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coming first? Give examples illustrating your answer. What words exclusively form the subjects of sentences ? What is an independent subject ? Why may I and thou form, and he not form, such a subject ? Under what circumstances may he be considered as the subject of a sentence? What other word is like he in this respect ? Give examples. What remark has been made about it as the subject of a sentence? When does it occupy such a position ? Correct the following sentence, so that the anomaly thereof with regard to the proper subject may be obviated :—“When birds overhead perform their evolutions, or steer their course to some distant settlement, they make signals and utter cries as unintelligible as the learned languages to an unlettered peasant.” What is meant by “a man's style of writing?" What, in most cases, produces a diversity in style? What is the substance of Cobbett's remark, as to the order of the several parts of a sentence? What sort of sentences should be avoided as far as possible? Why? Give the substance of Locke's strictures on an ill-use of words.
QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES ON RULE I., AND
OBSERVATIONS UNDER IT.
[Note.-The questions asked, and the exercises given under each Rule, may be answered and performed by a reference to the Rule, and the Observations under it.]
Why are a noun and a verb essential to every sentence ? What accidents have the verb and noun in common? Of the two, the verb and noun (the subject), which is the governing word ? In what respects does it govern the other ? In what case is the subject of a verb? The following sentence violates the principle of concord, as laid down in Rule I.,—“The birds sings sweetly." In how many ways may it be altered, so that the words, in their altered state, may
not violate this Rule? In how many ways, so that the words, in their altered state, may be the grammatical correction of the foregoing? Give the reason of this. What functions does the infinitive mood sometimes perform? Why is it capable of doing so ? Does the infini
tive, as the subject of a verb, always stand alone? Give three examples of a whole sentence being used as the subject of a verb. In what number is the verb in such case ? When two nominatives singular are coupled by a copulative conjunction, in what number will the verb be expressed? What number will the pronoun be in which represents them? What exception may be taken to the way in which this principle is generally enunciated ? Shew, by an example, that the presence of what is generally called a copulative conjunction is not necessary to produce the plural construction in the verb. When does a noun, coupled by with to a nominative case, produce plurality in the verb? and when does it not do so ? Give examples of both. State the exact difference between the word with followed by a noun used as part of the subject of a verb, and the phrase “ as well as." Lay down a general law which obtains regarding plurality in the verb. Is this law ever violated ? When two or more nouns denote the same individual, in what number will the verb be? State the principle which holds with regard to the number of the verb when different subjects are connected by and and a negative particle. What force has the word every agreeing with nouns connected by and ? State accurately, the general principle relative to the number of the verb when the subject is a collective noun, or a noun of multitude. When or connects two singular nouns, in what number must the verb be? What other word has a similar force ? Give the reason of this. What is the general usage as regards the number of the verb, when a singular and a plural nominative are so connected? When two subjects of different persons are connected by and, why is there no difficulty in determining the person of the verb ? When two singular nominatives of different persons are disjunctively connected, what is the usage, according to Murray and Latham, regarding the person of the verb? On what ground is Murray's theory to be preferred ? By what contrivance may these difficulties be in some measure obviated ? State the usage regarding the number of the verb when the following words are subjects : Alms, riches, news, means, pains, amends. What number of the verb always followsi t as a subject? When does a compound of self require the verb to be in the third person singular ? When not in the third person singular, what principle regulates the number and person of the verb ? “The two Generals have seen each other :" what is the grammatical position of each in this sentence? Supply a verb. What is the use of there and here when used indeterminately with a verb ? When the noun preceding and the noun following the verb to be, are in different numbers, in what number should the verb be ?
[The student will correct such of the following sentences as involve a breach of Rule I., and a violation of the principles laid down in the Observations under it.]
“Abouttwo millions of the French people was Protestants. I are taller than my brother. The young king possessed a good capacity and gentle dispositions. His eldest surviving son and successor were now in his eighteenth year. A soft answer turn away wrath. If riches increases, set not thy heart upon them. The servants of the mean-spirited monarch were obliged to appear against him. The laws of Draco were written in blood. Each have their own faults. Whence come he? To do wrong are never useful. To do right is always salutary. To believe in the truth of all things told us, are exceedingly foolish. To disbelieve all things told him, is the characteristic of an incredulous
“I came, I. saw, I conquered,” were the intelligence communicated by Cæsar, after a certain battle, to the Roman Senate. To betray the confidence reposed in us is deceitful. Health and strength are blessings for which we cannot sufficiently thank God. The cares of this life, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and they become unfruitful. (See Observation 6.) Pompey, Cæsar, and Crassus was intrusted with the command of the whole Roman Empire. Of generous minds it are remarked that it is unsuspicious. Supineness of mind, with disregard of consequences, generally produce ruin. The lion with a stroke of his paw is said to have broken the bars of his cell. The character he received, with the frankness of his own conduct, has decided me in his favour. The snow, with the numbness which succeeded, was productive of the most serious consequences to him. The man with the dog are engaged in tracing his footsteps. John the Baptist, as well as Elijah, were stern reprovers of vice in high places. Pompey, as well as Cæsar, was a great General. Atmospheric influence, as well as the cause you assign, account for the effect. His son and successor were called Rufus. His father and grandfather were both Consuls. Elizabeth's minister and chief ad. viser were Walsingham. That eminent soldier and statesman, Wellington, was well rewarded by the country he served. His birth, and not his talents, were instrumental in first bringing him into notice. His position, not his abilities, procures him respect. The fierce attack of the enemy, and not fears for the result, were seen to operate in rallying the troops. Every man and woman were put to the sword. Every day and night brings their own duties and troubles. The legislative body of Ireland were thus brought under the executive government of England. The cavalry was cut off. The people rails at its governors. The Senate were apprehensive of the worst results. The old dynasty was now removed, and a set of new rulers were placed in its stead. The deputation are said to have addressed him very energetically ; but he still persisted in refusing its demands. The man, or his employer, are in fault. Neither the one nor the other is in fault. The father or his son were reputed the causes of the disorders which prevailed. The long-suffering of God, or the blessings He showered on them, was not sufficient to produce gratitude in them. God's favour, or the terrors of the law, were not sufficient to restrain them. Neither his own sins, nor the punishment denounced against them, was sufficient to stop him in his career. He or I are appointed to preach. They or I are appointed to do the work. He or I is in fault. They or their successor is liable to the penalty. He or I am desired to go. He used such means as was most likely to accomplish his ends. The alms were distributed according to the necessities of each. It are riches which ruin men more than poverty. It is the vices of men which engender misery. Myself am anxious to do it. I myself is anxious on that head. The train of our thoughts frequently mislead us. The height of the clouds are very various. The summit of mountains attract the clouds.
What principle is laid down in this rule ? How may the rule be subdivided so as to make two rules? What sort of word, as the object of the verb, precedes it? Does the same remark apply to prepositions ? Shew this by an example: "The man I saw yesterday ;" “ The horse I rode to-day;"' “ The school I was educated in ;" “ The play I am fond of.” Give the words which are the objects of the verbs and prepositions in the preceding sentences. May the infinitive mood be the object as well as the subject of a verb ? State the reason why. Give examples of a whole clause serving as the object of a verb. How
this be accounted for? Prove your answer correct by examples. Give the law which universally obtains in changing a transitive into a passive verb in a sentence. Account for such expressions as, “We were pointed out the road." Under what circumstances do intransitive verbs govern an object? Give examples; shew that really the verb does not govern
the noun in such cases. Give examples of the same verb being used as transitive and intransitive. What is meant by the objective, and what by the modal government of verbs ? Give examples. Why do transitive verbs admit of both governments, and intransitive of one only ? What part of speech may be substituted for the words expressing the modal government? Give examples. Give examples of the preposition being understood before the governed word. Give some adjectives which appear to govern an objective case. How is this ? Why do such words as underwent govern an object ?
EXERCISES. [The student will correct such of the following exercises as require correction by Rules I. and II. and the Observations under them.]