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in the past time; but with this difference, that in the first named of these expressions the act is represented as having taken place in the past time, but without any reference to the particular point of the past at which it took place. Such expression always requires some other to be associated with it; or, if not, depends on the context, in order that the particular point of the past time when the act took place may be thoroughly understood; as, for instance, I wrote last year, yesterday, an hour since, &c. &c. In the second form of expression, I have seen, whilst the act is represented as having occurred in the past time, the point of that past is ascertained more definitely by the expression itself, and is understood to be the moment of, or at all events a short time prior to, the utterance of the expression. In the third form of expression, again, the act is represented as perfectly past; but there is always associated with it, either expressed or implied, some other act which takes place subsequently to that represented by this form: as in the expression, “1 had seen the Queen before I visited London.” In the expressions, "I shall or will see, I shall or will have seen,” the time of the act is future; with this difference, that in the first, the point of the future is indefinite, and ascertained only by the addition of some other expression thereto, as, “I will see, I shall see your father to-morrow, next year,” &c. &c., whilst with the second there is expressed or implied some other act before which the act takes place represented in this form ; as, “ I will have seen your father before my return.” Commons will have decided the question before the next courier arrives.” In the given expressions are represented all the aspects, as regards tense or time, which the verb
There are therefore said to be six tenses :—the present; the past (sometimes called the imperfect,) or past indefinite; the perfect, the pluperfect; the first future, (sometimes called the future indefinite;) and the second future, or future perfect.
Before proceeding farther, it will be necessary to exhibit the conjugation in person, number, mood, and tense, of the active and passive verb; and, as a necessary step thereto, the conjugation of the verbs, “ To have” and “ To be;" these entering into the composition of, or forming auxiliaries to, every verb in the language. In every verb
there are said to be three principal parts—the present and past tenses, and perfect or past participle, and in the mention of these consists the conjugation, in a minor sense, of a verb. Thus, if asked to conjugate the verb to blow, a pupil would answer correctly by saying, present, blow; past, blew; past participle, blown ; or simply blow, blew, blown ; the names of the parts given being understood.
The Conjugation, in a minor sense, of the Verbs
Past. Perfect Participle.
The Conjugation, in an enlarged sense, of said Verbs :
I had been. 2. Thou hadst had.
Thou hadst been 3. He had had.
He had been.
Plural. 1. We had had.
We had been. 2. Ye had had.
Ye had been.
They had been.
I shall or will be. 2. Thou shalt or wilt have.
Thou shalt or wilt be. 3. He shall or will bave.
He shall or will be.
Plural. 1. We shall or will have.
We shall or will be.
Ye shall or will be.
Singular. 1. I shall or will have had.
I shall or will have been. 2. Thon shalt or wilt have had. Thou shalt or wilt have been. 3. He shall or will have had. He shall or will bave been.
I may or can be. 2. Thou mayest or canst have. Thou mayest or canst be. 3. He may or can have.
He may or can be. 'Plural.
Plural. 1. We may or can have.
We may or can be. 2. Ye may or can have.
Ye may or can be. 3. They may or can have.
They may or can be
Singular. 1. I might, &c. &c. have. 2. Thou mightst have. 3. He might have.
Plural. 1. We might have. 2. Ye might have. 3. They might have.
Singular. 1. I may or can have had.
I may or can have been. 2. Thou mayst or canst have had. Thou mayst or canst have been, 3. He may or can have had. He may or can have been. Plural.
Plural. 1. We may or can have had. We may or can have been. 2. Ye may or can have had.
Ye may or can have been. 3. They may or can have had.
They may or can have been
To have been.
Been. Compound.. Having had. Having been. All verbs are subdivided into two classes, in reference to the manner in which they are conjugated. Those which form their past tenses by the addition of d or ed to the present infinitive, are called regular ; those, which do not so form this tense, are called irregular. Some grammarians call the latter verbs of the strong conjugation, because they are formed independently of any addition; whilst they call verbs of the former class weak, as requiring an addition in order to the formation of their past tenses.
The verb To Love will serve as a model of all verbs regular as regards their conjugation; which is as follows:
We love. 2. Thou lovest.
Ye love. 3. He loves, or th.
The remaining tenses of the Subjunctive Mood are similar to the corresponding tenses of the Indicative; thus, Perf. Subj.-1. If I have had. 2. If thou hast had. 3. If he has had. Instead of which, however, we sometimes see-If thou have had; If he have had, &c. &c.Note also, that the particles though, unless, except, whether, &c., may be used with this mood in like manner as if.