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PAST TENSE.

Singular.

Plural 1. I loved.

We loved. 2. Thou lovedst.

Ye loved. 3. He loved.

They loved. The conjugation of the verb thus far will be found sufficient for any learner, if he will only observe the conjugation in the several moods and tenses of the preceding verbs, together with the following Rules :

Rule 1.— The perfect indicative of every verb is formed from the present tense of the verb To have, and the perfect participle of the verb itself. Thus, to find the perfect of the verb To love, he will take loved, the perfect participle, and have, the present tense of the verb to have, and to these prefix I, and he will have I have loved,—which is conjugated through the persons like I have, the perfect participle remaining unchanged.

Rule 2.- The pluperfect indicative is similarly formed, except that it takes with the perfect participle the past instead of the present tense of the verb to have. Thus the pluperfect of the verb to love is, I had loved.

Rule 3.—The first future indicative of every verb is formed from the infinitive mood thereof, and the auxiliaries shall or will : thus, the first future of the verb to love, is, “I shall or will love." The infinitive portion of this tense remains unchanged throughout the persons; the auxiliaries are conjugated as in the

preceding verbs. Rule 4.-The second future indicative is formed from the perfect participle of the verb itself, and the first future of the verb to have; thus the second future of the verb to love is, “I shall or will have loved.”

Rule 5.—The imperative mood, which has no distinction of tense, and but one person, is the same as the infinitive, thou or ye being postfixed for a subject, according as the singular or plural is intended—thus, Love thou, Love ye.

Rule 6.--The present and past tenses of the potential mood are the same as the infinitive, with the addition of the auxiliaries, may, can, &c., for the present;-and might, could, would, should, &c. &c., for the past tense ;-these auxiliaries being varied throughout the persons, as in the preceding verbs : thus the present potential of the verb

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to love is, “I may or can love;" the past, “I might, &c. &c. love.'

Rule 7. -The perfect and pluperfect potential of a verb is formed from the perfect participle thereof; and, for the perfect, the present potential; and, for the pluperfect, the past potential of the verb to have. Thus the perfect potential of the verb to love is, “I may or can have loved ;" the pluperfect, "I might, &c. &c. have loved."

The Subjunctive Mood is thus conjugated :

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Thus the present subjunctive throughout is the same as the infinitive, whilst the remaining tenses thereof correspond exactly with the same tenses

of the indicative mood, with the addition, in all the tenses, of some conjunction, expressed or understood, implying a condition, motive, wish, supposition, &c. &c.*

Rule 8.—The present infinitive of a verb is the verb itself, with the prefix to—thus, to love. The perfect infinitive is formed from the perfect participle and the present infinitive of the verb to have ; thus, the perfect infinitive of the verb to love is, to have loved.

Rule 9.-The present participle is formed from the present infinitive, by adding ing : thus—to laugh, laughing; if the verb end in e, the e is elided in the formation of the participle : thus—to love, loving; except to be, which makes, being.

Rule 10.—The past participle is the same in regular verbs as the past indicative; in irregular verbs, a synopsis of which will be exhibited hereafter, it is sometimes different. The perfect participle is a compound of the present participle of the verb to have, and the past participle of the verb itself; thus the perfect participle of the verb to love, is to have loved. The verb to write, which is irregular, or which belongs to the strong conjugation, will serve as a

* See note at foot of page 57.

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model for the conjugation of all irregular verbs. It is conjugated as follows :

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The preceding rules are sufficient for, and as applicable to, the formation of the remaining parts of the irregular as of the regular verb. Besides the conjugation of the verb, as hitherto exhibited, called the verb in its simple state or form, there is the conjugation of the verb in the progressive and emphatic forms. Between the expressions, “I read, I am reading," there is observed this difference, that the former expresses an act as occurring with the idea of completion annexed thereto in the present time; whilst the latter, in the present time too, conveys additionally the idea of continuation of the act expressed by the verb; in other words, I read, expresses an act I am engaged in at this momentI am reading, one with which also I am engaged now, and one, moreover, which I do not propose discontinuing. The latter is called the progressive form ; it occurs throughout all the parts of the verb, and is formed by the present participle of the verb itself and that part of the verb to be, in which

any

idea is intended to be expressed. Thus, to form the pluperfect potential in the progressive form of the verb to read, take the present participle of this verb, which is reading, and the pluperfect potential of the verb to be, might have been; prefix I, for the first person singular; combine these parts, and the result will be the expression sought, “I might have been reading." Between the expressions, “ I read, I do read," there is this difference observable, that the latter is the more emphatic of the two,

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and is generally the form used when any one reasserts something before stated, the truth of which was denied by somebody else, as in the expressions," I saw the Queen yesterday—You did not, I did see her," this is called the emphatic form, and is compounded of the infinitive mood; of the verb itself, and a part of the verb to do, which is conjugated as follows :

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The rules for the formation of the remaining parts of this verb are the same as those already given for other verbs. It may be remarked, however, that this emphatic form of the verb is found only in the present and past tenses of the indicative mood, and sometimes, though rarely, in the imperative mood. The rule for the formation thereof is as follows:- Take the infinitive mood of the verb which is being conjugated, and the same part of the verb to do, as that in which the given verb is to be expressed, and the result will be the required expression. Thus, to find the imperfect emphatic of the verb to love, take love, the infinitive thereof, and the imperfect indicative of the verb to do, which is, I did, and their combination produces, I did love.

Every transitive can be changed into a passive verb, or a verb in the passive form or voice, as it is sometimes called. An intransitive verb cannot properly be 80 changed.

6 John reads his book," may be verted, without any alteration whatever in the idea to be conveyed, into the expression, “His book is read by John.“

The rule for converting the transitive into the passive verb will show the reason why the intransitive verb

con

is incapable of conversion, and may be thus generally stated, viz., Take the object of the transitive verb, and make it the subject of the passive; change the verb itself from the active to the same part, as far as mood and tense, in the passive voice, and change the subject of the active verb into the objective case introduced by the words by, with, &c., &c., denoting agency; the intransitive verb hava ing no object, is necessarily inconvertible.

In the rule given, it was said, the active verb is to be changed into the same part of the passive, as far as mood and tense; the number and person in both instances are not necessarily the same; in the expression, “ John reads his book," John is the subject in the active form ; and book

; will be the subject, according to the rule in the passive form. In this case the number and person of the verb in both sentences will be necessarily the same.

If the ex. pression, however, were books instead of book, the subject of the passive form would be books, and the verb, therefore, should be plural, whereas the subject of the active form would still be singular.

In the conversion from one form to the other, all the adjuncts, or modifying clauses and expressions, remain unchanged. In the sentence, “I have already mentioned, as a proof of the existence of an original alphabet in the country, before the introduction of that of the Romans, the characteristic obstinacy with which they adhered to their own limited number of letters," I is the subject, have mentioned, the verb transitive, and obstinacy the object. These are the only parts to be operated on in the conversion of the sentence, which, in the passive form, will read thus : “The characteristic obstinacy with which they adhered, &c. &c., has been already mentioned by me, as a proof," &c. &c.

The rule for the formation of the passive verb is simple, and is thus generally stated: To find a required part of a passive verb, take the perfect participle of the verb itself, and that part of the verb to be, in which the required verb is to be expressed, and the result will be the required expression. Thus : to find the pluperfect potential of the verb to love, take the perfect participle of the verb, which is loved, and the pluperfect potential of the verb to be, which

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