural? What is the rule? How do nouns ending in s fors Give examples. What is the reason gen the formation of the possessive by the le by any other letter ? Give the subst remarks in opposition to this reason.

ON THE VERB. The Noun, it has been shewn, is the na men talk of; the Verb is used to make the noun. The importance of this class of in the name thereof, verbum signifying though, in thus naming this class, we 1

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as asserting something
cause they empresa
The verb masine, the
performed, but wel

Terb passive, 2 reb
al parties are
ce suliers. When the very
sented ne performing the
ast, and thus the term par

Again, antive Tests
transitive and internative lang
markos already supplied, dis, rol
difference between the
expresses an art combinele
am at which is undentusia

or outside of the subject in itself makes a perieste afirmation does not do so. In the empi average, ill the same yeni sense is complete, and no wel perfect idea to the base and. La William reads the e there is a gap and the bare nydia is meant, until the gap a la gente

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and qualifies journey; and the sentence is equivalent to, “He performed a journey which was an easy one.” easily performed his journey," only appears identical in meaning with the foregoing;. merely implying, as it does, that the performing of the journey was easy to him, without any reference to the fact of such journey being an easy one. This is the grammatical and philosophical distinction between the two expressions in question. It must be confessed, however, that such distinction is not observed even by the best writers; and that the former expression, which serves as an example of many, would be used to express the idea conveyed by the latter. This confusion could not exist were the English adjective inflected in case.

11. In the dissertation on the etymology of the Adjective, its position (see Observation 16. and preceding remarks to which the Observation refers,] was laid down : to this it may be added, that when two adjectives qualify a noun they may follow it; as, “A man tall and slender." In poetry, moreover, a single adjective follows its noun ; as, “Hunger keen;" “Darkness visible;" "Glory great ;' Sighs profound.”

12. It was remarked on the etymology of the Adjective, that they never govern a case ; Latham says that the word like is an exception to this rule, and the only one in the English language. “This is like him ;" wherein him, he says, governed by like, preserves the original power of the dative case. Why the word like, in the aforesaid example, should govern him, and the word next, in such an expres

“He sat next him,not govern him, it is difficult to determine.

13. The use or omission of the adjective, a, makes a great difference in meaning in certain expressions. “The medicine served him little;" “ The medicine served him a little." The former is almost equivalent to a denial that the medicine served at all; the latter asserts that it did serve, although but in a small degree.


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THE ADVERB. 14. The position of the adverb is determined by the idea which it is intended to convey, and great care must be taken that it occupy such a position as will clearly

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