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Neither wealth nor poverty are capable of influencing the habits of he who the love of God and the desire to please Him keep from the evil which is in the world. Who do you speak to ? Who did he see when he called ? A poor and contented man experience happiness which the wealth of Creesus cannot bestow. Whom did he ad. dress? Idleness with ignorance produces the most ruinous consequences to those who are enslaved by them. Nothing but unsatisfying pleasures content those who the charms of a retired life are strangers to. A judicious disposition of forces do more for a general than the number of his troops, who the enemy not unfrequently rout, when, trusting to their numbers, they give themselves up to indolence and inactivity. The qualms of conscience mar the quiet of him who principle does not direct in his intercourse with men. The accounts were audited and approved by men appointed for the purpose. His conduct was not that of a man who conviction influences. Not one of the men who kings and nobles honour with their smiles are necessarily happy. Many are the afflictions of the righteous ; but the Lord deliver he out of them all. The individual who we spoke to has since arrived. He was rescued from the fate which awaited him, by the noble sacrificing spirit of him who interposed in his behalf. His version of the matter was opposed and inconsistent with what might naturally have been expected. (See Observation 14.) He was agreeable, and respected by his friends. Many men are censured and upbraided with crimes of which they are guiltless. His opinion was conformable to, and regulated by the principle of good sense. Neither Julius Cæsar nor Alexander the Great were actuated by that philanthropy which prompts and proceeds as well from benevolence.


What is the grammatical principle of apposition ? Derive the term. What renders this rule as a rule of little practical utility ? When does the question of case assume importance ? Give examples of a noun in apposition with a whole clause. What is the use of apposition ? What sort of clause would obviate the necessity of this principle ? Prove your answer by examples. What is to be remarked relative to the presence or absence of a connecting link between the nouns in apposition ? If a noun be singular, and several nouns be placed in apposition therewith, what number should the verb be in ?


The glory of Athens, the cause which had kept her enemies in check, and at the same time the envy of the nations, were now no more. The love of liberty, a principle bedded deep in human nature, and the prompter to many a noble act, animated them against their oppressors. Time, the destroyer of all things and the leveller of human distinctions, have wrought a wonderful change in their opinions. Philip, the son of Augustus, and the founder of the Macedonian empire, was blind of an eye. Tempests, the terror of the mariner, is never known in these seas.


Shew the propriety of the word government as applied to signify the influence one word exercises on another. When one noun governs another, what case is that other in ? What condition is essential to such government ? What difference exists between the usage of the classical languages and that of the English regarding the government of the possessive ? What sort of phrase may the possessive case be rendered by ? Give examples. What is to be remarked as to the position of this phrase contrasted with that of the possessive ? Account, on the principle laid down as relating to the government of the possessive case in English, for such expressions as, “The belief as to the Emperor's being pacifically disposed was pretty general.” Substitute a better order and construction, if

necessary, of the following words : “The man's opinion that was referred to;" “ The people's lament, whereof no notice was taken;" “ The forces were drawn out on a rising ground of the general;" “ The command was conveyed to


him of his master.” Account, on the principles of the possessive case and its government, for such expressions as, book-binder, cow-keeper, basket-maker. State the difference between the following expressions: “William's and Robert's property ; William and Robert's property.” Under what circumstances is the governing noun understood ? On what principle is such an expression as King of Belgium's army accounted for ? Account for, "Socrates, of all the philosophers of his day, was the most undaunted at the approach of death.” What is the difference between, “This is a portrait of my brother," This is a portrait of my brother's,” and “This is my brother's portrait.”

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"The use of the possessive case is so simple, that the difficulty is to violate the principle in relation thereto, not to observe it. No exercises thereon are given in consequence.


When is a word called absolute ?' When is the noun in English absolute ? What are the uses of the case absolute? What ideas are generally represented by the noun absolute ? What sort of expression may be substituted for the clause in which the case absolute occurs ? Give examples. When does the case which is absolute in English become a question of importance ? When does it not? And why? What appears to be the usage regarding the case to be used as absolute ? From what consideration is the case determinable? Account for the following expressions : “To be serious, I know nothing of the matter;": "Notwithstanding the favours showered on them, they were still ungrateful ;" “During the storm, the lightning played incessantly;" “He spoke regarding me;" “ He spoke concerning me.

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[The following sentences containing the case absolute, the student will so write as to divest them of it, and he will introduce it into such sentences as are without it.]

The general having given the word of command, the army rushed on towards the enemy. The night was dark, and we consequently provided ourselves with lamps. The ranks being now broken, a dreadful slaughter ensued. The Emperor having withdrawn for the purpose of refreshment, the conspirators rushed upon him. His whole address was interrupted by the outcries of the assembled multitude, and was in consequence but imperfectly understood. It being out of fashion, she foolishly refused to wear it. His meat was locusts and wild honey; and he was in consequence compared to Elijah,



What principle is laid down in this rule? What other verbs have a similar government? What principle does this government result from? “He was considered a benefactor.” How may benefactor be regarded as governed ? Give examples of a similar government. What other construction has the verb to be ? &c. &c. (See Observation 4.)

“I proclaimed it to be him.” I proclaimed it was he.” Account for the difference of construction, and give other examples thereof." (See Observation 5.) “ It is us they blame.” “It is we they blame.” Which is the more correct? Account for the different formulas, (See Observation 6.)

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I saw a woman who I took to be she. It was me whom he reproved. Whom do men take me to be? It was neither him nor I who said so. I am certain it was not we who did it. I understand it was they. I understood it to have been them. It was I who delivered the report on the subject. She is the individual whom I believed to have been in the room. Who think ye me to be? Whom do

ye think me to be? Whom do ye take me to be ? It

was them, not me, who made the uproar. If I were he I would not do so. It is me, be not afraid.


What principle is laid down in this rule ? Give examples thereof. Account for the infinitive serving as the object of a verb. What sort of phrase may be used as an equi. valent for the infinitive when it expresses a purpose ? What classes of words does the infinitive follow ? Give examples. State clearly the two-fold construction of the infinitive as laid down in Observation 5; and give examples of each. “I spoke of it as unreasonable to make such exactions.” In what relationship do it and the infinite stand towards each other in such expressions ? (See Observation 6.) Give examples of the construction. Give a list of verbs which omit to before the infinitive. Mention some whose signification is affected by the presence or absence of to. “ He was liable to censure. ACcount for the construction of such sentences.

EXERCISES. It is obvious that no exercises to be corrected are necessary under a rule so plain in its principle and application.


What principle is laid down in this rule ? Shew that it is unnecessary as a distinct rule. What rules is it embraced in? Give examples. Has the relative always a reference to a single noun as an antecedent ? Give examples. Prove the expression, " Than whom no one was more economical,” incorrect; and account for such a formula. Enumerate the several heads under which that has been discussed as a substitute for who and which ; and give examples of such usage under each head. Account for the construction, “Every motive was assigned by which to influence his conduct.” Substitute a relative for where, in

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