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each in the nominative case; and so are all nouns which, like them, stand in sentences as the subjects of affirmations.

The possessive case denotes possession, by the person or thing for whom or which the noun in the possessive case is a name, of that with which it is immediately connected. Thus, in the expression, "The Queen's subjects,” the word Queen's is in the possessive case, being a name for the individual who is described as in the possession of that which is expressed by the noun with which it stands connected. This possession is frequently expressed by the equivalent prepositional form “ of the Queen,” in which the position of the words as regards priority of order becomes inverted; i. e., “The Queen's subjects ” becomes “The subjects of the Queen.” This case and its equivalent prepositional form are called the complement of the word which they explain, being necessary to complete (compleo=to fill up) the sense ; the word “Subjects," and words similarly placed, evidently conveying by themselves no perfect sense.

NOTE.—The possessive case and the prepositional form of expression are not always identical in meaning. In the sentences, “This is the Queen's picture,” and “This is a picture of the Queen;" the former means a picture, it may be of any person, in the possession of the Queen; the latter, a picture, i. e., likeness of the Queen, possessed no matter by whom.

The objective case is that case in which a noun is said to be when it stands as a name for the recipient of an action; or a name for an individual or thing, between whom or which, and something else a relationship is expressed through the instrumentality of a preposition. In the sentences : “ John struck his brother, My hand is under the table," brother, table, are in the objective case; the former being the name for the individual who is represented as receiving the act expressed by the word struck, and the latter being the name for that thing between which and some other thing (hand in this case)

a relationship is expressed by the aid of the preposition under. The inflection in case of the English noun is very simple. The following specimen of a noun, regular and irregular, will illustrate such inflection in all the varieties which can possibly occur.

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Inflection of a Regular Noun.

Singular.
Nominative....... Boy
Possessive

Boy's
Objective....

Boy

Plural.
Boys
Boys'
Boys

Inflection of an Irregular Noun.
Nominative...... Man

Men
Possessive

Man's

Men's
Objective....

Man

Men Observation 1.-The nominative and objective being identical in form, the analysis of a sentence, by which we obtain a knowledge of the position of each word therein, is the only safe guide in determining whether a noun is in one case or the other. In the sentences :

1. “Porsenna defeated the Romans,
2. “The Romans supplicated Porsenna,"

3. “The Romans were defeated by Porsenna,” the words Romans and Porsenna, though unchanged in form, are in the nominative or objective, according to the connection wherein they are placed. In No. 1, Porsenna is in the nominative, as being the name of the individual of whom the assertion is made by the word defeated ; and Romans is in the objective, as being the name for the individuals represented as the recipients of, i.e., affected by the act expressed by the verb defeated. In No. 2, for similar reasons, the same words change cases, Romans being in the nominative, and Porsenna in the objective; whilst in No. 3, Porsenna is in the objective, because it stands related to the Romans by the intervention of the preposition by.

“A noun,” says Latham, “is said to be in the nominative case when it can by itself constitute a term. The words he and father are nominative cases, since one can say, — He is speaking,' 'Father is coming,' This is he, This is father.' – A noun is said to be in the accusative case (this is equivalent to objective) “when, taken along with a verb, it and the verb together can form a logical term. The sun (subject) is (copula) warming

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him (predicate). Here the words warming him form, by themselves, a term; him, therefore, is in the objective case.

Observation 2.—The nominative and objective singular in all nouns are alike in form. So the nominative and objective plural. The possessive singular is formed from the nominative by adding 's, with a dot or stop like a comma before it, as here, this stop is called the apostrophe. The possessive plural is formed differently in different cases; the possessive plural of men is men's, with the apostrophe before the 8, as in the singular ; whilst the possessive plural of ladies is ladie's, the apostrophe being in this case also before the s; the possessive plural of houses, boys, &c., having, on the contrary, the apostrophe after the s. From an observation of what takes place, it may be laid down generally, that when the possessive singular and plural coincide in form, as in the case of the latter-named words, the apostrophe is placed differently--in the singular, before the $; in the plural, after it; and this evidently for the purpose of distinction ; when they do not coincide in form, as in the case of the words, man, lady; then the apostrophe is placed similarly, such distinction being then unnecessary:

Observation 3.-In the case of nouns ending in s—as righteousness, Cassius, the apostrophe alone without the 8 indicates the possessive. Thus, "For righteousness' sake, “ Cassius' honour was dear to him ;" in which righteousness', Cassius', are each in the possessive, being the complements of the nouns with which they are respectively connected.

Observation 4.–The formation of the possessive in 's is said by some grammarians to result from the contraction of the word his into this form, i. e., the expression-father his becoming father's. “The expression in our Liturgy," says Latham,“ in opposition to this theory, ' For Jesus Christ his sake,' which is merely a pleonastic one, is the only foundation for this assertion. As the idea, however, is not only one of the commonest, but also one of the greatest, errors in etymology, the following three statements are given for the sake of contradiction to it:

"1. The expression, The Queen's Majesty, is not capable of being reduced to The Queen his Majesty.

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8

“ 2. In the form his itself, the 8 has precisely the power that it has in father's, &c.

“3. In the Slavonic, Lithuanic, and classical tongues, the genitive ends in s, just as it does in English, so that even if the words father his would account for the word father's, it would not account for the Sanskrit genitive pad-as, of a foot, the Greek ódovros, the Latin dentis, &c., &c.

QUESTIONS ON CASE.

What appears to be the cause of so much difference of opinion on the true meaning of case ? What are the leading ideas attached by grammarians to the term ? State the difficulties attending the acceptation of each exclusively. How have these difficulties been obviated ? How many cases, then, are admitted generally? Name them. Give the essential characteristics of each. Shew that the term nominative is defective. Give an equivalent form for the possessive, and show that it does not always correspond in meaning to the possessive. What are the possessive case and prepositional form sometimes called ? Why are they so called ? What cases are always identical in form ? How are they distinguished ? How is the possessive singular formed ? How the possessive plural? What is the rule which obtains in placing the apostrophe in the possessive singular and plural ? What is the necessity for this rule? How do nouns ending in s form the possessive ? Give examples. What is the reason generally assigned for the formation of the possessive by the letter s rather than by any other letter? Give the substance of Latham's remarks in opposition to this reason.

ON THE VERB.

THE Noun, it has been shewn, is the name for whatever men talk of; the Verb is used to make the affirmation of the noun. The importance of this class of words is implied in the name thereof, verbum signifying the word," as though, in thus naming this class, we lose sight of the

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existence of every other class in the language for the time being. The Verb expresses existence, as to be, to exist ; action, as to strike, and the receiving of an action, as, to be struck. Thus, in the expressions, 66 The men were alive;"

;" “ Wild beasts devour their prey ;” “The men were reprimanded by their employer;"—the words were, devour, and were reprimanded, are called verbs. The verb to be, is called a verb-substantive, and is always used to connect the subject with the predicate, or thing affirmed, where it is called the copula of the two; thus, I am running : I is the subject, running, the word which expresses the action predicated or affirmed of the subject, and am the copula. All other verbs in the language are subdivided into two classes, “ Active and Passive."

The active verb expresses an act performed by the subject. In the expressions, “ Men die,” “William reads,” die and reads are verbs active, verbs, as asserting something about the subject, &c.; active, because they express an action which the subject performs. The verb passive, on the contrary, expresses an act not performed, but received by the subject; in the expression “ Plants are nurtured by rain,” are nurtured is called a verb passive, a verb as asserting something of the subject, and passive as expressing an act which the

subject receives or suffers. When the verb is active, the subject is represented as performing the act; when passive it receives the act, and thus the term passive is opposed to active.

Again, active verbs are subdivided into two classes, transitive and intransitive. On examining the two active verbs already supplied, die, reads, we perceive an essential difference between them ; when the former is used, it expresses an act confined to the subject; when the latter, an act which is understood as affecting some object beyond or outside of the subject; in other words, the verb die of itself makes a perfect affirmation and sense, the word reads does not do so. In the expression, “Men live, on the average, till three score years and ten, and then die,” the sense is complete, and no word is necessary to convey a perfect idea to the hearer thereof. In the expression, 5. William reads,” the ear immediately detects a want; there is a gap, and the hearer has no perfect idea of what is meant, until the gap is filled up, as in the expression,

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