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exactly, most critically placed in the only aperture, where it can be successfully repelled.

THE COLON. The Colon is used when the sense is nearly complete; and when the connection between the parts of a sentence separated thereby is scarcely, if at all, perceptible. For practical purposes the colon is useless, and therefore seldom used, especially by the more modern writers; the semicolon being quite sufficient to make every necessary gradation in the pause between the comma and the period. Of this stop, therefore, it is unnecessary to furnish any example.

THE PERIOD.

This word, from two Greek words, which signify “A path around" (something), is an astronomical term, and applied as a name for that portion of time which a planet occupies in revolving about the sun. When a planet completes an entire revolution, it begins another; and from the similarity, of what takes place, we apply the word period, as a name for that stop made use of when a sentence is completed, and a new one about to be commenced. Of the use of this stop, sufficient examples occur in the quotation under the head Semicolon.

Besides the foregoing stops, there are others, such as

1. The Note of Interrogation (?), placed at the end of every

sentence which asks a question. 2. The Note of Admiration (!), placed after all single words—such as Ah! 0!- indicating surprise, grief, or any other strong and sudden emotion; also placed after clauses wherein the same emotions are expressed.

Parenthesis () is employed to enclose some necessary remark in the body of another sentence: thus—"But should Providence determine otherwise, should the nation fall in this struggle, you will have the satisfaction (the purest allotted to man) of having performed your part."

NOTE.-From this quotation, it appears that the words

2

parenthetically introduced are not grammatically connected with any member of the sentence; and may, or may not be omitted, at the option of the writer.

NOTE ALSO.—Commas at the beginning and end of such words are sometimes used instead of the parenthesis, and answer the purpose intended equally well.

NOTE ALSO.-A Dash - before and after such words, answers the same purpose: thus—“As far as the interests of freedom are concerned—the most important by far of sublunary interests-you, my countrymen, stand in the capacity of the federal representatives of the human race.”

Parenthetical expressions are wholly unnecessary, and generally resorted to by writers who do not think beforehand of what they are going to write, and those whose thoughts flow faster than their words. In the orator such expressions are indispensable, and even elegant.

Inverted Commas (“_”) are used at the beginning and end of a quotation : thus—“ Christ inculcated the danger of temptation by saying, 'Watch and pray, lest ye

, enter into temptation.

NOTE.—The inverted commas are sometimes used before and after an example given to illustrate a rule. Sometimes such example is indicated by a dash under the words which express the example; and if in print, the words so underlined would be in italics, which a single word is printed in, when it refers to something considered very important.

NOTE ALSO.-If the substance, and not the literal words of a passage be given, the inverted commas should not be used: thus——“Christ sufficiently indicated the danger of temptation, by inculcating the necessity of watchfulness and prayer in order that men may not fall into it, or fall in it.'

ON CAPITALS.

The question of Capitals does not, properly speaking, belong to Grammar; as the meaning of a word is not in

any measure affected by its being written with or without a capital letter at the beginning thereof. Still, as the usage is to write words, in some instances, with capitals at the commencement, and, in others, without them, it may appear not superfluous in a Grammar to take some notice of the subject.

The usage which prevails with respect to the use of capitals may be laid down in a very few remarks :

1. They are employed in all words which commence a sentence. 2. At the commencement of

every

line in poetry. 3. All particular or proper nouns, as well as names for the Deity, as Omnipotence, commence with capitals.

4. All adjectives derived from proper nouns commence with a capital letter.

5. The first personal pronoun I is always a capital.

6. Words used by the figure personification begin with capitals.

7. Nouns which, though not proper, yet refer to something of more than ordinary importance, are sometimes commenced with capitals.

8. Titles, sirnames, &c. &c. commence with capitals.

9. The first word of a quotation usually commences with a capital.

10. The initials of words standing for the words themselves, are capitals: as A. D. for “ Anno Domini,” in the year of our Lord; A. B. for “ Artium Baccalaureus," Bachelor of Arts.

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QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES ON THE SYNTACTICAL

PRINCIPLES OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, AS LAID DOWN IN THE FOREGOING RULES AND OBSER. VATIONS.

[NOTE.—In the Exercises to be corrected, there will be found sentences which involve no violation of principle. These will be given in order that some exercise of his mental and reasoning faculties may be necessary for the pupil or student; the habit too extensively prevalent of supplying incorrect sentences and no others, leading to indolence and want of reflection; and thereby enervating rather than strengthening those whose purpose should be to acquire such power as would fit them for the necessary work of helping themselves in any future exertion which it may

be desirable for them to make.]

QUESTIONS ON THE INTRODUCTORY REMARKS

ON SYNTAX.

In what sense does Etymology, and in what sense does Syntax treat of words ? Define the province of Syntax, and give the derivation of the word. Whether has language adapted itself to the requirements of rules, or rules been gathered from the usage of language ? Offer some observations on this head :- Why are rules necessary ? and what are their proper functions? In what did idiomatic phrases and verbal formulæ originate? What has been laid down in addition to a knowledge of rules as necessary to the formation of a correct style? What are the parts called into which language is broken up ? What is the logical term for sentence ? Define the term sentence. What are the principal parts of a sentence? What is the difference between the subject of a sentence and a subject of a verb? Define predicate. What sort of sentences has an object in them? How is the object easily known? Derive the term. What are the five predicables ? Subdivide sentences into two kinds. Define a simple and also a complex sentence. Give examples of both. When and why may a sentence, having but one subject, be called complex? When and why may it be so called, having only one verb? Do explanatory phrases alter the character of a sentence considered as simple or complex ? Give a reason for your answer. Do subjects, and predicates, and objects consist always of single words? Give examples in each case, illustrating your answer. What sort of complex predicate may be resolved into the simple one ? Give some examples. What determines the num. ber of simple sentences into which a complex one may be resolved ? Give examples. What general rule has been laid down relative to the order in which the several members of a complex sentence should follow each other? Give a better disposition of some of the individual words and members of the following sentences according to this rule :

-“ It is the rotation of the earth alone that affords a solution of the difficulty complete. It acquires, which has the effect of diminishing the force of gravity at its surface, what is called a centrifugal force, by revolving on its axis. You have often, when in motion, and you yourself at rest, had a momentary belief that objects were moving which you knew yourself to be stationary. Leaves perspire and absorb a considerable quantity of moisture, but in general insensibly; in some cases, sensibly. A branch which has had its wound, after being gathered, stopt with wax, will speedily, in a dry atmosphere, wither; but it may be made, by removing it to a damp situation, to recover. Haymakers are familiar quite with the fact, that it is next to impossible to get their hay-harvest, in moist weather, lodged in safety; and every one has observed the effects, in causing plants to droop, of a hot day, and in causing them to flourish of a moist one. Can

any

fixed law be laid down as to the order of the several parts ? Why not? How is it, then, that the position of certain parts is fixed ? What is a relative clause? What sort of clause is called a complement, and why so called ? Lay down a general rule regarding the position of the relative clause. What interferes sometimes to violate in some measure this rule? What part do relative clauses take in imparting a character to sentences considered as simple or complex? Why? What individual word, for a similar reason, plays a similar part ? Give examples illustrating both facts. What part of a sentence must be supposed to be first present to the mind ? Does it always come first in the sentence? What consideration justifies its not

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