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in the following sentence: “She pursued him to the top of the house where he was staying." Give similar examples of the convertibility of adverbs of place and relative clauses. Sextus, the son of Tarquin, whose lust was the cause that led to the abolition of the regal office in Rome.” Is there any difficulty in determining the antecedent of the relative in such sentences ? How does Latham defend such expressions ? What objection may be urged against such defence? How may the difficulty arising from such expressions be obviated ? “Somebody, I don't recollect who, exclaimed against the injustice of the decision." Whether is who or whom correct in such a passage ? · Assign a reason. Give examples of whoever as the subject of a verb in a complex sentence; and explain the use and construction thereof.

EXERCISES. They which pursue pleasure will make shipwreck of their real interests. (See Observation 6, on the Etymology of the Relative.) The books who were bound. The man which arrived yesterday. The holidays who are approaching. Thou, who have so often relieved my distresses. The benefactor who has so frequently rescued him from ruin, The retreat of the 10,000 Greeks, which has been described by Xenophon. The lion is an animal who, though generally dreaded, has no real courage. Thou who were in the place can relate the circumstance accurately. Thou who came yesterday hast no idea of the state of things. He who groaned under his afflictions is now free from all pain. It is the same individual that your brother met on the way. Who, who has any regard for truth, can say so ? Buonaparte was the greatest genius that ever lived. The woman and a part of the coffin which were found, were deposited in consecrated ground. The same person whom Cicero defended. They did not know but what they would be sent for during the night. The Parliament, which now saw the turn affairs were taking, and who were anxious to avoid the odium which such a measure was likely to produce, backed out of it, and rescinded their own Resolution. The

which remained in the open space,


and who evidently were preparing for a second attack, were speedily put to flight. (See Observation 8.) Numa Pompilius, the successor of Romulus, who built the temple of Good Faith. Caligula, the successor of Tiberius, who made his horse a Consul. Titus, the son of Vespasian, who took Jerusalem. (See Observation 11.) Who is that? Me. Whose book is that? He. Whom seek ye? He who escaped. Whom do men believe me to be? Him who destroyed the temple. Who do men say that I am ? Him who was promised. Whom are ye seeking ? They who committed the outrage. The man that escaped from prison yesterday, he is again apprehended. The people who were shipwrecked, they were relieved by a subscription.


What principle is laid down in this rule? What class of words may the participle present be substituted for? What usage must be observed regarding the participle so employed ? What is the difference between “ The master was employed in chastising his slaves,” and “ The master was employed in the chastising of his slaves ?" Give several examples of the usage adverted to in Observation 3 ; also in Observation 4. What is meant by the active, and what by the passive government of the participle ? Give examples of both. (See Observation 5.) What is the diference between “What do you think of my greyhound's coursing to-day,” and “What do you think of my greyhound coursing to-day ?” What does the present participle frequently express ? (See Observation 6.) Account for the present tense of the verb to be being united with the past participle to express a present act. In what sense is the act present which is represented by such a combination? What is the difference in idea between the same verb in the following sentences : “I am washed every night before retiring to rest ;"“I am washed, and ready for bed.” What purpose do past participles generally serve ? State definitely the difference in the construction of two sentences in one of which a past participle, in the other, a relative clause, as an equivalent for it, occurs. Change the par

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ticiple in the following sentences into a verb connected with the verb of the sentence by the connecting and :“The army being now much fatigued, was ordered to pitch their tents;" “ The trumpet having been heard to give the signal for retreat, the soldiers desisted from the pursuit." Alter the following sentences by the converse process : “The fields were covered with water, and the harvest in consequence could not be gathered;" “The room was enveloped in smoke, and it was therefore impossible to proceed with the writing.” Supply other examples of these two constructions.


He expressed his regret in hearing of three witnesses. He deserved censure for betraying the confidence reposed in him. The attending to this instruction will prove

of service. By complaining as to his misconduct the matter was set right. His disobeying of his commands injured his prospects afterwards. (See Observation 3.) By exercising the authority vested in him he restored order. He has wrote the letter. (See Observation 7.) They have began the work. When the sun had arose, the enemy were discovered.

His leg was broken by the fall. I have chosen that position. The guests have came. They have drank all their allowance. The markets have fell. The young ones have flown. They have stolen my purse. The elephant and calf have throve very much of late. The half of it is written. The leaves are shaken by the violence of the storm.


What principle is laid down in this Rule? Give examples of conjunctions taking after them the indicative, and of conjunctions taking after them the subjunctive mood. What is the distinguishing peculiarity of conjunctions having the latter government? What is meant by one proposition expressing the condition of another? Is there any difference in the idea expressed by the following, “If the day prove fine;" and, “ If the day proves fine ?" Are both philosophically correct? What, probably, originated the use of the subjunctive mood to express a doubtful event? Is the mood in question always resorted to in order to express such an event ?



Beware lest that happens to thee spoken of by the wise

Take heed that thou offendest not one of these little ones. I will write to-morrow, lest he come and finds me unprepared. If he is here by to-morrow, it will be time enough. When he comes, he will explain it himself. If he promise, he will perform. When he promise, he

, performs. Though he gives his body to be burned, and has not charity, it is of no avail. If thou be the Christ, save thyself. If thou art the King of Israel, come down from the Cross. Oh! that Israel was to walk before me! Except he arrives tó-night, it will be too late. If thou performest thy duty, thou shalt receive thy due reward.


State the principle enunciated in this Rule; and give examples of its violation.


Shew that this Rule is unnecessary, as being included in some one of the preceding. What qualification is necessary in order that the Rule should hold good ? Prove this by example.




What is meant by the construction of a word ? What is meant by the particular construction of a word ? What

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words generally are constructed with the preposition by! What words with of? Give a list of words having different constructions in different senses. Construct the words - equal, indifferent, dependent, adverse, disappointed, agreeable, married, expert, compliance, insist, replete, worthy, avail, ashamed, atone, conscious, boast, believe; and apply them properly in sentences constructed for the purpose.


up the following blanks with appropriate particles :-“I am much less regardful

the approbation of man, and set much lighter contempt

applause — I did long ago." ** Paradise Lost' had long been familiar Milton, as a subject poetry. He at first intended it a drama; and two delinea. tions of his scheme are preserved his manuscripts.

Yet, though we allow that this kind of writing is in dignity inferior history and annals, in pleasure and instruction it is equal, or even superior both of them.” “ To meditate much the folly of others who are remarkable this vice, will help to limit it.” “ The best plea

avarice to make is, that it provides those necessities, which otherwise would have made us miserable.” “He had read my paper - Westminster Abbey." "In order recover myself tifying thought, I considered that it took its rise those narrow conceptions which we are apt to entertain

the Divine nature.” “ Were the soul separate the body, and one glance thought should start

the bounds of Creation, should it for millions of years continue its progress

the same activity, it would still find itself the embrace of its Creator.'


this mor

infinite space


The wheat makes bread. The grapes make wine. They saw a tiger, elephant, and rhinoceros in the menagerie. It. is a bracing and a cheerful day. You have three brothers, have you not? I saw each of them yesterday. He easily discovered a remedy. He found the way easy. He performed the task assigned to him easy. I cannot by no means grant your request. Nothing was never heard of

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